Seal of the Federal Bureau of Prisons
Flag of the Federal Bureau of Prisons
|Headquarters|| Federal Home Loan Bank Board Building |
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Motto||Correctional Excellence. Respect. Integrity.|
|Annual budget||7.3 billion USD (FY 2016)|
|Parent agency||Department of Justice|
The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is the federal agency under the Department of Justice responsible for the care, custody, and control of incarcerated individuals. The Bureau has five security levels:
Employees are trained at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) in Glynco, Georgia.
The Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) serves as an interagency law enforcement training body for 91 United States government federal law enforcement agencies. The stated mission of FLETC is to "...train those who protect our homeland". It also provides training to state, local, campus, tribal, and international law enforcement agencies. Through the Rural Policing Institute (RPI) and the Office of State and Local Training, it provides tuition-free and low-cost training to state, local, campus and tribal law enforcement agencies.
The Bureau is currently headed by director Kathleen Hawk Sawyer.
Kathleen Hawk Sawyer was the first female director of the United States Federal Bureau of Prisons. She served as director between 1992 and 2003. On August 19, 2019, Attorney General William Barr re-appointed her as director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
The federal prison system had existed for more than 30 years before the Bureau was established. Although its wardens functioned almost autonomously, the Superintendent of Prisons, a Department of Justice official in Washington, was nominally in charge of federal prisons,starting with the passage of the "Three Prisons Act' in 1891, which authorized the first three federal penitentiaries: USP Leavenworth, USP Atlanta, and USP McNeil Island with limited supervision by the Department of Justice.
The United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates that is located in northeast Kansas. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. It also includes a satellite federal prison camp (FPC) for minimum-security male offenders.
The United States Penitentiary, Atlanta is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Atlanta, Georgia. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has a detention center for pretrial and holdover inmates, and a satellite prison camp for minimum-security male inmates.
The McNeil Island Corrections Center (MICC) was a prison in the northwest United States, operated by the Washington State Department of Corrections. It was on McNeil Island in Puget Sound in unincorporated Pierce County, near Steilacoom, Washington.
Until 1907, prison matters were handled by the Justice Department General Agent, with responsibility for Justice Department accounts, oversight of internal operations, and certain criminal investigations, as well as prison operations. In 1907, the General Agent was abolished, and its functions were distributed between three new offices: the Division of Accounts (which evolved into the Justice Management Division); the Office of the Chief Examiner (which evolved in 1908 into the Bureau of Investigation, and in the early 1920s into the Federal Bureau of Investigation); and the Office of the Superintendent of Prisons and Prisoners, later called the Superintendent of Prisons (which evolved in 1930 into the Bureau of Prisons).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.
The Bureau of Prisons was established within the Department of Justice in 1930, by the United States Congress,and was charged with the "management and regulation of all Federal penal and correctional institutions." This responsibility covered the administration of the 11 federal prisons in operation at the time. By the end of 1930, the system had expanded to 14 institutions with 13,000 inmates, and a decade later in 1940, the system had 24 institutions with 24,360 incarcerated.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 435 representatives and 100 senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house, sit and vote in congressional committees, and introduce legislation.
The state of Alaska assumed jurisdiction over its corrections on January 3, 1959, using the Alaska Department of Corrections. Prior to statehood, the BOP had correctional jurisdiction over Alaska.
As a result of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 and subsequent legislation which pushed for longer sentences, less judicial discretion, and more harsh sentences for drug-related offenses, the federal inmate population doubled in the 1980s and again in the 1990s. The population increase has decelerated since the early 2000s but the federal inmate population continues to grow.
The National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997 transferred responsibility for adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws to the Bureau.
The current director of the Bureau of Prisons is Kathleen Hawk Sawyer.
As of 2015, 63% of Bureau employees are white, 22% are black, 12% are Hispanic, 2% are Asian and 1% identify as another race. 73% are male.There is roughly one corrections officer for every 10 prisoners.
All Bureau employees undergo 200 hours of formal training in their first year of employment and an additional 120 hours of training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) in Glynco, Georgia.
