Sulfur hexafluoride

Last updated
Sulfur hexafluoride
Skeletal formula of sulfur hexafluoride with assorted dimensions Sulfur-hexafluoride-2D-dimensions.png
Skeletal formula of sulfur hexafluoride with assorted dimensions
Spacefill model of sulfur hexafluoride Sulfur-hexafluoride-3D-vdW.png
Spacefill model of sulfur hexafluoride
IUPAC name
Sulfur hexafluoride
Systematic IUPAC name
Hexafluoro-λ6-sulfane [1]
Other names

Sulfur(VI) fluoride

Sulfuric fluoride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.018.050
EC Number 219-854-2
MeSH Sulfur+hexafluoride
PubChem CID
RTECS number WS4900000
UN number 1080
Molar mass 146.06 g/mol
AppearanceColorless gas
Odor odorless [2]
Density 6.17 g/L
Melting point −64 °C; −83 °F; 209 K
Boiling point −50.8 °C (−59.4 °F; 222.3 K)
0.003% (25 °C) [2]
Solubility slightly soluble in water, very soluble in ethanol, hexane, benzene
Vapor pressure 2.9 MPa (at 21.1 °C)
−44.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Orthorhombic, oP28
Orthogonal hexagonal
0 D
292 J·mol−1·K−1 [3]
−1209 kJ·mol−1 [3]
V08DA05 ( WHO )
License data
Safety data sheet External MSDS
S-phrases (outdated) S38
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeSulfur hexafluoride
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1000 ppm (6000 mg/m3) [2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1000 ppm (6000 mg/m3) [2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D. [2]
Related compounds
Related sulfur fluorides
Disulfur decafluoride

Sulfur tetrafluoride

Related compounds
Selenium hexafluoride

Sulfuryl fluoride
Tellurium hexafluoride

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
X mark.svgN  verify  (what is  Yes check.svgYX mark.svgN ?)
Infobox references

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator. [4] SF
has an octahedral geometry, consisting of six fluorine atoms attached to a central sulfur atom. It is a hypervalent molecule. Typical for a nonpolar gas, it is poorly soluble in water but quite soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It is generally transported as a liquefied compressed gas. It has a density of 6.12 g/L at sea level conditions, considerably higher than the density of air (1.225 g/L).

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

Greenhouse gas gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range

A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases.

Insulator (electricity) material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely, and which therefore does not conduct an electric current

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors.


Synthesis and reactions

can be prepared from the elements through exposure of S
to F
. This was also the method used by the discoverers Henri Moissan and Paul Lebeau in 1901. Some other sulfur fluorides are cogenerated, but these are removed by heating the mixture to disproportionate any S
(which is highly toxic) and then scrubbing the product with NaOH to destroy remaining SF

Sulfur Chemical element with atomic number 16

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.

Fluorine Chemical element with atomic number 9

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with almost all other elements, except for helium and neon.

Henri Moissan French chemist

Ferdinand Frédéric Henri Moissan was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. Moissan was one of the original members of the International Atomic Weights Committee.

Alternatively, utilizing bromine, sulfur hexafluoride can be synthesized from SF4 and CoF3 at lower temperatures (e.g. 100 °C), as follows: [5]

Bromine Chemical element with atomic number 35

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine. Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jérôme Balard, its name was derived from the Ancient Greek βρῶμος ("stench"), referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell.

2CoF3 + SF4 + (Br2) → SF6 + 2CoF2 + (Br2)

There is virtually no reaction chemistry for SF
. A main contribution to the inertness of SF6 is the steric hindrance of the sulfur atom, whereas its heavier group 16 counterparts, such as SeF6 are more reactive than SF6 as a result of less steric hindrance (See hydrolysis example). [6] It does not react with molten sodium below its boiling point, [7] but reacts exothermically with lithium.

Selenium hexafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SeF6. It is a colourless gas described as having a "repulsive" odor. It is not widely encountered and has no commercial applications.

Sodium Chemical element with atomic number 11

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, and must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans.

Lithium Chemical element with atomic number 3

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.


