Anne of Kiev

Last updated

Anne of Kiev
Queen consort of the Franks
Tenure1051–1060
Bornc. 1030
Died5 September c.1075
Spouse Henry I of France
Ralph IV of Valois
Issue
more...
Philip I of France
Hugh I of Vermandois
Dynasty Rurik
Father Yaroslav the Wise
Mother Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden
Signature Anne de Kiev autograph 2.jpg

Anne of Kiev (c. 1030 – 1075) was a Rus' princess who became queen of France in 1051 upon marrying King Henry I. She ruled the kingdom as regent during the minority of their son Philip I from Henry's death in 1060 until her controversial marriage to Count Ralph IV of Valois. Anne founded the Abbey of St. Vincent at Senlis.

Contents

Childhood

Art historian Victor Lazarev presumed that the left-most figure on this fresco at Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev, represented Anne. According to historian Robert-Henri Bautier, it depicts a brother of hers. Corki Jaroslawa.jpeg
Art historian Victor Lazarev presumed that the left-most figure on this fresco at Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev, represented Anne. According to historian Robert-Henri Bautier, it depicts a brother of hers.

Anne was a daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev and Prince of Novgorod, and his second wife Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden. [1] Her exact birthdate is unknown; Philippe Delorme has suggested 1027, [1] while Andrew Gregorovich has proposed 1032, citing a mention in a Kievan chronicle of the birth of a daughter to Yaroslav in that year.

Anne's exact place in the birth order of her siblings is unknown, although she was almost certainly the youngest daughter. [1] Little is known about Anne's childhood or education. It is assumed that she was literate, at least enough to write her name, because her signature in Cyrillic exists on a document from 1061. [1] Delorme has pointed out that Yaroslav founded a number of schools in his kingdom and suggests that education was highly valued in his family, leading him to propose a significant level of education for Anne. [1] Gregorovich has suggested that Anne learned French in preparation for her marriage to King Henry I of France. [2]

Engagement

The negotiations for Anne's marriage to the 18-years-older King Henry took place in the late 1040s, after the death of Henry's first wife, Matilda of Frisia, and their only child. Due to the pressing need for an heir, and the Church's growing disapproval of consanguineous marriages, it became necessary for Henry to seek an unrelated bride. [1] [3] The Kievan Rus' were not unknown to the French. Yaroslav had married several of his children to Western rulers in an attempt to avoid the influence of the Byzantine Empire. [1]

In the autumn of 1049 or the spring of 1050, Henry sent Bishop Gauthier of Meaux, Goscelin of Chauny, and other unnamed advisors to Yaroslav's court. [1] It is possible that there were two diplomatic missions to the Rus at this time, with Roger of Chalons also present. [1] [2] [4] No record of the marriage negotiations or the dowry arrangements survives, although Anne reportedly left Kiev with "rich presents". [1] Gregorovich claims that part of the wealth she brought to France included the jacinth jewel that Abbot Suger later mounted on a reliquary of St. Denis. [2] [5] Anne left Kiev in the summer or fall of 1050 and traveled to Reims. [1]

Queenship

Anne married Henry on 19 May 1051, during the feast of Pentecost. [1] [6] Henry was nearly twenty years older than Anne. [1] Her wedding on 19 May 1051 followed the installation of Lietbert as bishop of Cambrai, and Anne was crowned immediately following the marriage ceremony, making her the first French queen to celebrate her coronation in Reims Cathedral. [1]

Anne and Henry were married for nine years and had three sons: Philip, Robert (who died young), and Hugh. [1] Anne is often credited with introducing the Greek name "Philip" to royal families of Western Europe, as she bestowed it on her first son; she might have imported this Greek name from her Eastern Orthodox culture. [4] There may also have been a daughter, Emma, perhaps born in 1055; it is unknown if she married or when she died. [1]

As queen, Anne would have had the privilege of participating in the royal council, but there are almost no records of her doing so. [1] In one 1058 charter, Henry granted a privilege to a couple of villages associated with the monastery of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés doing so "with the approval of my wife Anne and our children Philip, Robert, and Hugh." Anne seems to have possessed territories in the same region under the terms of her dower. [1]

In 1059, King Henry began feuding with the Church over issues related to Gregorian Reform. [1] During this time, Pope Nicholas II sent Queen Anne a letter counselling her to follow her conscience to right wrongs and intervene against oppressive violence, while also encouraging her to advocate with her husband so that he might govern with moderation. [1] According to Delorme, some historians have interpreted this letter from the Pope as being indicative of Anne's conversion to Roman Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy. [7]

