Titanium tetrafluoride

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Titanium(IV) fluoride
IUPAC name
Titanium(IV) fluoride
Other names
Titanium tetrafluoride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.106 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 232-017-6
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/4FH.Ti/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4 Yes check.svgY
  • InChI=1/4FH.Ti/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4
  • F[Ti](F)(F)F
Molar mass 123.861 g/mol
Appearancewhite powder
Density 2.798 g/cm3
Melting point 377 °C (711 °F; 650 K)
Boiling point sublimes
GHS labelling: [1]
GHS-pictogram-acid.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
H302, H312, H314, H332
P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P312, P301+P330+P331, P302+P352, P303+P361+P353, P304+P312, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P312, P322, P330, P363, P405
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Related compounds
Other anions
Titanium(IV) bromide
Titanium(IV) chloride
Titanium(IV) iodide
Related compounds
Titanium(III) fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Titanium(IV) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula Ti F4. It is a white hygroscopic solid. In contrast to the other tetrahalides of titanium, it adopts a polymeric structure. [2] In common with the other tetrahalides, TiF4 is a strong Lewis acid.


Preparation and structure

The traditional method involves treatment of titanium tetrachloride with excess hydrogen fluoride: [3]

TiCl4 + 4 HF → TiF4 + 4 HCl

Purification is by sublimation, which involves reversible cracking of the polymeric structure. [4] X-ray crystallography reveals that the Ti centres are octahedral, but conjoined in an unusual columnar structure. [5]


Structure of the [Ti4F18] dianion CSD CIF AJAZAN.jpg
Structure of the [Ti4F18] dianion

TiF4 forms adducts with many ligands. One example is the complex cis-TiF4(CH3CN)2, which is formed by treatment with acetonitrile. [6] It is also used as a reagent in the preparation of organofluorine compounds. [7] With fluoride, the cluster [Ti4F18]2- forms. It has an admantane-like Ti4F6 core. [8]

Related to its Lewis acidity, TiF4 forms a variety of hexafluorides also called hexafluorotitanates. Hexafluorotitanic acid has been used commercially to clean metal surfaces. These salts are stable at pH<4 in the presence of hydrogen fluoride, otherwise they hydrolyze to give oxides. [3]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanic acid</span> Chemical compound

Titanic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of the elements titanium, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula [TiOx(OH)4−2x]n. Various simple titanic acids have been claimed, mainly in the older literature. No crystallographic and little spectroscopic support exists for these materials. Some older literature including Brauer's Handbook refers to TiO2 as titanic acid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula to the word.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intercalation (chemistry)</span> Reversible insertion of an ion into a material with layered structure

In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule into layered materials with layered structures. Examples are found in graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manganese(III) fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Manganese(III) fluoride (also known as Manganese trifluoride) is the inorganic compound with the formula MnF3. This red/purplish solid is useful for converting hydrocarbons into fluorocarbons, i.e., it is a fluorination agent. It forms a hydrate and many derivatives.

Selenic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula H2SeO4. It is an oxoacid of selenium, and its structure is more accurately described as O2Se(OH)2. It is a colorless compound. Although it has few uses, one of its salts, sodium selenate is used in the production of glass and animal feeds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hafnium tetrachloride</span> Chemical compound

Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5. This colourless, viscous liquid is a strong Lewis acid and a component of the superacid fluoroantimonic acid, formed upon mixing liquid HF with liquid SbF5 in 1:1 ratio. It is notable for its strong Lewis acidity and the ability to react with almost all known compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hydrogen fluoride</span> Chemical compound

Hydrogen fluoride (fluorane) is an inorganic compound with chemical formula HF. It is a very poisonous, colorless gas or liquid that dissolves in water to yield an aqueous solution termed hydrofluoric acid. It is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often in the form of hydrofluoric acid, and is an important feedstock in the preparation of many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). HF is also widely used in the petrochemical industry as a component of superacids. Due to strong and extensive hydrogen bonding, it boils at near room temperature, much higher than other hydrogen halides.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanocene dichloride</span> Chemical compound

Titanocene dichloride is the organotitanium compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2TiCl2, commonly abbreviated as Cp2TiCl2. This metallocene is a common reagent in organometallic and organic synthesis. It exists as a bright red solid that slowly hydrolyzes in air. It shows antitumour activity and was the first non-platinum complex to undergo clinical trials as a chemotherapy drug.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tetrafluoroborate</span> Anion

Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF
. This tetrahedral species is isoelectronic with tetrafluoroberyllate (BeF2−
), tetrafluoromethane (CF4), and tetrafluoroammonium (NF+
) and is valence isoelectronic with many stable and important species including the perchlorate anion, ClO
, which is used in similar ways in the laboratory. It arises by the reaction of fluoride salts with the Lewis acid BF3, treatment of tetrafluoroboric acid with base, or by treatment of boric acid with hydrofluoric acid.

