Ammonium fluoride

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Ammonium fluoride
The ammonium cation Ammonium.svg
The ammonium cation
The fluoride anion F-.svg
The fluoride anion
Ammonium-fluoride-3D-balls-ionic.png
Fluorid amonny.PNG
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium fluoride
Other names
Neutral ammonium fluoride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.975
EC Number 235-185-9
PubChem CID
RTECS number BQ6300000
UNII
UN number 2505
Properties
NH4F
Molar mass 37.037 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline solid
hygroscopic
Density 1.009 g/cm3
Melting point 100 °C (212 °F; 373 K)(decomposes)
83.5 g/100 ml (25 °C) [1]
Solubility slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in liquid ammonia
-23.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Wurtzite structure (hexagonal)
Hazards [2]
Safety data sheet ICSC 1223
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-skull.svg
GHS signal word Danger
H301, H311, H314, H318, H330, H331
P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P284, P301+310, P301+330+331, P302+352, P303+361+353, P304+340, P305+351+338, P310, P311, P312, P320, P321, P322, P330, P361, P363, P403+233, P405, P501
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeAmmonium fluoride
0
3
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium chloride
Ammonium bromide
Ammonium iodide
Other cations
Sodium fluoride
Potassium fluoride
Related compounds
Ammonium bifluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Ammonium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4F. It crystallizes as small colourless prisms, having a sharp saline taste, and is exceedingly soluble in water.

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

Contents

Crystal structure

Ammonium fluoride adopts the wurtzite crystal structure, in which both the ammonium cations and the fluoride anions are stacked in ABABAB... layers, each being tetrahedrally surrounded by four of the other. There are N−H···F hydrogen bonds between the anions and cations. [3] This structure is very similar to ice, and ammonium fluoride is the only substance which can form mixed crystals with water. [4]

Hydrogen bond form of association between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom attached to a second,relatively electronegative atom;electrostatic interaction,heightened by the small size of hydrogen which permits proximity of the interacting dipoles/charges

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic force of attraction between a hydrogen (H) atom which is bound to a more electronegative atom or group, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F)—the hydrogen bond donor—and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons—the hydrogen bond acceptor. Weak hydrogen bonds occur even with C-H groups as donor

Ice water frozen into the solid state

Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color.

Reactions

On passing hydrogen fluoride gas (in excess) through the salt, ammonium fluoride absorbs the gas to form the addition compound ammonium bifluoride. The reaction occurring is:

Hydrogen fluoride chemical compound

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HF. This colorless gas or liquid is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often as an aqueous solution called hydrofluoric acid. It is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers. HF is widely used in the petrochemical industry as a component of superacids. Hydrogen fluoride boils near room temperature, much higher than other hydrogen halides.

Ammonium bifluoride chemical compound

Ammonium hydrogen fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4HF2 or NH4F·HF. It is produced from ammonia and hydrogen fluoride. This colourless salt is a glass-etchant and an intermediate in a once-contemplated route to hydrofluoric acid.

NH4F + HF → NH4HF2

It sublimes when heated—a property common among ammonium salts. In the sublimation, the salt decomposes to ammonia and hydrogen fluoride, and the two gases can recombine to give ammonium fluoride, i.e. the reaction is reversible:

[NH4]F ⇌ NH3 + HF

Uses

This substance is commonly called "commercial ammonium fluoride". The word "neutral" is sometimes added to "ammonium fluoride" to represent the neutral salt—[NH4]F vs. the "acid salt" (NH4HF2). The acid salt is usually used in preference to the neutral salt in the etching of glass and related silicates. This property is shared among all soluble fluorides. For this reason it cannot be handled in glass test tubes or apparatus during laboratory work.

Silicate class of chemical compounds, salts and esters of silicic acids

In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula [SiO(4−2x)−
4−x
]
n
, where 0 ≤ x < 2. The family includes orthosilicate SiO4−
4
, metasilicate SiO2−
3
, and pyrosilicate Si
2
O6−
7
. The name is also used for any salt of such anions, such as sodium metasilicate; or any ester containing the corresponding chemical group, such as tetramethyl orthosilicate.

It is also used for preserving wood, as a mothproofing agent, in printing and dying textiles, and as an antiseptic in breweries. [5]

Textile Material produced by twining, weaving, felting, knotting, or otherwise processing natural or synthetic fibers

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, felting, or braiding.

Antiseptics are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Antiseptics are generally distinguished from antibiotics by the latter's ability to safely destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects.

Brewery business that makes and sells beer

A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC; in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction and divine protection from the goddess Ninkasi. Brewing was initially a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; by the ninth century monasteries and farms would produce beer on a larger scale, selling the excess; and by the eleventh and twelfth centuries larger, dedicated breweries with eight to ten workers were being built.

Related Research Articles

Salt (chemistry) ionic compound

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral. These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl), or organic, such as acetate ; and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F), or polyatomic, such as sulfate.