Regency

Upon Henry's death on 4 August 1060, Philip succeeded to the throne. [1] [8] Count Baldwin V of Flanders, the husband of Henry's sister Adela, was assigned to be Philip's guardian. [1] Anne may still have played an active role in government at that point; an act from 1060 shows her name following Philip's, and her name appears in four times as many charters as Baldwin's. [1] She also hired Philip's tutor, who was known at court by a Greek title. [1]

Queen Anne's only existing signature dates from this period, inscribed on a document issued at Soissons for the abbot of Saint Crepin le Grand  [ de ], now held in the National Library of France. [9] Under the symbol of the king, Anne added a cross and eight letters in Cyrillic, probably meaning "Anna Reina". [1] Evidence for Anne's role in government, however, disappears in 1061, around the time she remarried. [1] Her second husband was Count Ralph IV of Valois. [8] This marriage was controversial because of the couple's affinity, as Ralph was Henry's cousin, and bigamy, since Ralph was still technically married to his second wife, Haquenez. [1] Ralph was excommunicated for these transgressions. [1] King Philip's advisers may have encouraged him to turn away from his mother, perhaps mistrusting Ralph's influence. [8] Ralph began referring to himself as the king's stepfather in the late 1060s. [1] He died in 1074, leaving Anne a widow once again. [1]

A charter signed by Anne and her son Philip in 1063 DiplomaPhilip I AbbeyStCrepin.png
A charter signed by Anne and her son Philip in 1063

In 1062, Anne gave a significant amount of money to restore a dilapidated chapel at Senlis, originally dedicated to St. Vincent of Saragossa, bequeathing lands and income to the new establishment so that the organization could sustain itself. [1] She also wrote a letter explaining her reasons for dedicating the monastery. The letter betrays an adherence to Greek Orthodox theology. For instance, the term "Mary, mother of God" is used rather than the more common "Our Lady", perhaps referring to the Eastern concept of the Theotokos. Some scholars believe that Anne did not write this letter herself. [1]

Death and aftermath

The exact date of Anne's death is unknown. Delorme believes that she died on 5 September—the day commemorated at Senlis—in 1075 (the year of her last signed document), while others have proposed 1080. [1] [2] A terminus ante quem is provided by a 1089 document of Philip I, which indicates that Anne had died by then. [2]

In 1682, the Jesuit antiquary Claude-Francois Menestrier announced that he had discovered Anne's tomb at the Cistercian Abbey of Villiers. [1] The discovery was subsequently disputed, as Villiers was not built until the thirteenth century, although it's possible Anne's remains had been moved there at some point following her death. Whatever monument may have been there was destroyed in the French Revolution. [1]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, increased diplomatic contact between France and Russia led to a revived antiquarian interest in Anne, and a number of short biographies were published. [1] In the 20th century, Anne became a symbol of Ukrainian nationalism. [1] On the other hand, a film was produced in the Soviet Union, "Yaroslavna, the Queen of France" (1978), which was not related with "Ukrainian nationalism" in any way. An opera called "Anna Yaroslavna", written by Antin Rudnytsky, was first performed at Carnegie Hall in 1969. In 1998, the Ukrainian government issued a postage stamp in her honor. [2] In 2005, the Government of Ukraine sponsored the construction of a bronze statue of Queen Anne at Senlis, which was unveiled by President Viktor Yushchenko on 22 June. [2]

Related Research Articles

Vsevolod I of Kiev Prince of all Rus

Vsevolod I Yaroslavich, ruled as Grand Prince of Kiev from 1078 until his death.

Yaroslav the Wise Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus', known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri) after Saint George.

Philippa of Hainault 14th-century noblewoman and queen of England

Philippa of Hainault was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward III. Edward promised in 1326 to marry her within the following two years. She was married to Edward, first by proxy, when Edward dispatched the Bishop of Coventry "to marry her in his name" in Valenciennes in October 1327. The marriage was celebrated formally in York Minster on 24 January 1328, some months after Edward's accession to the throne of England. In August 1328, he also fixed his wife's dower.

Anne of Austria Queen consort of King Louis XIII of France, and regent for her son Louis XIV

Anne of Austria, a Spanish princess and an Austrian archduchess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa.

Anne of Brittany Duchess of Brittany and twice Queen of France

Anne of Brittany was Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and queen consort of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She is the only woman to have been queen consort of France twice. During the Italian Wars, Anne also became queen consort of Naples, from 1501 to 1504, and duchess consort of Milan, in 1499–1500 and from 1500 to 1512.