More than 10,000 tons of SF
are produced per year, most of which (over 8,000 tons) is used as a gaseous dielectric medium in the electrical industry. [8] Other main uses include an inert gas for the casting of magnesium, and as an inert filling for insulated glazing windows.

A dielectric gas, or insulating gas, is a dielectric material in gaseous state. Its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges. Dielectric gases are used as electrical insulators in high voltage applications, e.g. transformers, circuit breakers, switchgear, radar waveguides, etc.

An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases often do not react with many substances, and were historically referred to as the inert gases. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions.

Magnesium Chemical element with atomic number 12

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Dielectric medium

is used in the electrical industry as a gaseous dielectric medium for high-voltage circuit breakers, switchgear, and other electrical equipment, often replacing oil filled circuit breakers (OCBs) that can contain harmful PCBs. SF
gas under pressure is used as an insulator in gas insulated switchgear (GIS) because it has a much higher dielectric strength than air or dry nitrogen. The high dielectric strength is a result of the gas's high electronegativity and density. This property makes it possible to significantly reduce the size of electrical gear. This makes GIS more suitable for certain purposes such as indoor placement, as opposed to air-insulated electrical gear, which takes up considerably more room. Gas-insulated electrical gear is also more resistant to the effects of pollution and climate, as well as being more reliable in long-term operation because of its controlled operating environment. Exposure to an arc chemically breaks down SF
though most of the decomposition products tend to quickly re-form SF
, a process termed "self-healing". [9] Arcing or corona can produce disulfur decafluoride (S
), a highly toxic gas, with toxicity similar to phosgene. S
was considered a potential chemical warfare agent in World War II because it does not produce lacrimation or skin irritation, thus providing little warning of exposure.

Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker

Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers protect electrical power stations and distribution systems by interrupting electric currents, when tripped by a protective relay. Instead of oil, air, or a vacuum, a sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas to cool and quench the arc on opening a circuit. Advantages over other media include lower operating noise and no emission of hot gases, and relatively low maintenance. Developed in the 1950s and onward, SF6 circuit breakers are widely used in electrical grids at transmission voltages up to 800 kV, as generator circuit breakers, and in distribution systems at voltages up to 35 kV.


In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.

Electricity Physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. Later on, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others.

is also commonly encountered as a high voltage dielectric in the high voltage supplies of particle accelerators, such as Van de Graaff generators and Pelletrons and high voltage transmission electron microscopes.

Alternatives include fluoroketone. [10] [11]

Medical use

is used to provide a tamponade or plug of a retinal hole in retinal detachment repair operations [12] in the form of a gas bubble. It is inert in the vitreous chamber [13] and initially doubles its volume in 36 hours before being absorbed in the blood in 10–14 days. [14]

is used as a contrast agent for ultrasound imaging. Sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles are administered in solution through injection into a peripheral vein. These microbubbles enhance the visibility of blood vessels to ultrasound. This application has been used to examine the vascularity of tumours. [15] It remains visible in the blood for 3 to 8 minutes, and is expired by the lungs. [16]

Tracer compound

Sulfur hexafluoride was the tracer gas used in the first roadway air dispersion model calibration; this research program was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and conducted in Sunnyvale, California on U.S. Highway 101. [17] Gaseous SF
is used as a tracer gas in short-term experiments of ventilation efficiency in buildings and indoor enclosures, and for determining infiltration rates. Two major factors recommend its use: its concentration can be measured with satisfactory accuracy at very low concentrations, and the Earth's atmosphere has a negligible concentration of SF

Sulfur hexafluoride was used as a non-toxic test gas in an experiment at St. John's Wood tube station in London, United Kingdom on 25 March 2007. [18] The gas was released throughout the station, and monitored as it drifted around. The purpose of the experiment, which had been announced earlier in March by the Secretary of State for Transport Douglas Alexander, was to investigate how toxic gas might spread throughout London Underground stations and buildings during a terrorist attack.

Sulfur hexafluoride is also routinely used as a tracer gas in laboratory fume hood containment testing. The gas is used in the final stage of ASHRAE 110 fume hood qualification. A plume of gas is generated inside of the fume hood and a battery of tests are performed while a gas analyzer arranged outside of the hood samples for SF6 to verify the containment properties of the fume hood.