The Bureau has five security levels:
Some units have small, adjacent, minimum-security "satellite camps". Twenty-eight institutions hold female inmates. As of 2010 [update] about 15% of Bureau inmates are in facilities operated by third parties, mostly private companies, whilst others are in local and state facilities. Some are in privately operated Residential Reentry Centers (RRC) (or Community Corrections Centers). The Bureau uses contract facilities to manage its own prison population because they are "especially useful" for housing low-security, specialized groups of people, such as sentenced criminal aliens.
As of 2018 [update] , the Bureau was responsible for approximately 183,000 inmates, in 122 facilities. This is a substantial decrease from 2013. 25% of inmates were white, 27% were Hispanic and 38% were black; 93% were male. 75% of inmates were between the ages of 26 and 50.
As of 1999 [update] , 14,000 prisoners were in 16 federal prisons in the state of Texas.
As of 2010 [update] , almost 8,000 felons in 90 facilities, sentenced under D.C. laws, made up about 6% of the total Bureau population.
As of October 2016, 46% of inmates were incarcerated for drugs offences.
The BOP receives all prisoner transfer treaty inmates sent from foreign countries, even if their crimes would have been, if committed in the United States, tried in state, DC, or territorial courts.
As of 2015, 27 Bureau facilities house women. The Bureau has a Mothers and Infants Nurturing Together (MINT) program for women who enter the system as inmates while pregnant. The Bureau pays for abortion only if it is life-threatening for the woman, but it may allow for abortions in non-life-threatening cases if non-BOP funds are used.
In 2017, four Democratic Senators, including Kamala Harris, introduced a bill explicitly requiring tampons and pads to be free for female prisoners. In August 2017, the Bureau introduced a memorandum requiring free tampons and pads. The previous 1996 memorandum stated "products for female hygiene needs shall be available" without requiring them to be free of charge.
A 2018 review by the Evaluation and Inspections Division, Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Justice, found the Bureau's programming and policy decisions did not fully consider the needs of female inmates in the areas of trauma treatment programming, pregnancy programming, and feminine hygiene.
As of 2010 [update] typically juveniles sent into Bureau custody are between 17 and 20, must have been under 18 at the time of the offense and had been convicted of sex-related offenses. This is because the most severe crimes committed on Indian Reservations are usually taken to federal court. According to the Bureau, most of the juveniles it receives had committed violent crimes and had "an unfavorable history of responding to interventions and preventive measures in the community." As of that year most federal juvenile inmates were from Arizona, Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, and the District of Columbia (in no particular order).
The Bureau contracts with facilities that house juvenile offenders. Title 18 U.S.C. 5039 specifies that "No juvenile committed...may be placed or retained in an adult jail or correctional institution in which he has regular contact with adults incarcerated because they have been convicted of a crime or are awaiting trial on criminal charges." The definition includes secure facilities and community-based correctional facilities. Federally sentenced juveniles may be moved into federal adult facilities at certain points; juveniles sentenced as adults are moved into adult facilities when they turn 18. Juveniles sentenced as juveniles are moved into adult facilities when they turn 21.
The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 reinstituted the federal death penalty.On July 19, 1993, the federal government designated the United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute in Indiana as the site where male federal inmates sentenced to death would be held and where federal inmates of both genders would be executed. The Federal Medical Center, Carswell in Texas holds the female inmates who have been sentenced to death.
Some male death row inmates are instead held at ADX Florence and one in USMCFP Springfield.
As of November 2019, 62 inmates are slated for death row.
Parole was abolished for federal inmates in 1987 and inmates must serve at least 85% of their original sentence before being considered for good-behavior release.[ citation needed ] In addition, the current, extremely strict, sentencing guidelines were adopted in response to rising crime rates in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially for drug-related offenses. US violent crime has dropped since then, but some analysts and activists believe that other factors played a much more significant part in falling crime rates. In addition, they hold that strict federal sentencing guidelines have led to overcrowding and needlessly incarcerated thousands of non-violent drug offenders who would be better served by drug treatment programs.
