Titanium disilicide

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Titanium disilicide [1]
IUPAC name
Titanium disilicide
Other names
Titanium silicide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.719 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 234-904-3
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/2Si.Ti
  • [Si]=[Ti]=[Si]
Molar mass 104.038 g/mol
Appearanceblack orthorhombic crystals
Density 4.02 g/cm3
Melting point 1,470 °C (2,680 °F; 1,740 K)
Solubility soluble in HF
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
GHS Signal word Warning
H228, H315, H319, H335
P210, P240, P241, P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P370+378, P403+233, P405, P501
Related compounds
Other cations
Zirconium disilicide
Hafnium disilicide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Titanium disilicide (Ti Si2) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and silicon.



Titanium disilicide can be obtained from the reaction between titanium or titanium hydride with silicon. [2]

Ti + 2 Si → TiSi2

It is also possible to prepare it aluminothermically by the ignition of aluminium powder, sulfur, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide or potassium hexafluorotitanate, K2TiF6, by electrolysis of a melt of potassium hexafluorotitanate and titanium dioxide, or by reaction of titanium with silicon tetrachloride. [2]

Another method is the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with silane, dichlorosilane or silicon. [3]

TiCl4 + 2 SiH4 → TiSi2 + 4 HCl + 2 H2
TiCl4 + 2 SiH2Cl2 + 2 H2 → TiSi2 + 8 HCl
TiCl4 + 3 Si → TiSi2 + SiCl4


Titanium silicide is used in the semiconductor industry. It is typically grown by means of salicide technology over silicon and polysilicon lines to reduce the sheet resistance of local transistors connections. In the microelectronic industry it is typically used in the C54 phase.

Related Research Articles

Silicon Chemical element, symbol Si and atomic number 14

Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium are below it. It is relatively unreactive. Because of its high chemical affinity for oxygen, it was not until 1823 that Jöns Jakob Berzelius was first able to prepare it and characterize it in pure form. Its oxides form a family of anions known as silicates. Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron. Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in space in cosmic dusts, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. More than 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, after oxygen. Silicon is a natural element, and when not previously present has a residence time of about 400 years in the world's oceans.

Silane is a molecule of one central silicon atom with four attachments. The attachments can be any combination of organic or inorganic groups. An example is silane tetrahydride an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride. It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid. Silane is of practical interest as a precursor to elemental silicon. Silane with alkyl groups are effective water repellents for mineral surfaces such as concrete and masonry. Silanes with both organic and inorganic attachments are used as coupling agents.

Trichlorosilane Chemical compound

Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HCl3Si. It is a colourless, volatile liquid. Purified trichlorosilane is the principal precursor to ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry. In water, it rapidly decomposes to produce a silicone polymer while giving off hydrochloric acid. Because of its reactivity and wide availability, it is frequently used in the synthesis of silicon-containing organic compounds.

Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4. It is a colourless volatile liquid that fumes in air. It is used to produce high purity silicon and silica for commercial applications.

Titanium tetrachloride Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms spectacular opaque clouds of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrated hydrogen chloride. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula (TiCl4) to the word.

Magnesium silicide Chemical compound

Magnesium silicide, Mg2Si, is an inorganic compound consisting of magnesium and silicon. As-grown Mg2Si usually forms black crystals; they are semiconductors with n-type conductivity and have potential applications in thermoelectric generators.

Chlorosilanes are a group of reactive, chlorine-containing chemical compounds, related to silane and used in many chemical processes. Each such chemical has at least one silicon-chlorine bond. Trichlorosilane is produced on the largest scale. The parent chlorosilane is Silicon tetrachloride.

A silicide is type of a chemical compound that combines silicon and a (usually) more electropositive elements.

Hafnium tetrachloride Chemical compound

Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.

Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides, using carbon as the reducing agent. These chemical reactions are usually conducted at temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius. Such processes are applied for production of the elemental forms of many elements. The ability of metals to participate in carbothermic reactions can be predicted from Ellingham diagrams.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

The term salicide refers to a technology used in the microelectronics industry used to form electrical contacts between the semiconductor device and the supporting interconnect structure. The salicide process involves the reaction of a metal thin film with silicon in the active regions of the device, ultimately forming a metal silicide contact through a series of annealing and/or etch processes. The term "salicide" is a compaction of the phrase self-aligned silicide. The description "self-aligned" suggests that the contact formation does not require photolithography patterning processes, as opposed to a non-aligned technology such as polycide.

Calcium disilicide Chemical compound

Calcium disilicide (CaSi2) is an inorganic compound, a silicide of calcium. It is a whitish or dark grey to black solid matter with melting point 1033 °C. It is insoluble in water, but may decompose when subjected to moisture, evolving hydrogen and producing calcium hydroxide. It decomposes in hot water, and is flammable and may ignite spontaneously in air.

Tetraethyl orthosilicate Chemical compound

Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane and abbreviated TEOS, is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4. TEOS is a colorless liquid that degrades in water. TEOS is the ethyl ester of orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4. It is the most prevalent alkoxide of silicon.

Hexachlorodisilane Chemical compound

Hexachlorodisilane is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Si2Cl6. It is a colourless liquid that fumes in moist air. It has specialty applications in as a reagent and as a volatile precursor to silicon metal.

Titanium nitrate Chemical compound

Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. It is an unusual example of a volatile binary transition metal nitrate. Ill defined species called titanium nitrate are produced upon dissolution of titanium or its oxides in nitric acid.

Titanium butoxide Chemical compound

Titanium butoxide is an metal-organic chemical compound with the formula Ti(OBu)4 (Bu = CH2CH2CH2CH3). It is a colorless odorless liquid, although aged samples are yellowish with a weak alcohol-like odor. It is soluble in many organic solvents. It hydrolyzes to give titanium dioxide, which allows deposition of TiO2 coatings of various shapes and sizes down to the nanoscale.

Nickel silicide Chemical compound

Nickel silicides include several intermetallic compounds of nickel and silicon. Nickel silicides are important in microelectronics as they form at junctions of nickel and silicon. Additionally thin layers of nickel silicides may have application in imparting surface resistance to nickel alloys.

Neptunium silicide is a binary inorganic compound of neptunium and silicon with the chemical formula NpSi
. The compound forms crystals and does not dissolve in water.


  1. Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 4–91, ISBN   0-8493-0594-2
  2. 1 2 Brauer, Georg (1978). Handbuch der Präparativen Anorganischen Chemie, Band II. Baudler, Marianne (3rd ed.). Stuttgart: Enke. p. 1389. ISBN   978-3-432-87813-3. OCLC   310719490.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1999). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition : Principles, Technology, and Applications (2nd ed.). Norwich, N.Y.: Noyes Publications. p. 331. ISBN   1-59124-030-1. OCLC   49708617.