Holmium

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Holmium, 67Ho
Holmium2.jpg
Holmium
Pronunciation /ˈhlmiəm/ (HOHL-mee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight Ar°(Ho)
  • 164.930329±0.000005
  • 164.93±0.01 (abridged) [1]
Holmium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Ho

Es
dysprosiumholmiumerbium
Atomic number (Z)67
Group f-block groups (no number)
Period period 6
Block   f-block
Electron configuration [ Xe ] 4f11 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at  STP solid
Melting point 1734  K (1461 °C,2662 °F)
Boiling point 2873 K(2600 °C,4712 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.79 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)8.34 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 17.0  kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 251 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.15 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)14321584(1775)(2040)(2410)(2964)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 0, [2] +1, +2, +3 (a  basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.23
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 581.0 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1140 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2204 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical:176  pm
Covalent radius 192±7 pm
Holmium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of holmium
Other properties
Natural occurrence primordial
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed.svg
Speed of sound thin rod2760 m/s(at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion poly: 11.2 µm/(m⋅K)(at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 16.2 W/(m⋅K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 814 nΩ⋅m(at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Young's modulus 64.8 GPa
Shear modulus 26.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 40.2 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.231
Vickers hardness 410–600 MPa
Brinell hardness 500–1250 MPa
CAS Number 7440-60-0
History
Discovery Jacques-Louis Soret and Marc Delafontaine (1878)
Isotopes of holmium
Main isotopes Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
163Ho syn 4570 y ε 163Dy
164Hosyn28.8 minε 164Dy
β 164Er
165Ho100% stable
166Hosyn26.812 hβ 166Er
166m1Hosyn1132.6 yβ 166Er
167Hosyn3.1 hβ 167Er
Symbol category class.svg  Category: Holmium
| references

Holmium is a chemical element with the symbol Ho and atomic number 67. It is a rare-earth element and the eleventh member of the lanthanide series. It is a relatively soft, silvery, fairly corrosion-resistant and malleable metal. Like a lot of other lanthanides, holmium is too reactive to be found in native form, as pure holmium slowly forms a yellowish oxide coating when exposed to air. When isolated, holmium is relatively stable in dry air at room temperature. However, it reacts with water and corrodes readily, and also burns in air when heated.

Contents

In nature, holmium occurs together with the other rare-earth metals (like thulium). It is a relatively rare lanthanide, making up 1.4 parts per million of the Earth's crust, an abundance similar to tungsten. Holmium was discovered through isolation by Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve and independently by Jacques-Louis Soret and Marc Delafontaine, who observed it spectroscopically in 1878. Its oxide was first isolated from rare-earth ores by Cleve in 1878. The element's name comes from Holmia, the Latin name for the city of Stockholm. [3] [4] [5]

Like many other lanthanides, holmium is found in the minerals monazite and gadolinite and is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion-exchange techniques. Its compounds in nature and in nearly all of its laboratory chemistry are trivalently oxidized, containing Ho(III) ions. Trivalent holmium ions have fluorescent properties similar to many other rare-earth ions (while yielding their own set of unique emission light lines), and thus are used in the same way as some other rare earths in certain laser and glass-colorant applications.

Holmium has the highest magnetic permeability and magnetic saturation of any element and is thus used for the pole pieces of the strongest static magnets. Because holmium strongly absorbs neutrons, it is also used as a burnable poison in nuclear reactors.

Characteristics

Physical properties

Holmium is the eleventh member of the lanthanide series. In the periodic table, it appears between the lanthanides dysprosium to its left and erbium to its right, and above the actinide einsteinium. It is a relatively soft and malleable element that is fairly corrosion-resistant and stable in dry air at standard temperature and pressure. In moist air and at higher temperatures, however, it quickly oxidizes, forming a yellowish oxide. [6] In pure form, holmium possesses a metallic, bright silvery luster. With a boiling point of 2727 °C, Holmium is the sixth most volatile lanthanide after ytterbium, europium, samarium, thulium and dysprosium. At ambient conditions, Holmium, like many of the second half of the lanthanides, normally assumes a hexagonally close-packed (hcp) structure. [7] Its 67 electrons are arranged in the configuration [Xe] 4f11 6s2, so that it has thirteen valence electrons filling the 4f and 6s subshells.

