Abbreviated structure of titanium(IV) ethoxide tetramer. The ethoxide ligands are represented by O's. The terminal ethoxide ligands are designated by Oa, the doubly bridging ligands by Ob, and the triply bridging ligands by Oc.
| IUPAC name
Ethyl titanate, tetraethyl titanate
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|54 °C (129 °F; 327 K)[ original research? ]
|150–152 °C (302–306 °F; 423–425 K) (@10 mmHg)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Titanium ethoxide is a chemical compound with the formula Ti4(OCH2CH3)16. It is a commercially available colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents but hydrolyzes readily. Its structure is more complex than suggested by its empirical formula. Like other alkoxides of titanium(IV) and zirconium(IV), it finds used in organic synthesis and materials science.
Titanium ethoxide is prepared by treating titanium tetrachloride with ethanol in the presence of an amine:
The purity of titanium ethoxide is commonly assayed by proton NMR spectroscopy. Ti(OEt)4 1H NMR (90 MHz, chloroform-d, ppm): 4.36 (quartet, 8H, CH2), 1.27 (triplet, 12H, CH3).
Both Ti(OEt)4 exist mainly as tetramers with an octahedral coordination environment around the metal centers. There are two types of titanium centers, depending on the number of terminal vs bridging alkoxide ligands. Zr(OEt)4 is structurally similar.The virtual symmetry of the M4O16 core structure for the tetramer structures of these compounds is C2h.
Like the ethoxide, titanium methoxide Ti(OMe)4 exists as a tetramer with each of the TiIV metal centers having an octahedral coordination environment.
With bulky alkyl groups, Ti(OiPr)4 in contrast exist as a monomer with a tetrahedral environment around the Ti center. This lower degree of coordination to the metal center is attributed to the steric bulk of the iPr groups versus the n-alkyl groups, this serves to prevent bridging interactions between the metal centers.
Zirconium ethoxide can be prepared in a manner similar but not identical to the titanium compound:
A more common synthesis for zirconium ethoxide is to treat zirconium tetrachloride with the desired alcohol and ammonia:
Zirconium ethoxide can also be prepared with zirconocene dichloride:
Zr(OnPr)4 also adopts the titanium ethoxide structure.
Hydrolysis of Ti alkoxides can be used to deposit TiO2:
The course of the hydrolysis is affected by the presence of base or acid catalysts for the hydrolysis. Generally acid-catalysis yields a sol where the polymer chains are randomly oriented and linear. In the base-mediated case bushy clusters or crosslinked networks are produced, these structures can trap solvent and reaction byproducts and form a gel coating.Intermediates in the hydrolysis have been crystallized. They feature interior oxides in addition to the ethoxide on the exterior of the clusters.
The high reactivity of titanium ethoxide toward water is exploited in its use in condensation reactions.
A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins). Two broad classes of Ziegler–Natta catalysts are employed, distinguished by their solubility:
A transition metal alkoxide complex is a kind of coordination complex containing one or more alkoxide ligands, written as RO−, where R is the organic substituent. Metal alkoxides are used for coatings and as catalysts.
Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as “tickle” or “tickle 4”, as a phonetic representation of the symbols of its molecular formula.
Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4. This colourless solid is the precursor to most hafnium organometallic compounds. It has a variety of highly specialized applications, mainly in materials science and as a catalyst.
Titanocene dichloride is the organotitanium compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2TiCl2, commonly abbreviated as Cp2TiCl2. This metallocene is a common reagent in organometallic and organic synthesis. It exists as a bright red solid that slowly hydrolyzes in air. It shows antitumour activity and was the first non-platinum complex to undergo clinical trials as a chemotherapy drug.
Zirconium(IV) chloride, also known as zirconium tetrachloride, is an inorganic compound frequently used as a precursor to other compounds of zirconium. This white high-melting solid hydrolyzes rapidly in humid air.
Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.
Borohydride refers to the anion [BH4]−, which is also called tetrahydridoborate, and its salts. Borohydride or hydroborate is also the term used for compounds containing [BH4−nXn]−, where n is an integer from 0 to 3, for example cyanoborohydride or cyanotrihydroborate [BH3(CN)]− and triethylborohydride or triethylhydroborate [BH(CH2CH3)3]−. Borohydrides find wide use as reducing agents in organic synthesis. The most important borohydrides are lithium borohydride and sodium borohydride, but other salts are well known. Tetrahydroborates are also of academic and industrial interest in inorganic chemistry.
Organotitanium chemistry is the science of organotitanium compounds describing their physical properties, synthesis, and reactions. Organotitanium compounds in organometallic chemistry contain carbon-titanium chemical bonds. They are reagents in organic chemistry and are involved in major industrial processes.
Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT), also known as Titanium(IV) dimethylamide, is a chemical compound. The compound is generally classified as a metalorganic species, meaning that its properties are strongly influenced by the organic ligands but the compound lacks metal-carbon bonds. It is used in chemical vapor deposition to prepare titanium nitride (TiN) surfaces and in atomic layer deposition as a titanium dioxide precursor. The prefix "tetrakis" refers the presence of four of the same ligand, in this case dimethylamides.
Organozirconium chemistry is the science of exploring the properties, structure, and reactivity of organozirconium compounds, which are organometallic compounds containing chemical bonds between carbon and zirconium. Organozirconium compounds have been widely studied, in part because they are useful catalysts in Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Sodium cyclopentadienide is an organosodium compound with the formula C5H5Na. The compound is often abbreviated as NaCp, where Cp− is the cyclopentadienide anion. Sodium cyclopentadienide is a colorless solid, although samples often are pink owing to traces of oxidized impurities.
Niobium(IV) chloride, also known as niobium tetrachloride, is the chemical compound of formula NbCl4. This compound exists as dark violet crystals, is highly sensitive to air and moisture, and disproportiates into niobium(III) chloride and niobium(V) chloride when heated.
Organovanadium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon (C) to vanadium (V) chemical bond. Organovanadium compounds find only minor use as reagents in organic synthesis but are significant for polymer chemistry as catalysts.
In organometallic chemistry, bent metallocenes are a subset of metallocenes. In bent metallocenes, the ring systems coordinated to the metal are not parallel, but are tilted at an angle. A common example of a bent metallocene is Cp2TiCl2. Several reagents and much research is based on bent metallocenes.
Niobium(V) ethoxide is an metalorganic compound with formula Nb2(OC2H5)10. It is a colorless liquid that dissolves in some organic solvents but hydrolyzes readily. It is mainly used for the sol-gel processing of materials containing niobium oxides.
Tantalum(V) ethoxide is a metalorganic compound with formula Ta2(OC2H5)10, often abbreviated as Ta2(OEt)10. It is a colorless solid that dissolves in some organic solvents but hydrolyzes readily. It is used to prepare films of tantalum(V) oxide.
(Cyclopentadienyl)titanium trichloride is an organotitanium compound with the formula (C5H5)TiCl3. It is a moisture sensitive orange solid. The compound adopts a piano stool geometry.
Hafnocene dichloride is the organohafnium compound with the formula (C5H5)2HfCl2. It is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in some organic solvents. The lighter homologues zirconacene dichloride and titanocene dichloride have received much more attention. While hafnocene is only of academic interest, some more soluble derivatives are precatalysts for olefin polymerization. Moreso than the Zr analogue, this compound is highly resistant to reduction.
Zirconium(III) bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZrBr3.