Sviatoslav II Iaroslavich or Sviatoslav II Yaroslavich was Grand Prince of Kiev between 1073 and 1077. He was born as a younger son of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise. His baptismal name was Nicholas.

Yaroslav II of Vladimir Grand Prince of Vladimir

Yaroslav II, Christian name Theodor (Феодо́р) was the Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238–1246) who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.

Claude of France Duchess of Brittany; queen consort of France

Claude of France was a queen consort of France by marriage to Francis I. She was also ruling Duchess of Brittany from 1514. She was a daughter of the French king Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany.

Eupraxia of Kyiv was a Holy Roman Empress consort. She was the daughter of Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev, and his Kypchak wife, Anna. She married Henry IV of Germany and took the name Adelaide.

Agatha (wife of Edward the Exile) Wife of Edward the Exile

Agatha was the wife of Edward the Exile and mother of Edgar Ætheling, Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina of England. Her antecedents are unclear and the subject of much speculation.

Matilda of Frisia Queen consort of the Franks

Matilda of Frisia was the first queen of Henry I, King of the Franks. Her date of birth is unknown.

Anastasia of Kiev Queen consort of Hungary

Anastasia of Kiev was Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew the White. She was the eldest daughter of Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev and Ingigerd of Sweden, and the older sister of Anne of Kiev, Queen consort of Henry I of France.

Elisiv of Kiev Norwegian royal consort

Elisaveta of Kiev (Norwegian: Ellisif or Elisiv, was a Princess of Kiev and Queen Consort of King Harald III of Norway.

Henry I of France 11th-century King of France

Henry I was King of the Franks from 1031 to 1060. The royal demesne of France reached its smallest size during his reign, and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians. This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy.

Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden Grand Princess consort of Kievan Rus

Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, also known as Irene, Anna and Saint Anna , was a Swedish princess and a Grand Princess of Kiev. She was the daughter of Swedish King Olof Skötkonung and Estrid of the Obotrites and the consort of Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev. Ingegerd or Saint Anna is often confused with the mother of Saint Vladimir “the Enlightener” of the Rus. This is mainly because Ingegerd and Yaroslav also had a son named Vladimir. However, Saint Vladimir was the father of Ingegerd’s husband Yaroslav I “the Wise”, thus making her Saint Vladimir’s daughter-in-law. Saint Vladimir was the son of Sviatoslav and Malusha.

Lothair Udo I, Margrave of Nordmark and Count of Stade, son of Siegfried II, Count of Stade, and Adela of Rhienfelden, daughter of Gero, Count of Alsleben. Lothair was the first of the House of Udonids to serve as margrave.

Ralph IV of Valois Count of Valois

Ralph IV was a northern French nobleman who amassed an extensive array of lordships lying in a crescent around the Île-de-France from the border of the Duchy of Normandy in the northwest to Champagne in the southeast.

Adele was a French noble lady and the Countess suo jure of Bar-sur-Aube.

Oda of Stade

Oda of Stade was a German noblewoman, who was the daughter of Ida of Elsdorf. Through marriage to Sviatoslav II of Kiev, she became a Grand Princess consort of Kievan Rus'.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Delorme, Philippe (2015). Anne De Kiev : épouse De Henri Ier. Paris: Pygmalion.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gregorovich, Andrew (2011). Anna Yaroslavna, Queen of France & Princess of Ukraine: Anne De Kiev. Toronto: Forum.
  3. G. Duby, France in the Middle Ages, 987–1460, trans. J. Vale (Oxford, 1991), p. 117
  4. 1 2 Raffensperger, pp. 9497.
  5. Bauthier, 550; Hallu,168, citing Comptes de Suger
  6. Megan McLaughlin, 56.
  7. Lobanov-Rostovskiĭ (1825). Recueil de Pièces Historiques sur la reine Anne ou Agnès, épouse de Henri Ier, Roi De France, et Fille de Iarosslaf Ier, Grand Duc de Russie. Paris: De Firmin Didot.
  8. 1 2 3 Bogomoletz, Wladimir V (2005). "Anna of Kiev: An Enigmatic Capetian Queen of the Eleventh Century". French History. 19: 299–323 via JSTOR.
  9. "Diplôme de Philippe Ier, concernant les autels de Pernant et Colombes (1063) (avec la souscription de la reine Anne de Kiev)".

Sources

French royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Matilda of Frisia
Queen consort of France
1051–1060
Vacant
Title next held by
Bertha of Holland