It has been used successfully as a tracer in oceanography to study diapycnal mixing and air-sea gas exchange.

Other uses

Greenhouse gas

Mauna Loa sulfur hexafluoride timeseries. Mauna Loa Sulfur Hexafluoride.png
Mauna Loa sulfur hexafluoride timeseries.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, SF
is the most potent greenhouse gas that it has evaluated, with a global warming potential of 23,900 [25] times that of CO
when compared over a 100-year period. Measurements of SF6 show that its global average mixing ratio has increased by about 0.2 ppt (parts per trillion) per year to over 9 ppt as of February 2018. [26] [27] Sulfur hexafluoride is also extremely long-lived, is inert in the troposphere and stratosphere and has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 800–3200 years. [28] SF
is very stable (for countries reporting their emissions to the UNFCCC, a GWP of 23,900 for SF
was suggested at the third Conference of the Parties: GWP used in Kyoto protocol). [29] Average global SF6 concentrations increased by about seven percent per year during the 1980s and 1990s, mostly as the result of its use in the magnesium production industry, and by electrical utilities and electronics manufacturers. Given the small amounts of SF6 released compared to carbon dioxide, its overall contribution to global warming is estimated to be less than 0.2 percent. [30]

In Europe, SF
falls under the F-Gas directive which ban or control its use for several applications. Since 1 January 2006, SF
is banned as a tracer gas and in all applications except high-voltage switchgear. [31] It was reported in 2013 that a three-year effort by the United States Department of Energy to identify and fix leaks at its laboratories in the United States such as the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, where the gas is used as a high voltage insulator, had been productive, cutting annual leaks by 35,000 pounds. This was done by comparing purchases with inventory, assuming the difference was leaked, then locating and fixing the leaks. [4]

Physiological effects and precautions

Like xenon, sulfur hexafluoride is a non-toxic gas, yet by displacing oxygen in the lungs, it also carries the risk of asphyxia if too much is inhaled. [32] Being more dense than air, if a substantial quantity of gas is released it will settle in low-lying areas and present a significant risk of asphyxiation if the area is entered. This is particularly relevant to its use as an insulator in electrical equipment where workers may be in trenches or pits below equipment containing SF
. [33]

As with all gases, the density of SF
affects the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract, thus changing drastically the vocal sound qualities, or timbre, of those who inhale it. It does not affect the vibrations of the vocal folds. The density of sulfur hexafluoride is relatively high at room temperature and pressure due to the gas's large molar mass. Unlike helium, which has a molar mass of about 4 grams/mol and gives the voice a childish and a "chipmunk like" quality, SF
has a molar mass of about 146 g/mol, and the speed of sound through the gas is about 134 m/s at room temperature, giving the voice a "demonic" quality when SF
is inhaled. [34] [35] For comparison, the molar mass of air, which is about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen, is approximately 30 g/mol which leads to a speed of sound of 343 m/s. [36]

Sulfur hexafluoride has an anesthetic potency slightly lower than nitrous oxide. [37]

Other properties

See also

Related Research Articles

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon. The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane. Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants, and solvents. Because CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, the manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, and they are being replaced with other products such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and R-134a.


Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed. Compounds with the prefix perfluoro- are hydrocarbons, including those with heteroatoms, wherein all C-H bonds have been replaced by C-F bonds. Fluorocarbons can be perfluoroalkanes, fluoroalkenes and fluoroalkynes and perfluoroaromatic compounds. Fluorocarbons and their derivatives are used as fluoropolymers, refrigerants, solvents, and anesthetics.

Circuit breaker electrical switch designed to open when exposed to excess current

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset to resume normal operation.

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900). It has the formula CH2FCF3 and a boiling point of −26.3 °C (−15.34 °F) at atmospheric pressure. R-134a cylinders are colored light blue. Attempts at phasing out its use as a refrigerant with substances that have lower global warming potential, such as HFO-1234yf, are underway.