The yearly increases in the federal inmate population have raised concerns from criminal justice experts and even among DOJ officials themselves. Michael Horowitz, the DOJ Inspector General, wrote a memorandum concerning this issue:
|“||First, despite a slight decrease in the total number of federal inmates in fiscal year (FY) 2014, the Department projects that the costs of the federal prison system will continue to increase in the years ahead, consuming a large share of the Department’s budget.||”|
A federal prison is operated under the jurisdiction of a federal government as opposed to a state or provincial body. Federal prisons are used for convicts who violated federal law, inmates considered dangerous (Brazil), or those sentenced to longer terms of imprisonment (Canada). Not all federated countries have a legal concept of "federal prison".
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, and the highest per-capita incarceration rate. In 2018 in the US, there were 698 people incarcerated per 100,000, this includes the incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults. In 2016, 2.2 million Americans have been incarcerated, which means for every 100,000 there are 655 that are currently inmates. Prison, parole, and probation operations generate an $81 billion annual cost to U.S. taxpayers, while police and court costs, bail bond fees, and prison phone fees generate another $100 billion in costs that are paid by individuals.
The Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury is a low-security United States federal prison for male and female inmates in Danbury, Connecticut. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has an adjacent satellite prison camp that houses minimum-security female offenders.
The United States Penitentiary, Atwater is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in California. The institution also includes a minimum-security satellite camp. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice.
The United States Penitentiary, Coleman I and II are high-security United States federal prisons for male inmates in Florida. It is part of the Coleman Federal Correctional Complex and is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. USP Coleman 1 was opened in 2001 and in 2004 Clark Construction completed a major 555,000 square-foot additional component for USP Coleman II.
The United States Penitentiary, Marion is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Illinois. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has an adjacent satellite prison camp that houses minimum security male offenders.
The United States Penitentiary, Florence High is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Colorado. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. USP Florence High is part of the Florence Federal Correctional Complex, which is situated on 49 acres (20 ha) of land and houses different facilities with varying degrees of security. It is named "Florence High" in order to differentiate it from the United States Penitentiary, Florence ADX, the federal supermax prison located in the same complex.
The Federal Correctional Complex, Terre Haute is a United States federal prison complex for male inmates in Terre Haute, Indiana. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice, and consists of two facilities:
The United States Penitentiary, Hazelton is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in West Virginia. The high-security facility has earned the nickname "Misery Mountain" by the inmates who are incarcerated there. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility has a satellite prison camp for minimum-security male offenders.
The Department of Public Safety and Corrections (DPS&C) is a state agency of Louisiana, headquartered in Baton Rouge. The agency comprises two major areas: Public Safety Services and Corrections Services. The Secretary, who is appointed by the Governor, serves as the department's chief executive officer. The Corrections Services Deputy Secretary, Undersecretary, and Assistant Secretaries for the Office of Adult Services and the Office of Youth Development report directly to the Secretary. Headquarters Administration consists of centralized Divisions that support the management and operations of the adult and juvenile institutions, adult and juvenile probation and parole district offices, and all other services provided by the department.
The United States Penitentiary, Pollock is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Louisiana. It is part of the Pollock Federal Correctional Complex and operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has an adjacent satellite prison camp for minimum-security male offenders.
Federal Correctional Institution, El Reno is a medium-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Oklahoma. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice. The facility also has an adjacent satellite camp for minimum-security male offenders.
The Federal Correctional Complex, Coleman is a United States federal prison complex for male inmates in unincorporated Sumter County, Florida, near Wildwood. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), a division of the United States Department of Justice.
The United States Penitentiary, Victorville, CA is a high-security United States federal prison for male inmates in California. It is part of the Victorville Federal Correctional Complex and is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice.
The Federal Correctional Complex, Victorville is a United States federal prison complex located in the Victor Valley of the Mojave Desert, in San Bernardino County, southern California. It is on part of the former George Air Force Base (1941−1992) near Victorville, approximately 85 miles (137 km) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. Abby Lee Miller served eight months of a 366-day sentence there.
The Federal Correctional Complex, Lompoc is a United States federal prison complex for male inmates in California. It is run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice, and consists of two facilities:
Incarceration in Canada is one of the main forms of punishment, rehabilitation, or both for the commission of an indictable offense and other offenses.
Federal Prison Camp, Florence , also known as Florence ADMAX Satellite Prison Camp, is a minimum-security United States federal prison for male inmates in Florence, Colorado. It is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, a division of the United States Department of Justice.
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