Titanium tetrabromide

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Titanium tetrabromide
IUPAC name
Titanium(IV) bromide
Other names
Titanium tetrabromide
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.259 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 232-185-0
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/4BrH.Ti/h4*1H;/q;;;;+4/p-4
  • [Ti](Br)(Br)(Br)Br
Molar mass 367.483 g/mol
Appearancebrown crystals
Density 3.25 g/cm3
Melting point 39 °C (102 °F; 312 K)
Boiling point 230 °C (446 °F; 503 K)
Solubility in other solventschlorocarbons, benzene
cubic, Pa3, Z = 8
0 D
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
GHS labelling: [1]
P260, P264, P280, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P363, P405
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Titanium(IV) chloride
Titanium(IV) fluoride
Titanium(IV) iodide
Related compounds
Titanium(III) bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Titanium tetrabromide is the chemical compound with the formula TiBr4. It is the most volatile transition metal bromide. The properties of TiBr4 are an average of TiCl4 and TiI4. Some key properties of these four-coordinated Ti(IV) species are their high Lewis acidity and their high solubility in nonpolar organic solvents. TiBr4 is diamagnetic, reflecting the d0 configuration of the metal centre. [2]


Preparation and structure

This four-coordinated complex adopts a tetrahedral geometry. It can be prepared via several methods: (i) from the elements, (ii) via the reaction of TiO2 with carbon and bromine (see Kroll process), and (iii) by treatment of TiCl4 with HBr.


Titanium tetrabromide forms adducts such as TiBr4(THF)2 and [TiBr5]. [3] With bulky donor ligands, such as 2-methylpyridine (2-Mepy), five-coordinated adducts form. TiBr4(2-MePy) is trigonal bipyramidal with the pyridine in the equatorial plane. [4]

TiBr4 has been used as a Lewis-acid catalyst in organic synthesis. [5]

The tetrabromide and tetrachlorides of titanium react to give a statistical mixture of the mixed tetrahalides, TiBr4−xClx (x = 0-4). The mechanism of this redistribution reaction is uncertain. One proposed pathway invokes the intermediacy of dimers. [6]


TiBr4 hydrolyzes rapidly, potentially dangerously, to release hydrogen bromide, otherwise known as hydrobromic acid.

Related Research Articles

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Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4. It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide. TiCl4 is a volatile liquid. Upon contact with humid air, it forms thick clouds of titanium dioxide and hydrochloric acid, a reaction that was formerly exploited for use in smoke machines. It is sometimes referred to as "tickle" or "tickle 4" due to the phonetic resemblance of its molecular formula to the word.

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  1. "Titanium tetrabromide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  2. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN   0-12-352651-5.
  3. Colin S. Creaser & J. Alan Creighton (1975). "Pentachloro- and pentabromo-titanate(IV) ions". J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (14): 1402–1405. doi:10.1039/DT9750001402.
  4. Hensen, K.; Lemke, A.; Bolte, M. (2000). "Tetrabromo(2-methylpyridine-N)-titanate(IV)". Acta Crystallographica . C56 (12): e565–e566. doi:10.1107/S0108270100015407.
  5. B. Patterson, S. Marumoto & S. D. Rychnovsky (2003). "Titanium(IV)-Promoted Mukaiyama Aldol-Prins Cyclizations". Org. Lett. 5 (17): 3163–3166. doi:10.1021/ol035303n. PMID   12917007.
  6. S. P. Webb & M. S. Gordon (1999). "Intermolecular Self-Interactions of the Titanium Tetrahalides TiX4 (X = F, Cl, Br)". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121 (11): 2552–2560. doi:10.1021/ja983339i.