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.

Zirconium(IV) bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula ZrBr4. This colourless solid is the principal precursor to other Zr–Br compounds.

Antimony trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF3. Sometimes called Swarts' reagent, is one of two principal fluorides of antimony, the other being SbF5. It appears as a white solid. As well as some industrial applications, it is used as a reagent in inorganic and organofluorine chemistry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Organotitanium chemistry</span>

Organotitanium chemistry is the science of organotitanium compounds describing their physical properties, synthesis, and reactions. Organotitanium compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon-titanium chemical bonds. They are reagents in organic chemistry and are involved in major industrial processes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fluoroboric acid</span> Chemical compound

Fluoroboric acid or tetrafluoroboric acid is an inorganic compound with the simplified chemical formula H+[BF4]. Unlike other strong acids like H2SO4 or HClO4, the pure tetrafluoroboric acid does not exist. The term "fluoroboric acid" refers to a range of chemical compounds, depending on the solvent. The H+ in the simplified formula of fluoroboric acid represents the solvated proton. The solvent can be any suitable Lewis base. For instance, if the solvent is water, fluoroboric acid can be represented by the formula [H3O]+[BF4], although more realistically, several water molecules solvate the proton: [H(H2O)n]+[BF4]. The ethyl ether solvate is also commercially available, where the fluoroboric acid can be represented by the formula [H( 2O)n]+[BF4], where n is most likely 2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metal halides</span>

Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. Some, such as sodium chloride are ionic, while others are covalently bonded. A few metal halides are discrete molecules, such as uranium hexafluoride, but most adopt polymeric structures, such as palladium chloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Platinum tetrafluoride</span> Chemical compound

Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula PtF
. In the solid state, the compound features platinum(IV) in octahedral coordination geometry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Difluorophosphate</span> Chemical compound

Difluorophosphate or difluorodioxophosphate or phosphorodifluoridate is an anion with formula PO2F−2. It has a single negative charge and resembles perchlorate and monofluorosulfonate in shape and compounds. These ions are isoelectronic, along with tetrafluoroaluminate, phosphate, orthosilicate, and sulfate. It forms a series of compounds. The ion is toxic to mammals as it causes blockage to iodine uptake in the thyroid. However it is degraded in the body over several hours.

The +4 oxidation state dominates titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also numerous. Commonly, titanium adopts an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but tetrahedral TiCl4 is a notable exception. Because of its high oxidation state, titanium(IV) compounds exhibit a high degree of covalent bonding.

Protactinium compounds are compounds containing the element protactinium. These compounds usually have protactinium in the +5 oxidation state, although these compounds can also exist in the +2, +3 and +4 oxidation states.


  1. "Titanium tetrafluoride". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  2. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN   978-0-08-037941-8.
  3. 1 2 Meshri, Dayal T. (2000). "Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic, Titanium". Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. doi:10.1002/0471238961.2009200113051908.a01. ISBN   9780471484943.
  4. Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 200.
  5. Bialowons, H.; Mueller, M.; Mueller, B.G. (1995). "Titantetrafluorid - Eine Überraschend einfache Kolumnarstruktur". Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie. 621 (7): 1227–1231. doi:10.1002/zaac.19956210720.
  6. Nikiforov, Grigory B.; Roesky, Herbert W.; Koley, Debasis (2014). "A survey of Titanium Fluoride Complexes, Their Preparation, Reactivity, and Applications". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 258–259: 16–57. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.09.002.
  7. Blizzard, T. A.; Sikervar, Vikas (2014). "Titanium(IV) Fluoride". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rn00123.pub2. ISBN   9780470842898.
  8. Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny (2009). "Poly[perfluorotitanate(IV)] Salts of [H3O]+, Cs+, [Me4N]+, and [Ph4P]+ and about the Existence of an Isolated [Ti2F9] Anion in the Solid State". Inorganic Chemistry. 48 (14): 6918–6923. doi:10.1021/ic9009338. PMID   19545141.