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|Dukedom of Bourbon|
Coat of arms of the dukes from 1327 to 1410
|First holder||Louis I, Duke of Bourbon|
|Present holder||Louis Alphonse de Bourbon|
Duke of Bourbon (French : Duc de Bourbon) is a title in the peerage of France. It was created in the first half of the 14th century for the eldest son of Robert of France, Count of Clermont and Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. In 1416, with the death of John of Valois, the Dukes of Bourbon were simultaneously Dukes of Auvergne.
Although the senior line came to an end in 1527, the cadet branch of La Marche-Vendome would later succeed to the French throne as the Royal House of Bourbon, which would later spread out to other kingdoms and duchies in Europe. After this date, the title was given to several Princes of Condé and sons of the French Royal family.
For most of their history, the dukes of Bourbon were closely allied to their royal Valois cousins. This allowed them to maintain their rank with comparable prestige. They fought against the English in the Hundred Years' War, and took the side of the Armagnac faction during the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War.
Peter II and his wife, Anne, daughter of Louis XI, had only one surviving child, Suzanne. They made her their heir through a concession from Louis XII. Anne, knowing that the Bourbon-Montpensier branch, the next senior branch of the Bourbon family, would pursue their claim, married her daughter to Charles, Count of Montpensier. Their marriage thus consolidated the vast possessions of the Bourbon family. The project, however, failed. Suzanne died childless, and the new king's mother, Louise of Savoy, claimed her inheritance, as heir by proximity of blood. Louise offered to marry the duke of Bourbon to settle the matter amicably. But Louise of Savoy was already 45 years old, so the duke refused her, with insulting language. The king sided with his mother, driving the duke into a conspiracy with the Emperor and the King of England. Once discovered, he was stripped of his titles and possessions in 1523. With his death in 1527, the line of Bourbon-Montpensier became extinct in the male line. The next senior line, of Bourbon-Vendôme, was not allowed to inherit the forfeited lands.
|House of Bourbon|
|Dukes of Bourbon||Bourbon-La Marche|
|Counts of Montpensier||Counts of La Marche||Counts of Vendôme||Bourbon-Carency|
|Bourbon-Vendôme||Dukes of Montpensier|
|Kings of France and Navarre||House of Condé|
|Princes of Condé||Princes of Conti||Counts of Soissons|
Therefore, the heir male of the Bourbon family belonged to the House of Bourbon-Vendôme from 1527 onwards, in the person of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme until he died in 1537. Charles remained loyal to the king, even though Francis I had denied him the Bourbon inheritance and the inheritance of his wife, the sister of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon. Charles's son, Antoine, became king of Navarre, and his grandson, Henry IV, became king of France. All of the present-day family members descend from him. As the new reigning dynasty, the House of Bourbon-Vendôme was simply called the House of Bourbon.
In 1523, Louise of Savoy, mother of King Francis I of France, challenged the succession to the estate of Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon, who died childless. She claimed the succession as the heir by proximity of blood, as a descendant of the House of Bourbon through her mother. Seeing no hope of prevailing against the king's mother, the Constable of Bourbon went into the service of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1531, the duchy merged into the royal domain for the first time.
The title was vacant til 1544 and then created for Charles II de Valois, the youngest and third son of King François I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany. Being already Duke of Angoulême and then Duke of Orleans, he received in 1544 the duchy as a prerogative, but the prince died soon after. When he died, the duchy returned to the Crown. The title was again vacant between 1544 and 1566. In 1566, for the second and final time, the Duchy of Bourbon constituted part of an apanage, in this case that of the Duke of Angoulême, Duke of Orleans and Duke of Anjou and then future Henry III. Upon his accession to the throne in 1574, the duchy returned to the Crown.
The title went vacant for almost a hundred years until granted in 1661 to Louis, Grand Condé, a French general and the most illustrious representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon. However, he and most of his descendants preferred to use their ancient courtesy title, Prince of Condé. The title of Duke of Bourbon thereby became a courtesy title, used by the heir of the Prince of Condé.
