Europium

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Europium, 63Eu
Europium.jpg
Europium
Pronunciation /jʊˈrpiəm/ (yuu-ROH-pee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white, with a pale yellow tint; [1] but rarely seen without oxide discoloration
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Eu)
Europium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Eu

Am
samariumeuropiumgadolinium
Atomic number (Z)63
Group f-block groups (no number)
Period period 6
Block   f-block
Electron configuration [ Xe ] 4f7 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at  STP solid
Melting point 1099  K (826 °C,1519 °F)
Boiling point 1802 K(1529 °C,2784 °F)
Density (near r.t.)5.244 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.13 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 9.21  kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 176 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.66 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)8639571072123414521796
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 0, [4] +2, +3 (a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.2
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 547.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1085 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2404 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical:180  pm
Covalent radius 198±6 pm
Europium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of europium
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure body-centered cubic (bcc)
Cubic-body-centered.svg
Thermal expansion poly: 35.0 µm/(m⋅K)(at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity est. 13.9 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 0.900 µΩ⋅m(at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic [5]
Molar magnetic susceptibility +34000.0×10−6 cm3/mol [6]
Young's modulus 18.2 GPa
Shear modulus 7.9 GPa
Bulk modulus 8.3 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.152
Vickers hardness 165–200 MPa
CAS Number 7440-53-1
History
Namingafter Europe
Discovery and first isolation Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1896,1901)
Isotopes of europium
Main isotopes [7] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
150Eu synth 36.9 y ε 150Sm
151Eu47.8%4.62×1018 y α 147Pm
152Eusynth13.54 yε 152Sm
β 152Gd
153Eu52.2% stable
154Eusynth8.59 yβ 154Gd
155Eusynth4.76 yβ 155Gd
Symbol category class.svg  Category: Europium
| references

Europium is a chemical element; it has symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Europium is a silvery-white metal of the lanthanide series that reacts readily with air to form a dark oxide coating. It is the most chemically reactive, least dense, and softest of the lanthanide elements. It is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Europium was isolated in 1901 and named after the continent of Europe. [8] Europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, like other members of the lanthanide series, but compounds having oxidation state +2 are also common. All europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the rarest of the rare-earth elements on Earth. [9]

Contents

Characteristics

Physical properties

About 300 g of dendritic sublimated 99.998% pure europium handled in a glove box Eu-Block.jpg
About 300 g of dendritic sublimated 99.998% pure europium handled in a glove box
Oxidized europium, coated with yellow europium(II) carbonate Europium on air oxidized.jpg
Oxidized europium, coated with yellow europium(II) carbonate

Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead. It crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. [10] Some properties of europium are strongly influenced by its half-filled electron shell. Europium has the second lowest melting point and the lowest density of all lanthanides. [10]

Europium has been claimed to become a superconductor when it is cooled below 1.8 K and compressed to above 80 GPa. [11] However the experimental evidence on which this claim is based has been challenged, [12] and the paper reporting superconductivity has been subsequently retracted. [13] If it becomes a superconductor this is believed to occur because europium is divalent in the metallic state, [14] and is converted into the trivalent state by the applied pressure. In the divalent state, the strong local magnetic moment (arising from total electronic angular momentum J = 7/2) suppresses the superconductivity, which is induced by eliminating this local moment (J = 0 in Eu3+).

Chemical properties

Europium is the most reactive rare-earth element. It rapidly oxidizes in air, so that bulk oxidation of a centimeter-sized sample occurs within several days. [15] Its reactivity with water is comparable to that of calcium, and the reaction is

2 Eu + 6 H2O → 2 Eu(OH)3 + 3 H2

Because of the high reactivity, samples of solid europium rarely have the shiny appearance of the fresh metal, even when coated with a protective layer of mineral oil. Europium ignites in air at 150 to 180 °C to form europium(III) oxide: [16] [17]

4 Eu + 3 O2 → 2 Eu2O3

Europium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form pale pink [18] solutions of [Eu(H2O)9]3+:

2 Eu + 3 H2SO4 + 18 H2O → 2 [Eu(H2O)9]3+ + 3 SO2−
4
+ 3 H2

Eu(II) vs. Eu(III)

Although usually trivalent, europium readily forms divalent compounds. This behavior is unusual for most lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. The +2 state has an electron configuration 4f7 because the half-filled f-shell provides more stability. In terms of size and coordination number, europium(II) and barium(II) are similar. The sulfates of both barium and europium(II) are also highly insoluble in water. [19] Divalent europium is a mild reducing agent, oxidizing in air to form Eu(III) compounds. In anaerobic, and particularly geothermal conditions, the divalent form is sufficiently stable that it tends to be incorporated into minerals of calcium and the other alkaline earths. This ion-exchange process is the basis of the "negative europium anomaly", the low europium content in many lanthanide minerals such as monazite, relative to the chondritic abundance. Bastnäsite tends to show less of a negative europium anomaly than does monazite, and hence is the major source of europium today. The development of easy methods to separate divalent europium from the other (trivalent) lanthanides made europium accessible even when present in low concentration, as it usually is. [20]

Isotopes

Naturally occurring europium is composed of two isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu, which occur in almost equal proportions; 153Eu is slightly more abundant (52.2% natural abundance). While 153Eu is stable, 151Eu was found to be unstable to alpha decay with a half-life of 5+11
−3
×1018  years
in 2007, [21] giving about one alpha decay per two minutes in every kilogram of natural europium. This value is in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Besides the natural radioisotope 151Eu, 35 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 150Eu with a half-life of 36.9 years, 152Eu with a half-life of 13.516 years, and 154Eu with a half-life of 8.593 years. All the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than 4.7612 years, and the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 12.2 seconds; the known isotopes of europium range from 130Eu to 170Eu. [22] [7] This element also has 17 meta states, with the most stable being 150mEu (t1/2=12.8 hours), 152m1Eu (t1/2=9.3116 hours) and 152m2Eu (t1/2=96 minutes). [7] [23]

The primary decay mode for isotopes lighter than 153Eu is electron capture, and the primary mode for heavier isotopes is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 153Eu are isotopes of samarium (Sm) and the primary products after are isotopes of gadolinium (Gd). [23]

Europium as a nuclear fission product

Medium-lived
fission products [ further explanation needed ]
t½
(year)
Yield
(%)
Q
(keV)
βγ
155Eu 4.760.0803252βγ
85Kr 10.760.2180687βγ
113mCd 14.10.0008316β
90Sr 28.94.5052826β
137Cs 30.236.3371176βγ
121mSn 43.90.00005390βγ
151Sm 88.80.531477β

Europium is produced by nuclear fission, but the fission product yields of europium isotopes are low near the top of the mass range for fission products.

As with other lanthanides, many isotopes of europium, especially those that have odd mass numbers or are neutron-poor like 152Eu, have high cross sections for neutron capture, often high enough to be neutron poisons.

Thermal neutron capture cross sections
Isotope151Eu152Eu153Eu154Eu155Eu
Yield~10low1580>2.5330
Barns59001280031213403950

151Eu is the beta decay product of samarium-151, but since this has a long decay half-life and short mean time to neutron absorption, most 151Sm instead ends up as 152Sm.

152Eu (half-life 13.516 years) and 154Eu (half-life 8.593 years) cannot be beta decay products because 152Sm and 154Sm are non-radioactive, but 154Eu is the only long-lived "shielded" nuclide, other than 134Cs, to have a fission yield of more than 2.5 parts per million fissions. [24] A larger amount of 154Eu is produced by neutron activation of a significant portion of the non-radioactive 153Eu; however, much of this is further converted to 155Eu.

155Eu (half-life 4.7612 years) has a fission yield of 330 parts per million (ppm) for uranium-235 and thermal neutrons; most of it is transmuted to non-radioactive and nonabsorptive gadolinium-156 by the end of fuel burnup.

Overall, europium is overshadowed by caesium-137 and strontium-90 as a radiation hazard, and by samarium and others as a neutron poison. [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

Occurrence

Monazite Monazit - Mosambik, O-Afrika.jpg
Monazite

Europium is not found in nature as a free element. Many minerals contain europium, with the most important sources being bastnäsite, monazite, xenotime and loparite-(Ce). [32] No europium-dominant minerals are known yet, despite a single find of a tiny possible Eu–O or Eu–O–C system phase in the Moon's regolith. [33]

Depletion or enrichment of europium in minerals relative to other rare-earth elements is known as the europium anomaly. [34] Europium is commonly included in trace element studies in geochemistry and petrology to understand the processes that form igneous rocks (rocks that cooled from magma or lava). The nature of the europium anomaly found helps reconstruct the relationships within a suite of igneous rocks. The average crustal abundance of europium is 2–2.2 ppm.

Divalent europium (Eu2+) in small amounts is the activator of the bright blue fluorescence of some samples of the mineral fluorite (CaF2). The reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ is induced by irradiation with energetic particles. [35] The most outstanding examples of this originated around Weardale and adjacent parts of northern England; it was the fluorite found here that fluorescence was named after in 1852, although it was not until much later that europium was determined to be the cause. [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]

In astrophysics, the signature of europium in stellar spectra can be used to classify stars and inform theories of how or where a particular star was born. For instance, astronomers in 2019 identified higher-than-expected levels of europium within the star J1124+4535, hypothesizing that this star originated in a dwarf galaxy that collided with the Milky Way billions of years ago. [41] [42]

Production

Europium is associated with the other rare-earth elements and is, therefore, mined together with them. Separation of the rare-earth elements occurs during later processing. Rare-earth elements are found in the minerals bastnäsite, loparite-(Ce), xenotime, and monazite in mineable quantities. Bastnäsite is a group of related fluorocarbonates, Ln(CO3)(F,OH). Monazite is a group of related of orthophosphate minerals LnPO
4
(Ln denotes a mixture of all the lanthanides except promethium), loparite-(Ce) is an oxide, and xenotime is an orthophosphate (Y,Yb,Er,...)PO4. Monazite also contains thorium and yttrium, which complicates handling because thorium and its decay products are radioactive. For the extraction from the ore and the isolation of individual lanthanides, several methods have been developed. The choice of method is based on the concentration and composition of the ore and on the distribution of the individual lanthanides in the resulting concentrate. Roasting the ore, followed by acidic and basic leaching, is used mostly to produce a concentrate of lanthanides. If cerium is the dominant lanthanide, then it is converted from cerium(III) to cerium(IV) and then precipitated. Further separation by solvent extractions or ion exchange chromatography yields a fraction which is enriched in europium. This fraction is reduced with zinc, zinc/amalgam, electrolysis or other methods converting the europium(III) to europium(II). Europium(II) reacts in a way similar to that of alkaline earth metals and therefore it can be precipitated as a carbonate or co-precipitated with barium sulfate. [43] Europium metal is available through the electrolysis of a mixture of molten EuCl3 and NaCl (or CaCl2) in a graphite cell, which serves as cathode, using graphite as anode. The other product is chlorine gas. [32] [43] [44] [45] [46]

A few large deposits produce or produced a significant amount of the world production. The Bayan Obo iron ore deposit in Inner Mongolia contains significant amounts of bastnäsite and monazite and is, with an estimated 36 million tonnes of rare-earth element oxides, the largest known deposit. [47] [48] [49] The mining operations at the Bayan Obo deposit made China the largest supplier of rare-earth elements in the 1990s. Only 0.2% of the rare-earth element content is europium. The second large source for rare-earth elements between 1965 and its closure in the late 1990s was the Mountain Pass rare earth mine in California. The bastnäsite mined there is especially rich in the light rare-earth elements (La-Gd, Sc, and Y) and contains only 0.1% of europium. Another large source for rare-earth elements is the loparite found on the Kola peninsula. It contains besides niobium, tantalum and titanium up to 30% rare-earth elements and is the largest source for these elements in Russia. [32] [50]

Compounds

Europium(III) sulfate, Eu2(SO4)3 Eu-sulfate.jpg
Europium(III) sulfate, Eu2(SO4)3
Europium(III) sulfate fluorescing red under ultraviolet light Eu-sulfate-luminescence.jpg
Europium(III) sulfate fluorescing red under ultraviolet light

Europium compounds tend to exist in a trivalent oxidation state under most conditions. Commonly these compounds feature Eu(III) bound by 6–9 oxygenic ligands. The Eu(III) sulfates, nitrates and chlorides are soluble in water or polar organic solvents. Lipophilic europium complexes often feature acetylacetonate-like ligands, such as EuFOD.

Halides

Europium metal reacts with all the halogens:

2 Eu + 3 X2 → 2 EuX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

This route gives white europium(III) fluoride (EuF3), yellow europium(III) chloride (EuCl3), gray [51] europium(III) bromide (EuBr3), and colorless europium(III) iodide (EuI3). Europium also forms the corresponding dihalides: yellow-green europium(II) fluoride (EuF2), colorless europium(II) chloride (EuCl2) (although it has a bright blue fluorescence under UV light), [52] colorless europium(II) bromide (EuBr2), and green europium(II) iodide (EuI2). [10]

Chalcogenides and pnictides

Europium forms stable compounds with all of the chalcogens, but the heavier chalcogens (S, Se, and Te) stabilize the lower oxidation state. Three oxides are known: europium(II) oxide (EuO), europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3), and the mixed-valence oxide Eu3O4, consisting of both Eu(II) and Eu(III). Otherwise, the main chalcogenides are europium(II) sulfide (EuS), europium(II) selenide (EuSe) and europium(II) telluride (EuTe): all three of these are black solids. Europium(II) sulfide is prepared by sulfiding the oxide at temperatures sufficiently high to decompose the Eu2O3: [53]

Eu2O3 + 3 H2S → 2 EuS + 3 H2O + S

The main nitride of europium is europium(III) nitride (EuN).

History

Although europium is present in most of the minerals containing the other rare elements, due to the difficulties in separating the elements it was not until the late 1800s that the element was isolated. William Crookes observed the phosphorescent spectra of the rare elements including those eventually assigned to europium. [54]

Europium was first found in 1892 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who obtained basic fractions from samarium-gadolinium concentrates which had spectral lines not accounted for by samarium or gadolinium. However, the discovery of europium is generally credited to French chemist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, who suspected samples of the recently discovered element samarium were contaminated with an unknown element in 1896 and who was able to isolate it in 1901; he then named it europium. [55] [56] [57] [58] [59]

When the europium-doped yttrium orthovanadate red phosphor was discovered in the early 1960s, and understood to be about to cause a revolution in the color television industry, there was a scramble for the limited supply of europium on hand among the monazite processors, [60] as the typical europium content in monazite is about 0.05%. However, the Molycorp bastnäsite deposit at the Mountain Pass rare earth mine, California, whose lanthanides had an unusually high europium content of 0.1%, was about to come on-line and provide sufficient europium to sustain the industry. Prior to europium, the color-TV red phosphor was very weak, and the other phosphor colors had to be muted, to maintain color balance. With the brilliant red europium phosphor, it was no longer necessary to mute the other colors, and a much brighter color TV picture was the result. [60] Europium has continued to be in use in the TV industry ever since as well as in computer monitors. Californian bastnäsite now faces stiff competition from Bayan Obo, China, with an even "richer" europium content of 0.2%.

Frank Spedding, celebrated for his development of the ion-exchange technology that revolutionized the rare-earth industry in the mid-1950s, once related the story of how [61] he was lecturing on the rare earths in the 1930s, when an elderly gentleman approached him with an offer of a gift of several pounds of europium oxide. This was an unheard-of quantity at the time, and Spedding did not take the man seriously. However, a package duly arrived in the mail, containing several pounds of genuine europium oxide. The elderly gentleman had turned out to be Herbert Newby McCoy, who had developed a famous method of europium purification involving redox chemistry. [45] [62]

Applications

Europium is one of the elements involved in emitting red light in CRT televisions. Aperture Grille.jpg
Europium is one of the elements involved in emitting red light in CRT televisions.

Relative to most other elements, commercial applications for europium are few and rather specialized. Almost invariably, its phosphorescence is exploited, either in the +2 or +3 oxidation state.