Holmium oxide has some fairly dramatic color changes depending on the lighting conditions. In daylight, it has a tannish yellow color. Under trichromatic light, it is fiery orange-red, [8] almost indistinguishable from the appearance of erbium oxide under the same lighting conditions. The perceived color change is related to the sharp absorption bands of holmium interacting with a subset of the sharp emission bands of the trivalent ions of europium and terbium, acting as phosphors. [9]

Holmium, like all of the lanthanides (except lanthanum, ytterbium and lutetium, which have no unpaired 4f electrons), is paramagnetic in ambient conditions, [10] but is ferromagnetic at temperatures below 19  K . [11] It has the highest magnetic moment (10.6  μB ) of any naturally occurring element and possesses other unusual magnetic properties. When combined with yttrium, it forms highly magnetic compounds. [12]

Chemical properties

Holmium metal tarnishes slowly in air, forming a yellowish oxide layer like iron rust. It burns readily to form holmium(III) oxide: [13]

4 Ho + 3 O2 → 2 Ho2O3

Holmium is quite electropositive and is generally trivalent. It reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form holmium(III) hydroxide: [14]

2 Ho (s) + 6 H2O (l) → 2 Ho(OH)3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)

Holmium metal reacts with all the stable halogens: [15]

2 Ho (s) + 3 F2 (g) → 2 HoF3 (s) [pink]
2 Ho (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) → 2 HoCl3 (s) [yellow]
2 Ho (s) + 3 Br2 (g) → 2 HoBr3 (s) [yellow]
2 Ho (s) + 3 I2 (g) → 2 HoI3 (s) [yellow]

Holmium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the yellow Ho(III) ions, which exist as a [Ho(OH2)9]3+ complexes: [15]

2 Ho (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) → 2 Ho3+ (aq) + 3 SO2−
4
(aq) + 3 H2 (g)

Oxidation states

As with many lanthanides, holmium is usually found in the +3 oxidation state, forming compounds such as Holmium(III) fluoride (HoF3) and Holmium(III) chloride (HoCl3). Holmium in solution is in the form of Ho3+ surrounded by nine molecules of water. Holmium dissolves in acids. [16] However, holmium is found to also exist in the +2, +1 and 0 oxidation states.

Isotopes

The isotopes of holmium range from 140Ho to 175Ho. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 165Ho, is positron emission, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 165Ho are terbium and dysprosium isotopes, and the primary products after are erbium isotopes. [17]

Natural holmium consists of one primordial isotope, holmium-165; it is the only isotope of holmium that is thought to be stable, although it is predicted to undergo alpha decay to terbium-161 with a very long half-life. [18] [19] 35 synthetic radioactive isotopes are known; the most stable one is holmium-163 (163Ho), with a half-life of 4570 years. [20] All other radioisotopes have ground-state half-lives not greater than 1.117 days, with the longest, holmium-166 (166Ho) having a half-life of 26.83 hours, [21] and most have half-lives under 3 hours. However, the metastable 166m1Ho has a half-life of around 1200 years because of its high spin. This fact, combined with a high excitation energy resulting in a particularly rich spectrum of decay gamma rays produced when the metastable state de-excites, makes this isotope useful in nuclear physics experiments as a means for calibrating energy responses and intrinsic efficiencies of gamma ray spectrometers.

Compounds

Oxides and chalcogenides

Ho2O3, left: natural light, right: under a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp Holmium(III) oxide.jpg
Ho2O3, left: natural light, right: under a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp

Holmium(III) oxide is the only oxide of holmium. It changes color changes on the lighting conditions. In daylight, it is a tannish yellow color. Under trichromatic light, it is a fiery orange red, almost indistinguishable from the way erbium oxide looks under this same lighting. This is due to the sharp emission bands of the phosphors. [22]

Other chalcogenides are known for holmium. Holmium(III) sulfide has orange-yellow crystals in the monoclinic crystal system, [17] with the space group P21/m (No. 11). [23] Under high pressure, holmium(III) sulfide can form in the cubic and orthorhombic crystal systems. [24] It can be obtained by the reaction of holmium(III) oxide and hydrogen sulfide at 1325 °C. [25] Holmium(III) selenide is also known. It is antiferromagnetic below 6 K. [26]

Halides

All four trihalides of holmium are known. Holmium(III) fluoride is a yellowish powder that can be produced by reacting holmium(III) oxide and ammonium fluoride, then crystallising it from the ammonium salt formed in solution. [27] Holmium(III) chloride can be prepared in a similar way, with ammonium chloride instead of ammonium fluoride. [28] It has the YCl3 layer structure in the solid state. [29] These compounds, as well as holmium(III) bromide and holmium(III) iodide, can be obtained by the direct reaction of the elements: [15]

2 Ho + 3 X2 → 2 HoX3

In addition, holmium(III) iodide can be obtained by the direct reaction of holmium and mercury(II) iodide, then removing the mercury by distillation. [30]

Organoholmium compounds

Organoholmium compounds are very similar to those of the other lanthanides, as they all share an inability to undergo π backbonding. They are thus mostly restricted to the mostly ionic cyclopentadienides (isostructural with those of lanthanum) and the σ-bonded simple alkyls and aryls, some of which may be polymeric. [31]

History

Per Teodor Cleve in around 1885 Per Teodor Cleve c1885.jpg
Per Teodor Cleve in around 1885

Holmium (Holmia, Latin name for Stockholm) was discovered by Jacques-Louis Soret and Marc Delafontaine in 1878 who noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element (they called it "Element X"). [32] [33]

As well, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth (erbium oxide), and was the first to isolate it. [4] [3] [34] [35] [36] Using the method developed by Carl Gustaf Mosander, Cleve first removed all of the known contaminants from erbia. The result of that effort was two new materials, one brown and one green. He named the brown substance holmia (after the Latin name for Cleve's home town, Stockholm) and the green one thulia. Holmia was later found to be the holmium oxide, and thulia was thulium oxide. [18]

In Henry Moseley's classic paper [37] on atomic numbers, holmium was assigned an atomic number of 66. Evidently, the holmium preparation he had been given to investigate had been grossly impure, dominated by neighboring (and unplotted) dysprosium. He would have seen x-ray emission lines for both elements, but assumed that the dominant ones belonged to holmium, instead of the dysprosium impurity.

Occurrence and production

Gadolinite Gadolinitas.jpg
Gadolinite

Like all other rare earths, holmium is not naturally found as a free element. It does occur combined with other elements in gadolinite (the black part of the specimen illustrated to the right), monazite and other rare-earth minerals. No holmium-dominant mineral has yet been found. [38] The main mining areas are China, United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia with reserves of holmium estimated as 400,000 tonnes. [18] The annual production of holmium metal is of about 10 tonnes per year. [39]

Holmium makes up 1.4 parts per million of the Earth's crust by mass. This makes it the 56th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Holmium makes up 1 part per million of the soils, 400 parts per quadrillion of seawater, and almost none of Earth's atmosphere, which is very rare for a lanthanide. [40] It makes up 500 parts per trillion of the universe by mass. [41]

It is commercially extracted by ion exchange from monazite sand (0.05% holmium), but is still difficult to separate from other rare earths. The element has been isolated through the reduction of its anhydrous chloride or fluoride with metallic calcium. [17] Its estimated abundance in the Earth's crust is 1.3 mg/kg. Holmium obeys the Oddo–Harkins rule: as an odd-numbered element, it is less abundant than its immediate even-numbered neighbors, dysprosium and erbium. However, it is the most abundant of the odd-numbered heavy lanthanides. Of the lanthanides, only promethium, thulium, lutetium and terbium are less abundant on Earth. The principal current source are some of the ion-adsorption clays of southern China. Some of these have a rare-earth composition similar to that found in xenotime or gadolinite. Yttrium makes up about 2/3 of the total by mass; holmium is around 1.5%. The original ores themselves are very lean, maybe only 0.1% total lanthanide, but are easily extracted. [42] Holmium is relatively inexpensive for a rare-earth metal with the price about 1000  USD/kg. [43]

Applications

Magnets

A solution of 4% holmium oxide in 10% perchloric acid, permanently fused into a quartz cuvette as an optical calibration standard HoOxideSolution.jpg
A solution of 4% holmium oxide in 10% perchloric acid, permanently fused into a quartz cuvette as an optical calibration standard

Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any element, and therefore is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece (also called a magnetic flux concentrator). [44] It is also used in the manufacture of some permanent magnets. Since it can absorb nuclear fission-bred neutrons, it is also used as a burnable poison to regulate nuclear reactors. [18]

Lasers

Holmium-doped yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and yttrium lithium fluoride (YLF) have applications in solid-state lasers, and Ho-YIG has applications in optical isolators and in microwave equipment (e.g., YIG spheres). Holmium lasers emit at 2.1 micrometres. [45] They are used in medical, dental, and fiber-optical applications. [12] It is also being considered for usage in the enucleation of the prostate. [46]

Colorants

Holmium is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow-orange coloring. [47] [48] [49] Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions (usually in perchloric acid) has sharp optical absorption peaks in the spectral range 200–900 nm. They are therefore used as a calibration standard for optical spectrophotometers [50] and are available commercially. [51]

Other uses

The radioactive but long-lived 166m1Ho (see "Isotopes" above) is used in calibration of gamma-ray spectrometers. [52] In March 2017, IBM announced that they had developed a technique to store one bit of data on a single holmium atom set on a bed of magnesium oxide. [53] With sufficient quantum and classical control techniques, Ho could be a good candidate to make quantum computers. [54]

Biological role and precautions

Holmium plays no biological role in humans, but its salts are able to stimulate metabolism. [17] Humans typically consume about a milligram of holmium a year. Plants do not readily take up holmium from the soil. Some vegetables have had their holmium content measured, and it amounted to 100 parts per trillion. [16] Holmium and its soluble salts are slightly toxic if ingested, but insoluble holmium salts are nontoxic. [55] Metallic holmium in dust form presents a fire and explosion hazard. [56] [57] [58] Large amounts of holmium salts can cause severe damage if inhaled, consumed orally, or injected. The biological effects of holmium over a long period of time are not known. Holmium has a low level of acute toxicity. [59]

Prices

The price of 1 kilogram of Holmium Oxide 99.5% (FOB China in RMB/Kg) is given by the Institute of Rare Earths Elements and Strategic Metals as below USD 500 until March 2011; it then rose steeply to just below USD 4,500 by July 2011 and steadily declined to USD 750 by mid-2012. [60] The average price for the last six months (April to September 2022) is given by the Institute as follows: Holmium Oxide - 99.5%min EXW China - 94.34 EUR/kg. [61]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dysprosium</span> Chemical element, symbol Dy and atomic number 66

Dysprosium is the chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare-earth element in the lanthanide series with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though, like other lanthanides, it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164Dy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Europium</span> Chemical element, symbol Eu and atomic number 63

Europium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu and atomic number 63. Europium is the most reactive lanthanide by far, having to be stored under an inert fluid to protect it from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. Europium is also the softest lanthanide, as it can be dented with a fingernail and easily cut with a knife. When oxidation is removed a shiny-white metal is visible. Europium was isolated in 1901 and is named after the continent of Europe. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is also common. All europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic as compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the rarest of the rare-earth elements on Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Erbium</span> Chemical element, symbol Er and atomic number 68

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. It is a lanthanide, a rare-earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby, Sweden, which is the source of the element's name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lanthanum</span> Chemical element, symbol La and atomic number 57

Lanthanum is a chemical element with the symbol La and atomic number 57. It is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes slowly when exposed to air. It is the eponym of the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table, of which lanthanum is the first and the prototype. Lanthanum is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements. Like most other rare earth elements, the usual oxidation state is +3. Lanthanum has no biological role in humans but is essential to some bacteria. It is not particularly toxic to humans but does show some antimicrobial activity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lutetium</span> Chemical element, symbol Lu and atomic number 71

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements; it can also be classified as the first element of the 6th-period transition metals.