A trigatron is a type of triggerable spark gap switch designed for high current and high voltage,. It has very simple construction and in many cases is the lowest cost high energy switching option. It may operate in open air, it may be sealed, or it may be filled with a dielectric gas other than air or a liquid dielectric. The dielectric gas may be pressurized, or a liquid dielectric may be substituted to further extend the operating voltage. Trigatrons may be rated for repeated use, or they may be single-shot, destroyed in a single use.

Octafluorocyclobutane chemical compound

Octafluorocyclobutane, or perfluorocyclobutane, C4F8, is an organofluorine compound which enjoys several niche applications. It is related to cyclobutane by replacement of all C–H bonds with C–F bonds. Octafluorocyclobutane is produced by the dimerization of tetrafluoroethylene and the reductive coupling of 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane.

Tellurium hexafluoride is a chemical compound of tellurium and fluorine with the chemical formula TeF6. It is a colorless, highly toxic gas with an extremely unpleasant smell.

Isidor Sauers (born 1948) is an Austrian-born American who is a physicist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. He is a specialist on the properties of Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), with an important patent and over 60 peer-reviewed academic papers.

Disulfur decafluoride chemical compound

Disulfur decafluoride (S2F10) is a chemical compound discovered in 1934 by Denbigh and Whytlaw-Gray. Each sulfur atom of the S2F10 molecule is octahedral, and surrounded by five fluorine atoms. S2F10 is highly toxic, with toxicity four times that of phosgene. It was considered a potential chemical warfare pulmonary agent in World War II because it does not produce lacrimation or skin irritation, thus providing little warning of exposure. It is produced by the electrical decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—an essentially inert insulator used in high voltage systems such as transmission lines, substations and switchgear. S2F10 is also made during the production of SF6, but is distilled out. It is a colorless liquid with a burnt match smell similar to sulfur dioxide.

A hexafluoride is a chemical compound with the general formula QXnF6, QXnF6m−, or QXnF6m+. Many molecules fit this formula. An important hexafluoride is hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6), which is a byproduct of the mining of phosphate rock. In the nuclear industry, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is an important intermediate in the purification of this element.

A liquid dielectric is a dielectric material in liquid state. Its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges. Dielectric liquids are used as electrical insulators in high voltage applications, e.g. transformers, capacitors, high voltage cables, and switchgear. Its function is to provide electrical insulation, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant.

Sulfur chloride pentafluoride chemical compound

Sulfur chloride pentafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF
. It exists as a colorless gas at room temperature and is highly toxic, like most inorganic compounds containing the pentafluorosulfide (SF5) functional group. The compound adopts an octahedral geometry with C
symmetry. Sulfur chloride pentafluoride is the only commercially available reagent for adding the SF
group to organic compounds.

Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are man-made gases that can stay in the atmosphere for centuries and contribute to a global greenhouse effect. There are four types: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

Hybrid switchgear module

A hybrid switchgear is one that combines the components of traditional air-insulated switchgear (AIS) and SF6 gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) technologies. It is characterized by a compact and modular design, which encompasses several different functions in one module.

Perfluoromethylcyclohexane chemical compound

Perfluoromethylcyclohexane is a fluorocarbon liquid—a perfluorinated derivative of the hydrocarbon methylcyclohexane. It is chemically and biologically inert.


