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3D model (JSmol)
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EC Number
  • 207-303-9
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/C4H2/c1-3-4-2/h1-2H Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/C4H2/c1-3-4-2/h1-2H
  • C#CC#C
Molar mass 50.060 g·mol−1
Boiling point 10 °C (50 °F; 283 K)
Main hazards Highly flammable; Peroxide forming
Safety data sheet External MSDS
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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Diacetylene (also known as butadiyne) is the organic compound with the formula C4H2. It is the simplest compound containing two triple bonds. It is first in the series of polyynes, which are of theoretical but not of practical interest.



Diacetylene has been identified in the atmosphere of Titan and in the protoplanetary nebula CRL 618 by its characteristic vibrational spectrum. It is proposed to arise by a reaction between acetylene and the ethynyl radical (C2H), which is produced when acetylene undergoes photolysis. This radical can in turn attack the triple bond in acetylene and react efficiently even at low temperatures. Diacetylene has also been detected on the Moon.


This compound may be made by the dehydrohalogenation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butyne by potassium hydroxide (in alcoholic medium) at ~70°C: [1]

ClCH2C≡CCH2Cl + 2 KOH → HC≡C−C≡CH + 2 KCl + 2 H2O

The bis(trimethylsilyl)-protected derivative may be prepared by the Hay coupling of (trimethylsilyl)acetylene: [2]

2 Me3Si−C≡CH → Me3Si−C≡C−C≡C−SiMe3

See also

Related Research Articles

Cyclopropene is an organic compound with the formula C3H4. It is the simplest cycloalkene. Because the ring is highly strained, cyclopropene is difficult to prepare and highly reactive. This colorless gas has been the subject for many fundamental studies of bonding and reactivity. It does not occur naturally, but derivatives are known in some fatty acids. Derivatives of cyclopropene are used commercially to control ripening of some fruit.

Europium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Europium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula EuCl3. The anhydrous compound is a yellow solid. Being hygroscopic it rapidly absorbs water to form a white crystalline hexahydrate, EuCl3·6H2O, which is colourless. The compound is used in research.


A trimethylsilyl group (abbreviated TMS) is a functional group in organic chemistry. This group consists of three methyl groups bonded to a silicon atom [−Si(CH3)3], which is in turn bonded to the rest of a molecule. This structural group is characterized by chemical inertness and a large molecular volume, which makes it useful in a number of applications.

Trimethylsilyl chloride Chemical compound

Trimethylsilyl chloride, also known as chlorotrimethylsilane is an organosilicon compound (silyl halide), with the formula (CH3)3SiCl, often abbreviated Me3SiCl or TMSCl. It is a colourless volatile liquid that is stable in the absence of water. It is widely used in organic chemistry.

Titanocene dichloride Chemical compound

Titanocene dichloride is the organotitanium compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2TiCl2, commonly abbreviated as Cp2TiCl2. This metallocene is a common reagent in organometallic and organic synthesis. It exists as a bright red solid that slowly hydrolyzes in air. It shows antitumour activity and was the first non-platinum complex to undergo clinical trials as a chemotherapy drug.

Organosilicon Organometallic compound containing carbon–silicon bonds

Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compounds containing carbon–silicon bonds. Organosilicon chemistry is the corresponding science of their preparation and properties. Most organosilicon compounds are similar to the ordinary organic compounds, being colourless, flammable, hydrophobic, and stable to air. Silicon carbide is an inorganic compound.

Bis(trimethylsilyl)amine (also known as hexamethyldisilazane and HMDS) is an organosilicon compound with the molecular formula [(CH3)3Si]2NH. The molecule is a derivative of ammonia with trimethylsilyl groups in place of two hydrogen atoms. An electron diffraction study shows that silicon-nitrogen bond length (173.5 pm) and Si-N-Si bond angle (125.5°) to be similar to disilazane (in which methyl groups are replaced by hydrogen atoms) suggesting that steric factors are not a factor in regulating angles in this case. This colorless liquid is a reagent and a precursor to bases that are popular in organic synthesis and organometallic chemistry. Additionally, HMDS is also increasingly used as molecular precursor in chemical vapor deposition techniques to deposit silicon carbonitride thin films or coatings.

