Duke of Burgundy

Last updated
Dukedom of Burgundy
Crown of a Duke of France.svg
Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Creation date880
Peerage Peerage of France
First holder Richard the Justiciar
Last holder
Extinction date
  • 5 January 1477 (fief)
  • 22 March 1761 (courtesy title)

Duke of Burgundy (French : duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by the French crown in 1477, and later by members of the House of Habsburg, including Holy Roman emperors and kings of Spain, who claimed Burgundy proper and ruled the Burgundian Netherlands. [1]


The Duchy of Burgundy was a small portion of the traditional lands of the Burgundians west of the river Saône which, in 843, was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of the West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France (r.996–1031), the title was held by the Capetians, the French royal family. In 1032 King Henry I of France granted the duchy to his younger brother, Robert, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct in 1361, the title was inherited by King John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy to his younger son, Philip the Bold, in 1363. The Valois dukes gradually came to rule over a vast complex of territories known as the Burgundian State, and became dangerous rivals to the senior French royal line of the House of Valois.

When the male line of the Valois dukes of Burgundy became extinct in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy was confiscated by Louis XI of France. The title "duke of Burgundy" passed to Habsburg monarchs after Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian I of Austria in 1477. The Habsburgs used this connection to claim Burgundy proper and to rule their Burgundian inheritance until the Napoleonic era. Since 1975, branches of the House of Bourbon have used "duke of Burgundy" as a revived courtesy title.

List of dukes of Burgundy

Bosonid dynasty (880–956)

The first margrave (marchio), later duke (dux), of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes,[ citation needed ] whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.

His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century later by the French crown, their suzerain.

Robertian dynasty (956–1002)

House of Ivrea (1002–1004)

House of Capet (1004–1032)

In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule what would come to be called the Free County of Burgundy. His descendants formed another House of Ivrea.

House of Burgundy (1032–1361)

Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry.

PictureNameBirthBecame DukeRuled untilDeathNotesArms
Robert le Vieux.jpg Robert I the Old
(Robert Ierle Vieux)
1011103221 March 1076Younger son of Robert II of France.
Hugh I
(Hugues Ier)
105721 March 1076107929 August 1093Eldest son of Henry of Burgundy, grandson of Robert I. Abdicated in favour of his younger brother, Odo.
Odo I.jpg Odo I Borel the Red
(Eudes Ier Borel le Roux)
1058107923 March 1103Younger brother of Hugh I.
Hugh II.jpg Hugh II
(Hugues II)
108423 March 11031143Son of Odo I
Odo II.jpg Odo II
(Eudes II)
1118114327 June/27 September 1162Eldest son of Hugh II Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Hugh III.jpg Hugh III
(Hugues III)
114227 June/27 September 116225 August 1192Eldest son of Odo II Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Sceau de Eudes III Duc de Bourgogne.png Odo III
(Eudes III)
116625 August 11926 July 1218Eldest son of Hugh III Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy.jpg Hugh IV
(Hugues IV)
9 March 12136 July 121827 October 1271Eldest son of Odo III Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Robert II of Burgundy.jpg Robert II
(Robert II)
124827 October 127121 March 1306Eldest surviving son of Hugh IV. Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Hugo V.jpg Hugh V
(Hugues V)
128221 March 13069 May 1315Eldest son of Robert II. Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Eudes IV.jpg Odo IV
(Eudes IV)
12959 May 13153 April 1350Younger brother of Hugh V. Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg
Philip I of Burgundy.jpg Philip I of Rouvres
(Philippe Ierde Rouvres)
13463 April 135021 November 1361Grandson of Odo IV. Arms of Eudes de Bourgogne.svg

House of Valois-Burgundy (1363–1482)

John II of France, the second Valois king, successfully claimed the duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John then passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage.

PictureNameBirthBecame DukeRuled untilDeathNotesArms
16th-century unknown painters - Philip the Bold - WGA23677.jpg Philip II the Bold
(Philippe II le Hardi)
15 January 13426 September 136327 April 1404Youngest son of John the Good Arms of Philippe le Hardi.svg
John duke of burgundy.jpg John I the Fearless
(Jean I sans Peur)
28 May 137127 April 140410 September 1419Eldest son of Philip the Bold Arms of Jean Sans Peur.svg
Philip the good.jpg Philip III the Good
(Philippe III le Bon)
31 July 139610 September 141915 June 1467Eldest son of John the Fearless Arms of Philippe le Bon.svg
Charles the Bold 1460.jpg Charles I the Bold [2]
(Charles I le Téméraire)
21 November 143315 June 14675 January 1477Eldest son of Philip the Good Arms of Philippe le Bon.svg
Maitre de la Legende de Sainte Marie-Madeleine, Sainte Marie-Madeleine (15-16eme siecle).jpg Mary the Rich13 February 14575 January 147727 March 1482Only daughter of Charles the Bold Arms of Philippe le Bon.svg

Family tree

BurgundyDukes.pngAdelaide of AuxerreAdelaide of BurgundyAdelbert II of ItalyErmengarde of AnjouMarguerite of BurgundyAgnes of BurgundyAntoine of Burgundy

House of Habsburg (1482–1700)

In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance.

Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire as well as the County of Charolais in France. They often used the term Burgundy to refer to it (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Circle it was grouped into), until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to the French Republic. The Habsburgs also continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois.

PictureNameBirthBecame DukeRuled untilDeathNotesArms
Juan de Flandes (^), , Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Gemaldegalerie - Philipp der Schone (1478-1506) - GG 3872 - Kunsthistorisches Museum.jpg Philip IV the Handsome
(Philippe IV le Beau)
22 July 147822 February 148225 September 1506Eldest son of Duchess Mary by Maximilian of Habsburg Arms of Philip IV of Burgundy.svg
Barend van Orley - Portrait of Charles V - Google Art Project.jpg Charles II 24 February 150025 September 150616 January 155621 September 1558Eldest son of Philip the Handsome. Also Charles I of Aragon and Castile, and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant (1530-1556).svg

House of Bourbon, claimants of the title (1682–1761)

House of Habsburg (1713–1918)

House of Bourbon, revived title (1975–present)

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Capetian house of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">County of Burgundy</span> Medieval county of the Holy Roman Empire (982-1678)

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">County of Artois</span> Historic province of the Kingdom of France

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Arras (1482)</span> 1482 treaty between the Holy Roman Empire and France

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Valois-Burgundy</span> Cadet branch of the House of Valois

The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Senlis</span> 1493 treaty between Austria and France

The Treaty of Senlis concerning the Burgundian succession was signed at Senlis, Oise on 23 May 1493 between Maximilian I of Habsburg and his son Philip "the Handsome", Archduke of Austria, and King Charles VIII of France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Habsburg Netherlands</span> Entire period of Habsburg rule in the Low Countries (1482-1797)

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">War of the Burgundian Succession</span> War of the Burgundian succession

The War of the Burgundian Succession took place from 1477 to 1482, immediately following the Burgundian Wars. At stake was the partition of the Burgundian hereditary lands between the Kingdom of France and the House of Habsburg, after Duke Charles the Bold had perished in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Burgundian State</span> Territories of the Dukes of Burgundy

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  1. Duerloo, Luc (2019-01-02). "The Utility of an Empty Title. The Habsburgs as Dukes of Burgundy". Dutch Crossing. 43 (1): 63–77. doi:10.1080/03096564.2018.1559527. ISSN   0309-6564. S2CID   150856167.
  2. Tabri, Edward (2004). Political culture in the early northern Renaissance : the court of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1467-1477). Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press. ISBN   0-7734-6228-7. OCLC   56755716.

Further reading