Titanium disilicide

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Titanium disilicide [1]
IUPAC name
Titanium disilicide
Other names
Titanium silicide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.719 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 234-904-3
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/2Si.Ti
  • [Si]=[Ti]=[Si]
Molar mass 104.038 g/mol
Appearanceblack orthorhombic crystals
Density 4.02 g/cm3
Melting point 1,470 °C (2,680 °F; 1,740 K)
Solubility soluble in HF
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-flamme.svg GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
GHS Signal word Warning
H228, H315, H319, H335
P210, P240, P241, P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P370+378, P403+233, P405, P501
Related compounds
Other cations
Zirconium disilicide
Hafnium disilicide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Titanium disilicide (Ti Si2) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and silicon.



Titanium disilicide can be obtained from the reaction between titanium or titanium hydride with silicon. [2]

Ti + 2 Si → TiSi2

It is also possible to prepare it aluminothermically by the ignition of aluminium powder, sulfur, silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide or potassium hexafluorotitanate, K2TiF6, by electrolysis of a melt of potassium hexafluorotitanate and titanium dioxide, or by reaction of titanium with silicon tetrachloride. [2]

Another method is the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with silane, dichlorosilane or silicon. [3]

TiCl4 + 2 SiH4 → TiSi2 + 4 HCl + 2 H2
TiCl4 + 2 SiH2Cl2 + 2 H2 → TiSi2 + 8 HCl
TiCl4 + 3 Si → TiSi2 + SiCl4


Titanium silicide is used in the semiconductor industry. It is typically grown by means of salicide technology over silicon and polysilicon lines to reduce the sheet resistance of local transistors connections. In the microelectronic industry it is typically used in the C54 phase.

Related Research Articles

Titanium Chemical element with atomic number 22

Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Its atomic weight is 47.867 measured in daltons. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins). Two broad classes of Ziegler–Natta catalysts are employed, distinguished by their solubility:

Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride. It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid. Silane is of practical interest as a precursor to elemental silicon.

Trichlorosilane Chemical compound

Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HCl3Si. It is a colourless, volatile liquid. Purified trichlorosilane is the principal precursor to ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry. In water, it rapidly decomposes to produce a silicone polymer while giving off hydrochloric acid. Because of its reactivity and wide availability, it is frequently used in the synthesis of silicon-containing organic compounds.

Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4. It is a colourless volatile liquid that fumes in air. It is used to produce high purity silicon and silica for commercial applications.

Titanium tetrachloride Inorganic chemical compound

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms spectacular opaque clouds of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hydrated hydrogen chloride. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula (TiCl4) to the word.

Chlorosilanes are a group of reactive, chlorine-containing chemical compounds, related to silane and used in many chemical processes. Each such chemical has at least one silicon-chlorine bond. Trichlorosilane is produced on the largest scale. The parent chlorosilane is Silicon tetrachloride.

A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.

Hafnium tetrachloride Chemical compound

Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.

Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides, using carbon as the reducing agent. These chemical reactions are usually conducted at temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius. Such processes are applied for production of the elemental forms of many elements. The ability of metals to participate in carbothermic reactions can be predicted from Ellingham diagrams.

Phosphoryl chloride Chemical compound

Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula POCl3. It hydrolyses in moist air releasing phosphoric acid and fumes of hydrogen chloride. It is manufactured industrially on a large scale from phosphorus trichloride and oxygen or phosphorus pentoxide. It is mainly used to make phosphate esters such as tricresyl phosphate.

McMurry reaction

The McMurry reaction is an organic reaction in which two ketone or aldehyde groups are coupled to form an alkene using a titanium chloride compound such as titanium(III) chloride and a reducing agent. The reaction is named after its co-discoverer, John E. McMurry. The McMurry reaction originally involved the use of a mixture TiCl3 and LiAlH4, which produces the active reagents. Related species have been developed involving the combination of TiCl3 or TiCl4 with various other reducing agents, including potassium, zinc, and magnesium. This reaction is related to the Pinacol coupling reaction which also proceeds by reductive coupling of carbonyl compounds.

Titanium isopropoxide Chemical compound

Titanium isopropoxide, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4. This alkoxide of titanium(IV) is used in organic synthesis and materials science. It is a diamagnetic tetrahedral molecule. Titanium isopropoxide is a component of the Sharpless epoxidation, a method for the synthesis of chiral epoxides.

Tetraethyl orthosilicate Chemical compound

Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane and abbreviated TEOS, is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4. TEOS is a colorless liquid that degrades in water. TEOS is the ethyl ester of orthosilicic acid, Si(OH)4. It is the most prevalent alkoxide of silicon.

The chloride process is used to separate titanium from its ores. In this process, the feedstock is treated at 1000 °C with carbon and chlorine gas, giving titanium tetrachloride. Typical is the conversion starting from the ore ilmenite:

Oxophilicity is the tendency of certain chemical compounds to form oxides by hydrolysis or abstraction of an oxygen atom from another molecule, often from organic compounds. The term is often used to describe metal centers, commonly the early transition metals such as titanium, niobium, and tungsten. Oxophilic metals are classified as "hard" within the HSAB theory. Many main group compounds are also oxophilic, such as derivatives of aluminium, silicon, and phosphorus(III). The handling of oxophilic compounds often requires air-free techniques.

In chemistry, redistribution usually refers to the exchange of anionic ligands bonded to metal and metalloid centers. The conversion does not involve redox, in contrast to disproportionation reactions. Some useful redistribution reactions are conducted at higher temperatures; upon cooling the mixture, the product mixture is kinetically frozen and the individual products can be separated. In cases where redistribution is rapid at mild temperatures, the reaction is less useful synthetically but still important mechanistically.

Titanium nitrate Chemical compound

Titanium nitrate is the inorganic compound with formula Ti(NO3)4. It is a colorless, diamagnetic solid that sublimes readily. It is an unusual example of a volatile binary transition metal nitrate. Ill defined species called titanium nitrate are produced upon dissolution of titanium or its oxides in nitric acid.

Titanium butoxide Chemical compound

Titanium butoxide is an metal-organic chemical compound with the formula Ti(OBu)4 (Bu = CH2CH2CH2CH3). It is a colorless odorless liquid, although aged samples are yellowish with a weak alcohol-like odor. It is soluble in many organic solvents. It hydrolyzes to give titanium dioxide, which allows deposition of TiO2 coatings of various shapes and sizes down to the nanoscale.


  1. Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 4–91, ISBN   0-8493-0594-2 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. 1 2 Brauer, Georg (1978). Handbuch der Präparativen Anorganischen Chemie, Band II. Baudler, Marianne (3rd ed.). Stuttgart: Enke. p. 1389. ISBN   978-3-432-87813-3. OCLC   310719490.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1999). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition : Principles, Technology, and Applications (2nd ed.). Norwich, N.Y.: Noyes Publications. p. 331. ISBN   1-59124-030-1. OCLC   49708617.