In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group), a nitrogen (as in an amine group) or a fluorine (as in hydrogen fluoride). In general terms, any solvent that contains a labile H+ is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents readily donate protons (H+) to reagents. Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen.

Ammonium triiodide chemical compound

Ammonium triiodide (NH4I3) is the salt of the ammonium cation with the triiodide anion.

Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)HS.

Potassium fluoride chemical compound

Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective.

An inorganic nonaqueous solvent is a solvent other than water, that is not an organic compound. Common examples are liquid ammonia, liquid sulfur dioxide, sulfuryl chloride and sulfuryl chloride fluoride, phosphoryl chloride, dinitrogen tetroxide, antimony trichloride, bromine pentafluoride, hydrogen fluoride, pure sulfuric acid and other inorganic acids. These solvents are used in chemical research and industry for reactions that cannot occur in aqueous solutions or require a special environment.

Hexafluorosilicic acid Hexafluorosilicic acid

Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (H
3
O)
2
SiF
6
. It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted. Hexafluorosilicic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. It is produced naturally on a large scale in volcanoes. It is manufactured as a precursor to aluminum trifluoride and synthetic cryolite. It is commonly used as a source of fluoride for water fluoridation. Salts derived from hexafluorosilicic acid are called hexafluorosilicates.

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate chemical compound

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[PtCl6]. It is a rare example of a soluble platinum(IV) salt that is not hygroscopic. It forms intensely yellow solutions in water. In the presence of 1M NH4Cl, its solubility is only 0.0028 g/100 mL.

Hexafluorophosphate anion

Hexafluorophosphate is an anion with chemical formula of PF
6
. It is an octahedral species. It imparts no color to its salts. PF
6
is isoelectronic with sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, and the hexafluorosilicate dianion, SiF2−
6
, and fluoroantimonate SbF
6
. Being poorly nucleophilic, hexafluorophosphate is classified as a non-coordinating anion.

Potassium hexafluorophosphate chemical compound

Potassium hexafluorophosphate is the chemical compound with the formula KPF6. This colourless salt consists of potassium cations and hexafluorophosphate anions. It is prepared by the reaction:

Arsenic trifluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine with the chemical formula AsF3. It is a colorless liquid which reacts readily with water.

Potassium bifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula KHF2. This colourless salt consists of the potassium cation and the bifluoride (HF2) anion. The salt is used in etchant for glass. Sodium bifluoride is related and is also of commercial use as an etchant as well as in cleaning products.

Difluoride index of chemical compounds with the same name

Difluorides are chemical compounds with two fluorine atoms per molecule.

Fluorine forms a great variety of chemical compounds, within which it always adopts an oxidation state of −1. With other atoms, fluorine forms either polar covalent bonds or ionic bonds. Most frequently, covalent bonds involving fluorine atoms are single bonds, although at least two examples of a higher order bond exist. Fluoride may act as a bridging ligand between two metals in some complex molecules. Molecules containing fluorine may also exhibit hydrogen bonding. Fluorine's chemistry includes inorganic compounds formed with hydrogen, metals, nonmetals, and even noble gases; as well as a diverse set of organic compounds. For many elements the highest known oxidation state can be achieved in a fluoride. For some elements this is achieved exclusively in a fluoride, for others exclusively in an oxide; and for still others the highest oxidation states of oxides and fluorides are always equal.

Sodium bifluoride chemical compound

Sodium bifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NaHF2. It is a salt of sodium cation (Na+) and bifluoride anion (HF2). It is a white, water-soluble solid that decomposes upon heating. Sodium bifluoride is non-flammable, hygroscopic, and has a pungent smell. Sodium bifluoride has a number of applications in industry.

Tetrafluoroberyllate or orthofluoroberyllateBeF2−
4
is an anion containing beryllium and fluorine. The ion has a tetrahedral shape, the same size and outer electron structure as sulfate. Therefore, many compounds that contain sulfate, have equivalents with tetrafluoroberyllate. Examples of these are the Langbeinites, and Tutton's salts.

Ammonium pertechnetate isotopic compound

Ammonium pertechnetate is a chemical compound with the formula NH4TcO4. It is the ammonium salt of pertechnetic acid. The most common form uses 99Tc. The compound is readily soluble in aqueous solutions forming ammonium and pertechnetate ions.

Azanide is the negatively-charged compound NH2-. It is isoelectric with water and fluoronium. Because it is the conjugate base of ammonia, it is formed by the self-ionization of ammonia.

References

  1. "Ammonium Fluoride". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  2. "Ammonium Fluoride". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  3. A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.
  4. Brill, R.; Zaromb, S. "Mixed Crystals of Ice and Ammonium Fluoride". Nature. 173 (4398): 316–317. doi:10.1038/173316a0.
  5. Aigueperse, Jean; Paul Mollard; Didier Devilliers; Marius Chemla; Robert Faron; Renée Romano; Jean Pierre Cuer (2005). "Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic". In Ullmann. Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_307.