Bis(trimethylsilyl)sulfide Chemical compound

Bis(trimethylsilyl) sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula ((CH3)3Si)2S. Often abbreviated (tms)2S, this colourless, vile-smelling liquid is a useful aprotic source of "S2−" in chemical synthesis.

Tributyltin hydride Chemical compound

Tributyltin hydride is an organotin compound with the formula (C4H9)3SnH. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents. The compound is used as a source of hydrogen atoms in organic synthesis.

Lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Chemical compound

Lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide is a lithiated organosilicon compound with the formula LiN(SiMe3)2. It is commonly abbreviated as LiHMDS (lithium hexamethyldisilazide - a reference to its conjugate acid HMDS) and is primarily used as a strong non-nucleophilic base and as a ligand. Like many lithium reagents, it has a tendency to aggregate and will form a cyclic trimer in the absence of coordinating species.

The Glaser coupling is a type of coupling reaction. It is by far the oldest acetylenic coupling and is based on cuprous salts like copper(I) chloride or copper(I) bromide and an additional oxidant like oxygen. The base in its original scope is ammonia. The solvent is water or an alcohol. The reaction was first reported by Carl Andreas Glaser in 1869. He suggested the following process for his route to diphenylbutadiyne:

Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide Chemical compound

Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide (BSA) is an organosilicon compound with the formula Me3SiNC(OSiMe3)Me (Me = CH3). It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in diverse organic solvents, but reacts rapidly with compounds, including solvents and moisture, containing OH and NH functional groups. It is used in analytical chemistry for the derivatisation of compounds in analysis to increase their volatility, e.g. for gas chromatography. It is also used to introduce the trimethylsilyl protecting group in organic synthesis. A related reagent is N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA).

Silylation is the introduction of a (usually) substituted silyl group (R3Si) to a molecule. The process is the basis of organosilicon chemistry.

Organosodium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to sodium chemical bond. The application of organosodium compounds in chemistry is limited in part due to competition from organolithium compounds, which are commercially available and exhibit more convenient reactivity.

Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene Chemical compound

Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene (BTMSA) is an organosilicon compound with the formula Me3SiC≡CSiMe3 (Me = methyl). It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents. This compound is used as a surrogate for acetylene.

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides

Metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides are coordination complexes composed of a cationic metal with anionic bis(trimethylsilyl)amide ligands and are part of a broader category of metal amides.

Trimethylsilyl cyclopentadiene Chemical compound

Trimethylsilyl cyclopentadiene is an organosilicon compound with the chemical formula C5H5Si(CH3)3. It exists as a colorless liquid. It is used in the synthesis of some metal cyclopentadienyl complexes and has attracted interest for its fluxional structure.

Tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine Chemical compound

Tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine is the organophosphorus compound with the formula P(SiMe3)3 (Me = methyl). It is a colorless liquid that ignites in air and hydrolyses readily.

Zirconocene Chemical compound

Zirconocene is a hypothetical compound with 14 valence electrons, which has not been observed or isolated. It is an organometallic compound consisting of two cyclopentadienyl rings bound on a central zirconium atom. A crucial question in research is what kind of ligands can be used to stabilize the Cp2ZrII metallocene fragment to make it available for further reactions in organic synthesis.

Rosenthals reagent

Rosenthal's reagent is a metallocene bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene complex with zirconium (Cp2Zr) or titanium (Cp2Ti) used as central atom of the metallocene fragment Cp2M. Additional ligands such as pyridine or THF are commonly used as well. With zirconium as central atom and pyridine as ligand, a dark purple to black solid with a melting point of 125–126 °C is obtained. Synthesizing Rosenthal's reagent of a titanocene source yields golden-yellow crystals of the titanocene bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene complex with a melting point of 81–82 °C. This reagent enables the generation of the themselves unstable titanocene and zirconocene under mild conditions.


  1. Verkruijsse, H. D.; Brandsma, L. (1991). "A Detailed Procedure for the Preparation of Butadiyne". Synthetic Communications. 21 (5): 657. doi:10.1080/00397919108020833.
  2. Graham E. Jones, David A. Kendrick, and Andrew B. Holmes (1987). "1,4-Bis(trimethylsilyl)buta-1,3-diyne". Organic Syntheses. 65: 52. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.065.0052.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading