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Ytterbium, 70Yb
Pronunciation /ɪˈtɜːrbiəm/ (ih-TUR-bee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white; with a pale yellow tint [1]
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Yb)
Ytterbium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Atomic number (Z)70
Group f-block groups (no number)
Period period 6
Block   f-block
Electron configuration [ Xe ] 4f14 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at  STP solid
Melting point 1097  K (824 °C,1515 °F)
Boiling point 1469 K(1196 °C,2185 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.21 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 7.66  kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 129 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)7368139101047(1266)(1465)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 0, [4] +1, [5] +2, +3 (a  basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.1(?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 603.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1174.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2417 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical:176  pm
Covalent radius 187±8 pm
Ytterbium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of ytterbium
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Thermal expansion β, poly: 26.3 µm/(m⋅K)(r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 38.5 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity β, poly: 0.250 µΩ⋅m(at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility +249.0×10−6 cm3/mol(2928 K) [6]
Young's modulus β form: 23.9 GPa
Shear modulus β form: 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulus β form: 30.5 GPa
Speed of sound thin rod1590 m/s(at 20 °C)
Poisson ratio β form: 0.207
Vickers hardness 205–250 MPa
Brinell hardness 340–440 MPa
CAS Number 7440-64-4
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolation Carl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Isotopes of ytterbium
Main isotopes [7] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
166Yb synth 56.7 h ε 166Tm
168Yb0.126% stable
169Ybsynth32.026 dε 169Tm
175Ybsynth4.185 d β 175Lu
177Ybsynth1.911 hβ 177Lu
Symbol category class.svg  Category: Ytterbium
| references

Ytterbium is a chemical element; it has symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is a metal, the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. Like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density, melting point and boiling point are much lower than those of most other lanthanides.


In 1878, Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" (another independent component) which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). In 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. After some discussion, Marignac's name "ytterbium" was retained. A relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source.

Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare-earth elements; moreover, it is among the least abundant. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard.


Physical properties

Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and ductile chemical element. In color when freshly prepared, it is less golden than cesium, but, more golden in color than just a "yellow-cast" as in metals like iridium. It is a rare-earth element, and it is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. [8]

Ytterbium has three allotropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma. Their transformation temperatures are −13 °C and 795 °C, [8] although the exact transformation temperature depends on the pressure and stress. [9] The beta allotrope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The high-temperature gamma allotrope (6.57 g/cm3) has a body-centered cubic crystalline structure. [8] The alpha allotrope (6.903 g/cm3) has a hexagonal crystalline structure and is stable at low temperatures. [10] The beta allotrope has a metallic electrical conductivity at normal atmospheric pressure, but it becomes a semiconductor when exposed to a pressure of about 16,000 atmospheres (1.6  GPa). Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon compression to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa). [8] [11]

In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin. [12] However, the alpha allotrope is diamagnetic. [9] With a melting point of 824 °C and a boiling point of 1196 °C, ytterbium has the smallest liquid range of all the metals. [8]

Contrary to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium crystallizes in the face-centered cubic system. Ytterbium has a density of 6.973 g/cm3, which is significantly lower than those of the neighboring lanthanides, thulium (9.32 g/cm3) and lutetium (9.841 g/cm3). Its melting and boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium. This is due to the closed-shell electron configuration of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic bonding (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium's metallic radius. [10]

Chemical properties

Ytterbium metal tarnishes slowly in air, taking on a golden or brown hue. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. Mixtures of powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame. [13] Ytterbium reacts with hydrogen to form various non-stoichiometric hydrides. Ytterbium dissolves slowly in water, but quickly in acids, liberating hydrogen gas. [10]

Ytterbium is quite electropositive, and it reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium(III) hydroxide: [14]

2 Yb (s) + 6 H2O (l) → 2 Yb(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)

Ytterbium reacts with all the halogens: [14]

2 Yb (s) + 3 F2 (g) → 2 YbF3 (s) [white]
2 Yb (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 YbCl3 (s) [white]
2 Yb (s) + 3 Br2 (l) → 2 YbBr3 (s) [white]
2 Yb (s) + 3 I2 (s) → 2 YbI3 (s) [white]

The ytterbium(III) ion absorbs light in the near infrared range of wavelengths, but not in visible light, so ytterbia, Yb2O3, is white in color and the salts of ytterbium are also colorless. Ytterbium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions that contain the colorless Yb(III) ions, which exist as nonahydrate complexes: [14]

2 Yb (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) + 18 H
(l) → 2 [Yb(H2O)9]3+ (aq) + 3 SO2−
(aq) + 3 H2 (g)

Yb(II) vs. Yb(III)

Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. The +2 state has a valence electron configuration of 4f14 because the fully filled f-shell gives more stability. The yellow-green ytterbium(II) ion is a very strong reducing agent and decomposes water, releasing hydrogen gas, and thus only the colorless ytterbium(III) ion occurs in aqueous solution. Samarium and thulium also behave this way in the +2 state, but europium(II) is stable in aqueous solution. Ytterbium metal behaves similarly to europium metal and the alkaline earth metals, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride salts. [10]


Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb, with 174Yb being the most common, at 31.8% of the natural abundance). Thirty-two radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half-life of 4.18 days, and 166Yb with a half-life of 56.7 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than two hours, and most of these have half-lives under 20 minutes. Ytterbium also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds). [15] [7]

The isotopes of ytterbium range from 149Yb to 187Yb. [7] [16] The primary decay mode of ytterbium isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb, is electron capture, and the primary decay mode for those heavier than 174Yb is beta decay. The primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes lighter than 174Yb are thulium isotopes, and the primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes with heavier than 174Yb are lutetium isotopes. [15] [7]


Euxenite Euxenite - Vegusdal, Norvegia 01.jpg

Ytterbium is found with other rare-earth elements in several rare minerals. It is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium). The element is also found in euxenite and xenotime. The main mining areas are China, the United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia. Reserves of ytterbium are estimated as one million tonnes. Ytterbium is normally difficult to separate from other rare earths, but ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in the mid- to late 20th century have simplified separation. Compounds of ytterbium are rare and have not yet been well characterized. The abundance of ytterbium in the Earth's crust is about 3 mg/kg. [11]

As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. The world production of ytterbium is only about 50 tonnes per year, reflecting that it has few commercial applications. [11] Microscopic traces of ytterbium are used as a dopant in the Yb:YAG laser, a solid-state laser in which ytterbium is the element that undergoes stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. [17]

Ytterbium is often the most common substitute in yttrium minerals. In very few known cases/occurrences ytterbium prevails over yttrium, as, e.g., in xenotime-(Yb). A report of native ytterbium from the Moon's regolith is known. [18]


It is relatively difficult to separate ytterbium from other lanthanides due to its similar properties. As a result, the process is somewhat long. First, minerals such as monazite or xenotime are dissolved into various acids, such as sulfuric acid. Ytterbium can then be separated from other lanthanides by ion exchange, as can other lanthanides. The solution is then applied to a resin, which different lanthanides bind in different matters. This is then dissolved using complexing agents, and due to the different types of bonding exhibited by the different lanthanides, it is possible to isolate the compounds. [19] [20]

Ytterbium is separated from other rare earths either by ion exchange or by reduction with sodium amalgam. In the latter method, a buffered acidic solution of trivalent rare earths is treated with molten sodium-mercury alloy, which reduces and dissolves Yb3+. The alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid. The metal is extracted from the solution as oxalate and converted to oxide by heating. The oxide is reduced to metal by heating with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high vacuum. The metal is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate. [21]


Ytterbium(III) oxide Ytterbium(III) oxide.jpg
Ytterbium(III) oxide

The chemical behavior of ytterbium is similar to that of the rest of the lanthanides. Most ytterbium compounds are found in the +3 oxidation state, and its salts in this oxidation state are nearly colorless. Like europium, samarium, and thulium, the trihalides of ytterbium can be reduced to the dihalides by hydrogen, zinc dust, or by the addition of metallic ytterbium. [10] The +2 oxidation state occurs only in solid compounds and reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO). [10]


Crystal structure of ytterbium(III) oxide Kristallstruktur Lanthanoid-C-Typ.png
Crystal structure of ytterbium(III) oxide

Ytterbium forms both dihalides and trihalides with the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The dihalides are susceptible to oxidation to the trihalides at room temperature and disproportionate to the trihalides and metallic ytterbium at high temperature: [10]

3 YbX2 → 2 YbX3 + Yb (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

Some ytterbium halides are used as reagents in organic synthesis. For example, ytterbium(III) chloride (YbCl3) is a Lewis acid and can be used as a catalyst in the Aldol [22] and Diels–Alder reactions. [23] Ytterbium(II) iodide (YbI2) may be used, like samarium(II) iodide, as a reducing agent for coupling reactions. [24] Ytterbium(III) fluoride (YbF3) is used as an inert and non-toxic tooth filling as it continuously releases fluoride ions, which are good for dental health, and is also a good X-ray contrast agent. [25]


Ytterbium reacts with oxygen to form ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3), which crystallizes in the "rare-earth C-type sesquioxide" structure which is related to the fluorite structure with one quarter of the anions removed, leading to ytterbium atoms in two different six coordinate (non-octahedral) environments. [26] Ytterbium(III) oxide can be reduced to ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) with elemental ytterbium, which crystallizes in the same structure as sodium chloride. [10]


Ytterbium dodecaboride (YbB12) is a crystalline material that has been studied to understand various electronic and structural properties of many chemically related substances. It is a Kondo insulator. [27] It is a quantum material; under normal conditions, the interior of the bulk crystal is an insulator whereas the surface is highly conductive. [28] Among the rare earth elements, ytterbium is one of the few that can form a stable dodecaboride, a property attributed to its comparatively small atomic radius. [29]


Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac Galissard de Marignac.jpg
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac

Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. While examining samples of gadolinite, Marignac found a new component in the earth then known as erbia, and he named it ytterbia, for Ytterby, the Swedish village near where he found the new component of erbium. Marignac suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium". [11] [25] [30] [31] [32]

In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. Neoytterbia later became known as the element ytterbium, and lutecia became known as the element lutetium. The Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach independently isolated these elements from ytterbia at about the same time, but he called them aldebaranium and cassiopeium; [11] the American chemist Charles James also independently isolated these elements at about the same time. [33] Urbain and Welsbach accused each other of publishing results based on the other party. [34] [35] [36] The Commission on Atomic Mass, consisting of Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, Wilhelm Ostwald, and Georges Urbain, which was then responsible for the attribution of new element names, settled the dispute in 1909 by granting priority to Urbain and adopting his names as official ones, based on the fact that the separation of lutetium from Marignac's ytterbium was first described by Urbain. [34] After Urbain's names were recognized, neoytterbium was reverted to ytterbium.

The chemical and physical properties of ytterbium could not be determined with any precision until 1953, when the first nearly pure ytterbium metal was produced by using ion-exchange processes. [11] The price of ytterbium was relatively stable between 1953 and 1998 at about US$1,000/kg. [37]


Source of gamma rays

The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days) by neutron activation during the irradiation of ytterbium in nuclear reactors, has been used as a radiation source in portable X-ray machines. Like X-rays, the gamma rays emitted by the source pass through soft tissues of the body, but are blocked by bones and other dense materials. Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. Experiments show that radiographs taken with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with X-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV. 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine. [38]

High-stability atomic clocks

In 2013, ytterbium clocks held the record for stability with ticks stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (2×10−18). [39] These clocks developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) rely on about 10,000 ytterbium atoms laser-cooled to 10 microkelvin (10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero) and trapped in an optical lattice—a series of pancake-shaped wells made of laser light. Another laser that "ticks" 518 trillion times per second (518 THz) provokes a transition between two energy levels in the atoms. The large number of atoms is key to the clocks' high stability.

Visible light waves oscillate faster than microwaves, hence optical clocks can be more precise than caesium atomic clocks. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt is working on several such optical clocks. The model with one single ytterbium ion caught in an ion trap is highly accurate. The optical clock based on it is exact to 17 digits after the decimal point. [40]

A pair of experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has set a record for stability. NIST physicists reported in the August 22, 2013 issue of Science Express that the ytterbium clocks' ticks are stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (1 followed by 18 zeros), roughly 10 times better than the previous best published results for other atomic clocks. The clocks would be accurate within a second for a period comparable to the age of the universe. [41]

Doping of stainless steel

Ytterbium can also be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Some ytterbium alloys have rarely been used in dentistry. [8] [11]

Ytterbium as dopant of active media

The Yb3+ ion is used as a doping material in active laser media, specifically in solid state lasers and double clad fiber lasers. Ytterbium lasers are highly efficient, have long lifetimes and can generate short pulses; ytterbium can also easily be incorporated into the material used to make the laser. [42] Ytterbium lasers commonly radiate in the 1.03–1.12  µm band being optically pumped at wavelength 900 nm–1 µm, dependently on the host and application. The small quantum defect makes ytterbium a prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling. [43]

The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds, [44] [45] [46] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. [47] [48]

Usually, low concentrations of ytterbium are used. At high concentrations, the ytterbium-doped materials show photodarkening [49] (glass fibers) or even a switch to broadband emission [50] (crystals and ceramics) instead of efficient laser action. This effect may be related with not only overheating, but also with conditions of charge compensation at high concentrations of ytterbium ions. [51]

Much progress has been made in the power scaling lasers and amplifiers produced with ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers. Power levels have increased from the 1 kW regimes due to the advancements in components as well as the Yb-doped fibers. Fabrication of Low NA, Large Mode Area fibers enable achievement of near perfect beam qualities (M2<1.1) at power levels of 1.5 kW to greater than 2 kW at ~1064 nm in a broadband configuration. [52] Ytterbium-doped LMA fibers also have the advantages of a larger mode field diameter, which negates the impacts of nonlinear effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, which limit the achievement of higher power levels, and provide a distinct advantage over single mode ytterbium-doped fibers.

To achieve even higher power levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems, all factors of the fiber must be considered. These can be achieved only through optimization of all ytterbium fiber parameters, ranging from the core background losses to the geometrical properties, to reduce the splice losses within the cavity. Power scaling also requires optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical cavity. [53] The optimization of the ytterbium-doped glass itself through host glass modification of various dopants also plays a large part in reducing the background loss of the glass, improvements in slope efficiency of the fiber, and improved photodarkening performance, all of which contribute to increased power levels in 1 µm systems.

Ion qubits for quantum computing

The charged ion 171Yb+ is used by multiple academic groups and companies as the trapped-ion qubit for quantum computing. [54] [55] [56] Entangling gates, such as the Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been achieved by addressing the ions with mode-locked pulse lasers. [57]


Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions. [58]

Currently, ytterbium is being investigated as a possible replacement for magnesium in high density pyrotechnic payloads for kinematic infrared decoy flares. As ytterbium(III) oxide has a significantly higher emissivity in the infrared range than magnesium oxide, a higher radiant intensity is obtained with ytterbium-based payloads in comparison to those commonly based on magnesium/Teflon/Viton (MTV). [59]


Although ytterbium is fairly stable chemically, it is stored in airtight containers and in an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen-filled dry box to protect it from air and moisture. [60] All compounds of ytterbium are treated as highly toxic, although studies appear to indicate that the danger is minimal. However, ytterbium compounds cause irritation to human skin and eyes, and some might be teratogenic. [61] Metallic ytterbium dust can spontaneously combust, [62] and the resulting fumes are hazardous. Ytterbium fires cannot be extinguished using water, and only dry chemical class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires. [63]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samarium</span> Chemical element, symbol Sm and atomic number 62

Samarium is a chemical element; it has symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a moderately hard silvery metal that slowly oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium usually has the oxidation state +3. Compounds of samarium(II) are also known, most notably the monoxide SmO, monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe, as well as samarium(II) iodide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terbium</span> Chemical element, symbol Tb and atomic number 65

Terbium is a chemical element; it has symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, and ductile. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thulium</span> Chemical element, symbol Tm and atomic number 69

Thulium is a chemical element; it has symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; however, the +2 oxidation state can also be stable. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble thulium compounds form coordination complexes with nine water molecules.

A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements, including the lanthanides. The periodic table is laid out in rows to illustrate recurring (periodic) trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements as their atomic number increases: a new row is begun when chemical behaviour begins to repeat, meaning that elements with similar behaviour fall into the same vertical columns. The sixth period contains 32 elements, tied for the most with period 7, beginning with caesium and ending with radon. Lead is currently the last stable element; all subsequent elements are radioactive. For bismuth, however, its only primordial isotope, 209Bi, has a half-life of more than 1019 years, over a billion times longer than the current age of the universe. As a rule, period 6 elements fill their 6s shells first, then their 4f, 5d, and 6p shells, in that order; however, there are exceptions, such as gold.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Praseodymium</span> Chemical element, symbol Pr and atomic number 59

Praseodymium is a chemical element; it has symbol Pr and the atomic number 59. It is the third member of the lanthanide series and is considered one of the rare-earth metals. It is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and pure praseodymium metal slowly develops a green oxide coating when exposed to air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Group 3 element</span> Group of chemical elements

Group 3 is the first group of transition metals in the periodic table. This group is closely related to the rare-earth elements. It contains the four elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lutetium (Lu), and lawrencium (Lr). The group is also called the scandium group or scandium family after its lightest member.

Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3. This anhydrous compound is a mauve-colored solid that rapidly absorbs water on exposure to air to form a purple-colored hexahydrate, NdCl3·6H2O. Neodymium(III) chloride is produced from minerals monazite and bastnäsite using a complex multistage extraction process. The chloride has several important applications as an intermediate chemical for production of neodymium metal and neodymium-based lasers and optical fibers. Other applications include a catalyst in organic synthesis and in decomposition of waste water contamination, corrosion protection of aluminium and its alloys, and fluorescent labeling of organic molecules (DNA).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ytterbium(III) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Ytterbium(III) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Yb2O3. It is one of the more commonly encountered compounds of ytterbium. It occurs naturally in trace amounts in the mineral gadolinite. It was first isolated from this in 1878 by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lutetium(III) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Lutetium(III) oxide, a white solid, is a cubic compound of lutetium sometimes used in the preparation of specialty glasses. It is also called lutecia. It is a lanthanide oxide, also known as a rare earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Georges Urbain</span>

Georges Urbain was a French chemist, a professor of the Sorbonne, a member of the Institut de France, and director of the Institute of Chemistry in Paris. Much of his work focused on the rare earths, isolating and separating elements such as europium and gadolinium, and studying their spectra, their magnetic properties and their atomic masses. He discovered the element lutetium. He also studied the efflorescence of saline hydrates.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yttrium</span> Chemical element, symbol Y and atomic number 39

Yttrium is a chemical element; it has symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

Ytterbium compounds are chemical compounds that contain the element ytterbium (Yb). The chemical behavior of ytterbium is similar to that of the rest of the lanthanides. Most ytterbium compounds are found in the +3 oxidation state, and its salts in this oxidation state are nearly colorless. Like europium, samarium, and thulium, the trihalides of ytterbium can be reduced to the dihalides by hydrogen, zinc dust, or by the addition of metallic ytterbium. The +2 oxidation state occurs only in solid compounds and reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO).


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Further reading