It is a dopant in some types of glass in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Europium oxide (Eu2O3) is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. [63] [64] Color TV screens contain between 0.5 and 1 g of europium oxide. [65] Whereas trivalent europium gives red phosphors, [66] the luminescence of divalent europium depends strongly on the composition of the host structure. UV to deep red luminescence can be achieved. [67] [68] The two classes of europium-based phosphor (red and blue), combined with the yellow/green terbium phosphors give "white" light, the color temperature of which can be varied by altering the proportion or specific composition of the individual phosphors. This phosphor system is typically encountered in helical fluorescent light bulbs. Combining the same three classes is one way to make trichromatic systems in TV and computer screens, [63] but as an additive, it can be particularly effective in improving the intensity of red phosphor. [9] Europium is also used in the manufacture of fluorescent glass, increasing the general efficiency of fluorescent lamps. [9] One of the more common persistent after-glow phosphors besides copper-doped zinc sulfide is europium-doped strontium aluminate. [69] Europium fluorescence is used to interrogate biomolecular interactions in drug-discovery screens. It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in euro banknotes. [70] [71]

An application that has almost fallen out of use with the introduction of affordable superconducting magnets is the use of europium complexes, such as Eu(fod)3, as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy. Chiral shift reagents, such as Eu(hfc)3, are still used to determine enantiomeric purity. [72]

Precautions

Europium
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg
Danger
H250
P222, P231, P422 [73]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704.svgHealth 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideFlammability 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineInstability 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g. calciumSpecial hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g. sodium, sulfuric acid
0
3
1
W

There are no clear indications that europium is particularly toxic compared to other heavy metals. Europium chloride, nitrate and oxide have been tested for toxicity: europium chloride shows an acute intraperitoneal LD50 toxicity of 550 mg/kg and the acute oral LD50 toxicity is 5000 mg/kg. Europium nitrate shows a slightly higher intraperitoneal LD50 toxicity of 320 mg/kg, while the oral toxicity is above 5000 mg/kg. [74] [75] The metal dust presents a fire and explosion hazard. [76]

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Ytterbium is a chemical element; it has symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is a metal, the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. Like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density, melting point and boiling point are much lower than those of most other lanthanides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Monazite</span> Mineral containing rare-earth elements

Monazite is a primarily reddish-brown phosphate mineral that contains rare-earth elements. Due to variability in composition, monazite is considered a group of minerals. The most common species of the group is monazite-(Ce), that is, the cerium-dominant member of the group. It occurs usually in small isolated crystals. It has a hardness of 5.0 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness and is relatively dense, about 4.6 to 5.7 g/cm3. There are five different most common species of monazite, depending on the relative amounts of the rare earth elements in the mineral:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bastnäsite</span> Family of minerals

The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F. Some of the bastnäsites contain OH instead of F and receive the name of hydroxylbastnasite. Most bastnäsite is bastnäsite-(Ce), and cerium is by far the most common of the rare earths in this class of minerals. Bastnäsite and the phosphate mineral monazite are the two largest sources of cerium and other rare-earth elements.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Praseodymium</span> Chemical element, symbol Pr and atomic number 59

Praseodymium is a chemical element; it has symbol Pr and the atomic number 59. It is the third member of the lanthanide series and is considered one of the rare-earth metals. It is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and pure praseodymium metal slowly develops a green oxide coating when exposed to air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Europium(III) chloride</span> Chemical compound

Europium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula EuCl3. The anhydrous compound is a yellow solid. Being hygroscopic it rapidly absorbs water to form a white crystalline hexahydrate, EuCl3·6H2O, which is colourless. The compound is used in research.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yttrium</span> Chemical element, symbol Y and atomic number 39

Yttrium is a chemical element; it has symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Europium(III) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3), is a chemical compound of europium and oxygen. It is widely used as a red or blue phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. It is also an agent for the manufacture of fluorescent glass. Europium fluorescence is used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in Euro banknotes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cerium</span> Chemical element, symbol Ce and atomic number 58

Cerium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Cerium is a soft, ductile, and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air. Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series, and while it often shows the oxidation state of +3 characteristic of the series, it also has a stable +4 state that does not oxidize water. It is also considered one of the rare-earth elements. Cerium has no known biological role in humans but is not particularly toxic, except with intense or continued exposure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Europium compounds</span> Compounds with at least one europium atom

Europium compounds are compounds formed by the lanthanide metal europium (Eu). In these compounds, europium generally exhibits the +3 oxidation state, such as EuCl3, Eu(NO3)3 and Eu(CH3COO)3. Compounds with europium in the +2 oxidation state are also known. The +2 ion of europium is the most stable divalent ion of lanthanide metals in aqueous solution. Many europium compounds fluoresce under ultraviolet light due to the excitation of electrons to higher energy levels. Lipophilic europium complexes often feature acetylacetonate-like ligands, e.g., Eufod.

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