The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57–71, from lanthanum through lutetium. These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare-earth elements or rare-earth metals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neodymium</span> Chemical element, symbol Nd and atomic number 60

Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is the fourth member of the lanthanide series and is considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. It is a hard, slightly malleable, silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, neodymium reacts quickly producing pink, purple/blue and yellow compounds in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states. It is generally regarded as having one of the most complex spectra of the elements. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach, who also discovered praseodymium. It is present in significant quantities in the minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Neodymium is fairly common—about as common as cobalt, nickel, or copper—and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Most of the world's commercial neodymium is mined in China, as is the case with many other rare-earth metals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scandium</span> Chemical element, symbol Sc and atomic number 21

Scandium is a chemical element with the symbol Sc and atomic number 21. It is a silvery-white metallic d-block element. Historically, it has been classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terbium</span> Chemical element, symbol Tb and atomic number 65

Terbium is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is malleable, and ductile. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thulium</span> Chemical element, symbol Tm and atomic number 69

Thulium is a chemical element with the symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and third-last element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds; however, the +2 oxidation state can also be stable. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble thulium compounds form coordination complexes with nine water molecules.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ytterbium</span> Chemical element, symbol Yb and atomic number 70

Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is a metal, the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Praseodymium</span> Chemical element, symbol Pr and atomic number 59

Praseodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Pr and the atomic number 59. It is the third member of the lanthanide series and is considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. It is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. It is too reactive to be found in native form, and pure praseodymium metal slowly develops a green oxide coating when exposed to air.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Group 3 element</span> Group of chemical elements

Group 3 is the first group of transition metals in the periodic table. This group is closely related to the rare-earth elements. It contains the four elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lutetium (Lu), and lawrencium (Lr). The group is also called the scandium group or scandium family after its lightest member.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xenotime</span> Phosphate mineral

Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4). It forms a solid solution series with chernovite-(Y) (YAsO4) and therefore may contain trace impurities of arsenic, as well as silicon dioxide and calcium. The rare-earth elements dysprosium, erbium, terbium and ytterbium, as well as metal elements such as thorium and uranium (all replacing yttrium) are the expressive secondary components of xenotime. Due to uranium and thorium impurities, some xenotime specimens may be weakly to strongly radioactive. Lithiophyllite, monazite and purpurite are sometimes grouped with xenotime in the informal "anhydrous phosphates" group. Xenotime is used chiefly as a source of yttrium and heavy lanthanide metals (dysprosium, ytterbium, erbium and gadolinium). Occasionally, gemstones are also cut from the finest xenotime crystals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holmium(III) oxide</span> Chemical compound

Holmium(III) oxide, or holmium oxide is a chemical compound of a rare-earth element holmium and oxygen with the formula Ho2O3. Together with dysprosium(III) oxide (Dy2O3), holmium oxide is one of the most powerfully paramagnetic substances known. The oxide, also called holmia, occurs as a component of the related erbium oxide mineral called erbia. Typically, the oxides of the trivalent lanthanides coexist in nature, and separation of these components requires specialized methods. Holmium oxide is used in making specialty colored glasses. Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions have a series of sharp optical absorption peaks in the visible spectral range. They are therefore traditionally used as a convenient calibration standard for optical spectrophotometers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carl Axel Arrhenius</span> Swedish chemist

Carl Axel Arrhenius was an officer in the Swedish army as well as an amateur geologist and chemist. He is best known for his discovery of the mineral ytterbite in 1787.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yttrium</span> Chemical element, symbol Y and atomic number 39

Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Terbium compounds</span> Chemical compounds with at least one terbium atom

Terbium compounds are compounds formed by the lanthanide metal terbium (Tb). Terbium generally exhibits the +3 oxidation state in these compounds, such as in TbCl3, Tb(NO3)3 and Tb(CH3COO)3. Compounds with terbium in the +4 oxidation state are also known, such as TbO2 and BaTbF6. Terbium can also form compounds in the 0, +1 and +2 oxidation states.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holmium(III) iodide</span> Chemical compound

Holmium(III) iodide is an iodide of holmium, with the chemical formula of HoI3. It is used as a component of metal halide lamps.

Erbium compounds are compounds containing the element erbium (Er). These compounds are usually dominated by erbium in the +3 oxidation state, although the +2, +1 and 0 oxidation states have also been reported.

References

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Bibliography

Further reading