  1. "Sulfur Hexafluoride - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0576". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. 1 2 Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN   978-0-618-94690-7.
  4. 1 2 Michael Wines (June 13, 2013). "Department of Energy's Crusade Against Leaks of a Potent Greenhouse Gas Yields Results". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  5. Winter R.W., Pugh J.R. and Cook P.W. (Jan. 9-14, 2011). “SF5Cl, SF4 and SF6: Their Bromine−facilitated Production & a New Preparation Method for SF5Br”. 20th Winter Fluorine Conference.
  6. Duward Shriver; Peter Atkins (2010). Inorganic Chemistry. W. H. Freeman. p. 409. ISBN   978-1429252553.
  7. Raj, Gurdeep (2010). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: Volume II (12th ed.). GOEL Publishing House. p. 160. Extract of page 160
  8. Constantine T. Dervos; Panayota Vassilou (2012). Sulfur Hexafluoride: Global Environmental Effects and Toxic Byproduct Formation. Taylor and Francis.
  9. Jakob, Fredi; Perjanik, Nicholas. "Sulfur Hexafluoride, A Unique Dielectric" (PDF). Analytical ChemTech International, Inc. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04.
  10. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2017-10-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. Kieffel, Yannick; Biquez, Francois (1 June 2015). "SF<inf>6</inf> alternative development for high voltage switchgears". SF6 alternative development for high voltage switchgears. pp. 379–383. doi:10.1109/ICACACT.2014.7223577. ISBN   978-1-4799-7352-1. Archived from the original on 27 September 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017 via IEEE Xplore.
  12. Daniel A. Brinton; C. P. Wilkinson (2009). Retinal detachment: principles and practice. Oxford University Press. p. 183. ISBN   978-0199716210.
  13. Gholam A. Peyman, M.D., Stephen A. Meffert, M.D., Mandi D. Conway (2007). Vitreoretinal Surgical Techniques. Informa Healthcare. p. 157. ISBN   978-1841846262.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Hilton, G. F.; Das, T.; Majji, A. B.; Jalali, S. (1996). "Pneumatic retinopexy: Principles and practice". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 44 (3): 131–143. PMID   9018990.
  15. Lassau N, Chami L, Benatsou B, Peronneau P, Roche A (December 2007). "Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) with quantification of tumor perfusion: a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the early effects of antiangiogenic treatment". Eur Radiol. 17 (Suppl 6): F89–98. doi:10.1007/s10406-007-0233-6. PMID   18376462.
  16. "SonoVue, INN-sulphur hexafluoride - Annex I - Summary of Product Characteristics" (PDF). European Medicines Agency . Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  17. C Michael Hogan (September 10, 2011). "Air pollution line source". Encyclopedia of Earth. Archived from the original on 29 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  18. "'Poison gas' test on Underground". BBC News. 25 March 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  19. Hughes, T.G.; Smith, R.B. & Kiely, D.H. (1983). "Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System for Underwater Applications". Journal of Energy. 7 (2): 128–133. doi:10.2514/3.62644.
  20. Y. Tzeng & T.H. Lin (September 1987). "Dry Etching of Silicon Materials in SF
    Based Plasmas"
    (PDF). Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  21. Scott C. Bartos (February 2002). "Update on EPA's manesium industry partnership for climate protection" (PDF). US Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  22. Dick Olsher (October 26, 2009). "Advances in loudspeaker technology - A 50 year prospective". The Absolute Sound. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  23. Stanley Holmes (September 24, 2006). "Nike Goes For The Green". Bloomberg Business Week Magazine. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
  24. Edmond I Eger MD; et al. (September 10, 1968). "Anesthetic Potencies of Sulfur Hexafluoride, Carbon Tetrafluoride, Chloroform and Ethrane in Dogs: Correlation with the Hydrate and Lipid Theories of Anesthetic Action". Anesthesiology - The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
  25. "2.10.2 Direct Global Warming Potentials". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  26. "Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species SF6 Mixing Ratio". US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  27. . Retrieved 11 April 2018.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. A. R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, A. A. Turnipseed, R. F. Warren; Solomon; Turnipseed; Warren (8 January 1993). "Atmospheric Lifetimes of Long-Lived Halogenated Species". Science. 259 (5092): 194–199. Bibcode:1993Sci...259..194R. doi:10.1126/science.259.5092.194. PMID   17790983. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2013.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. "6.12.2 Direct GWPs". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  30. "SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride". PowerPlantCCS Blog. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  31. "Climate: MEPs give F-gas bill a 'green boost'". 13 October 2005. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  32. "Sulfur Hexafluoride". Hazardous Substances Data Bank. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  33. "Guide to the safe use of SF6 in gas". UNIPEDE/EURELECTRIC. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
  34. "Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems". NIST. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  35. "Have You Ever Wanted to Sound Like a Demon? Here's How". Science Explorer. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  36. "Physics in Speech". University of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  37. Adriani, John (1962). The Chemistry and Physics of Anesthesia. Second Edition. Illinois: Thomas Books. p. 319. ISBN   9780398000110.
  38. 1 2 "Sulfur hexafluoride". Air Liquide Gas Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.

Further reading