Titanium disilicide

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Titanium disilicide [1]
IUPAC name
Titanium disilicide
Other names
Titanium silicide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.719 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 234-904-3
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/2Si.Ti
  • [Si]=[Ti]=[Si]
Molar mass 104.038 g/mol
Appearanceblack orthorhombic crystals
Density 4.02 g/cm3
Melting point 1,470 °C (2,680 °F; 1,740 K)
Solubility soluble in HF
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
H228, H315, H319, H335
P210, P240, P241, P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P370+P378, P403+P233, P405, P501
Safety data sheet (SDS)
Related compounds
Other cations
Zirconium disilicide
Hafnium disilicide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Titanium disilicide (Ti Si2) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and silicon.



Titanium disilicide can be obtained from the reaction between titanium or titanium hydride with silicon. [2]

Ti + 2 Si → TiSi2

It is also possible to prepare it aluminothermically by the ignition of aluminium powder, sulfur, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide or potassium hexafluorotitanate, K2TiF6, by electrolysis of a melt of potassium hexafluorotitanate and titanium dioxide, or by reaction of titanium with silicon tetrachloride. [2]

Another method is the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with silane, dichlorosilane or silicon. [3]

TiCl4 + 2 SiH4 → TiSi2 + 4 HCl + 2 H2
TiCl4 + 2 SiH2Cl2 + 2 H2 → TiSi2 + 8 HCl
TiCl4 + 3 Si → TiSi2 + SiCl4


Titanium silicide is used in the semiconductor industry. It is typically grown by means of salicide technology over silicon and polysilicon lines to reduce the sheet resistance of local transistors connections. In the microelectronic industry it is typically used in the C54 phase.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium</span> Chemical element, symbol Ti and atomic number 22

Titanium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins). Two broad classes of Ziegler–Natta catalysts are employed, distinguished by their solubility:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silane</span> Chemical compound (SiH4)

Silane (Silicane) is an inorganic compound with chemical formula SiH4. It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive, pungent smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid. Silane is of practical interest as a precursor to elemental silicon. Silane with alkyl groups are effective water repellents for mineral surfaces such as concrete and masonry. Silanes with both organic and inorganic attachments are used as coupling agents. Silanes are commonly used to apply coatings to surfaces or as an adhesion promoter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trichlorosilane</span> Chemical compound

Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HCl3Si. It is a colourless, volatile liquid. Purified trichlorosilane is the principal precursor to ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry. In water, it rapidly decomposes to produce a siloxane polymer while giving off hydrochloric acid. Because of its reactivity and wide availability, it is frequently used in the synthesis of silicon-containing organic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silicon tetrachloride</span> Chemical compound

Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4. It is a colorless volatile liquid that fumes in air. It is used to produce high purity silicon and silica for commercial applications. It is a part of the chlorosilane family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium tetrachloride</span> Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as “tickle” or “tickle 4”, as a phonetic representation of the symbols of its molecular formula.

In inorganic chemistry, chlorosilanes are a group of reactive, chlorine-containing chemical compounds, related to silane and used in many chemical processes. Each such chemical has at least one silicon-chlorine bond. Trichlorosilane is produced on the largest scale. The parent chlorosilane is silicon tetrachloride.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silicide</span> Chemical compound that combines silicon and a more electropositive element

A silicide is a type of chemical compound that combines silicon and a usually more electropositive element.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hafnium tetrachloride</span> Chemical compound

Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Phosphoryl chloride</span> Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tetraethyl orthosilicate</span> Chemical compound

Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), ethyl silicate is the organic chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4. TEOS is a colorless liquid. It degrades in water. TEOS is the ethyl ester of orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4. It is the most prevalent alkoxide of silicon.

The chloride process is used to separate titanium from its ores. The goal of the process is to win high purity titanium dioxide from ores such as ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2). The strategy exploits the volatility of TiCl4, which is readily purified and converted to the dioxide. Millions of tons of TiO2 are produced annually by this process, mainly for use as white pigments. The chloride process has largely displaced the older sulfate process, which relies on hot sulfuric acid to extract iron and other impurities from ores..

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Silicon tetrabromide</span> Chemical compound

Silicon tetrabromide, also known as tetrabromosilane, is the inorganic compound with the formula SiBr4. This colorless liquid has a suffocating odor due to its tendency to hydrolyze with release of hydrogen bromide. The general properties of silicon tetrabromide closely resemble those of the more commonly used silicon tetrachloride.

In chemistry, redistribution usually refers to the exchange of anionic ligands bonded to metal and metalloid centers. The conversion does not involve redox, in contrast to disproportionation reactions. Some useful redistribution reactions are conducted at higher temperatures; upon cooling the mixture, the product mixture is kinetically frozen and the individual products can be separated. In cases where redistribution is rapid at mild temperatures, the reaction is less useful synthetically but still important mechanistically.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium(IV) nitrate</span> Chemical compound

Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. It is an unusual example of a volatile binary transition metal nitrate. Ill defined species called titanium nitrate are produced upon dissolution of titanium or its oxides in nitric acid.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Titanium butoxide</span> Chemical compound

Titanium butoxide is a metal alkoxide with the formula Ti(OBu)4 (Bu = –CH2CH2CH2CH3). It is a colorless odorless liquid, although aged samples are yellowish with a weak alcohol-like odor. It is soluble in many organic solvents. Decomposition in water is not hazardous, and therefore titanium butoxide is often used as a liquid source of titanium dioxide, which allows deposition of TiO2 coatings of various shapes and sizes down to the nanoscale.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hexachlorodisiloxane</span> Chemical compound

Hexachlorodisiloxane is a chemical compound composed of chlorine, silicon, and oxygen. Structurally, it is the symmetrical ether of two trichlorosilyl groups, and can be synthesized via high-temperature oxidation of silicon tetrachloride:


  1. Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 4–91, ISBN   0-8493-0594-2
  2. 1 2 Brauer, Georg (1978). Handbuch der Präparativen Anorganischen Chemie, Band II. Baudler, Marianne (3rd ed.). Stuttgart: Enke. p. 1389. ISBN   978-3-432-87813-3. OCLC   310719490.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1999). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition : Principles, Technology, and Applications (2nd ed.). Norwich, N.Y.: Noyes Publications. p. 331. ISBN   1-59124-030-1. OCLC   49708617.