The Spanish branch of the Bourbons adopted the title of Duke of Bourbon since 1950, symbolizing the fact that it is the eldest branch of the Bourbon family and of all Capetians.
The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.
The Most Serene House of Bourbon-Condé named after Condé-en-Brie, now in the Aisne département, is a French princely house and a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. The name of the house was derived from the title of Prince of Condé that was originally assumed around 1557 by the French Protestant leader, Louis de Bourbon (1530–1569), uncle of King Henry IV of France, and borne by his male-line descendants.
Suzanne de Bourbon was suo jure Duchess of Bourbon and Auvergne from 1503 to her death alongside her husband Charles III.
Charles III was a French military leader, the count of Montpensier, Clermont and Auvergne, and dauphin of Auvergne from 1501 to 1523, then duke of Bourbon and Auvergne, count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, Forez and La Marche, and lord of Beaujeu from 1505 to 1521. He was also the constable of France from 1515 to 1521. Also known as the constable of Bourbon, he was the last of the great feudal lords to oppose the king of France. He commanded the troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in what became known as the Sack of Rome in 1527, where he was killed.
Duke of Châtellerault is a French noble title that has been created several times, originally in the Peerage of France in 1515. It takes its name from Châtellerault, in the Vienne region.
Louise of Savoy was a French noble and regent, Duchess suo jure of Auvergne and Bourbon, Duchess of Nemours, and the mother of King Francis I. She was politically active and served as the regent of France in 1515, in 1525–1526 and in 1529.
Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France.
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of Louis XIII and younger brother of Louis XIV, the "Sun King".
In the 11th and 12th centuries the Countship of Penthièvre in Brittany belonged to a branch of the sovereign House of Brittany. It initially belonged to the House of Rennes. Alan III, Duke of Brittany, gave it to his brother Eudes in 1035, and his descendants formed a cadet branch of the ducal house.
The Counts of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis first appear in the early 11th century. Its principal town was Clermont, now in the Oise department but then within the ancient county of Beauvaisis in the province of Île-de-France. Following the death of the childless Theobald VI of Blois, Philip II of France bought the county from his heirs in 1218 and added it to the French crown. It was first granted as an appanage in 1218 to Philip Hurepel; with the extinction of his line, it was granted in 1268 to the House of Bourbon, and was confiscated with the Duchy of Bourbon in 1527.
Charles de Bourbon was a French prince du sang and military commander at the court of Francis I of France. He is notable as the paternal grandfather of King Henry IV of France.
Bourbon-Vendôme refers to two branches of the House of Bourbon, the first of which became the senior legitimate line of the House of Bourbon in 1527.
A prince du sang is a person legitimately descended in dynastic line from any of a realm's hereditary monarchs. Historically, the term has been used to refer to men and women descended in the male line from a sovereign, although as absolute primogeniture has become more common in monarchies, those with succession rights through female descent are more likely than in the past to be accorded the princely title.
The House of Bourbon-Montpensier or Maison de Bourbon-Montpensier was a semi royal family. The name of Bourbon comes from a marriage between Marie de Valois, comtesse de Montpensier (1375–1434) who married Jean de Bourbon - the duc de Bourbon. The second name of Montpensier, comes from the title of the family.
Jacqueline de Longwy, Countess of Bar-sur-Seine, Duchess of Montpensier, Dauphine of Auvergne was a French noblewoman, and a half-niece of King Francis I of France. She was the first wife of Louis III de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier, and the mother of his six children. She had the office of Première dame d'honneur to the queen dowager regent of France, Catherine de' Medici, from 1560 until 1561.
François de Bourbon, Duke of Châtellerault was a French prince du sang from the House of Bourbon-Montpensier, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. He was the brother of Louis II, Count of Montpensier, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, Louise de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier, and Renée of Bourbon.