Timeline of Jerusalem

Last updated

This is a timeline of major events in the history of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history. [1] During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. [2]



Bronze Age: Canaanite city

New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE Egypt 1450 BC.svg
New Kingdom at its maximum territorial extent in the 15th century BCE

Iron Age

The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE Levant 830.svg
The Levant showing Jerusalem in c. 830 BCE
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent Map of Assyria.png
Neo-Assyrian Empire at its greatest extent
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III Map achaemenid empire en.png
Achaemenid Empire under Darius III

Independent Israelite capital

Jerusalem becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Judah and, according to the Bible, for the first few decades even of a wider united kingdom of Judah and Israel, under kings belonging to the House of David.

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian period

Persian (Achaemenid) period

Hellenistic period

Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE Diadoch.png
Kingdoms of the Diadochi and others before the battle of Ipsus, c. 303 BCE
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE Rome-Seleucia-Parthia 200bc.jpg
The Seleucid Empire in c. 200 BCE
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra Hasmoneese rijk.PNG
Hasmonean Kingdom at its greatest extent under Salome Alexandra

Under Alexander, the Ptolemaies, and Seleucids

Hasmonean kingdom

Roman period

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE - 6CE Augusto 30aC - 6dC 55%25CS jpg.JPG
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus, 30BCE – 6CE
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470-1475) Pompee dans le Temple de Jerusalem.jpg
Pompey in the Temple, 63 BCE (Jean Fouquet 1470–1475)

Early Roman period

Events from the New Testament (Canonical Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Epistles -Pauline and Catholic- and the Book of Revelation) offer a narrative regarded by most Christians as Holy Scripture. Much of the narrative lacks historical anchors and Christian apologists have tried to calculate a historical chronology of events without reaching consensual conclusions. All such events and dates listed here are presented under this reservation, and are generally lacking non-sectarian scholarly recognition. They are marked in the list with a cross [†].

Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750) Giovanni Paolo Pannini 001.jpg
Jesus at the Temple (Giovanni Paolo Pannini c. 1750)
"Flevit super illam" (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892. Enrique Simonet - Flevit super illam 1892.jpg
"Flevit super illam" (He wept over it); by Enrique Simonet, 1892.
The siege of Jerusalem, 70 CE (David Roberts, 1850) Roberts Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem.jpg
The siege of Jerusalem, 70 CE (David Roberts, 1850)

Late Roman period (Aelia Capitolina)

The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE. Roman Empire 125.png
The Roman empire at its peak under Hadrian showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 CE.

Byzantine period

Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 Europe and the Near East at 476 AD.png
Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825) St Helena finding the true cross.jpg
Helena finding the True Cross (Italian manuscript, c. 825)
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem Madaba map.jpg
The Madaba Map depiction of sixth-century Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre: Jerusalem is generally considered the cradle of Christianity. Church of the Holy Sepulchre by Gerd Eichmann (cropped).jpg
Church of the Holy Sepulchre: Jerusalem is generally considered the cradle of Christianity.

Early Muslim period

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Expansion under Muhammad, 622-632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg
The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.
  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950) Shattering isochamend.png
An anachronistic map of the various de facto independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950)

Fatimid and Seljuk rule

Crusader/Ayyubid period

First Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1187)

Crusader states in 1180 The Byzantine Empire, c.1180.PNG
Crusader states in 1180
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts Prise de Jerusalem par les Croises, le 15 juillet 1099 Emil Signol, Musee du Chateau Versailles.JPG
The capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders on 15 July 1099
1. The Holy Sepulchre, 2. The Dome of the Rock, 3. Ramparts
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 View and Plan of Jerusalem Fac simile of a Woodout in the Liber Chronicarum Mundi large folio Nuremberg 1493.png
A woodcut of Jerusalem in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

Ayyubids and Second Crusader Kingdom

The Crusader defeat at the Battle of Hattin leads to the end of the First Crusader Kingdom (1099–1187). During the Second Crusader Kingdom (1192–1291), the Crusaders can only gain a foothold in Jerusalem on a limited scale, twice through treaties (access rights in 1192 after the Treaty of Jaffa; partial control 1229–39 after the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul), and again for a last time between 1241 and 1244. [61]

Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193 Ayyubid Dynasty.svg
Jerusalem under the Ayyubid dynasty after the death of Saladin, 1193
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250-1382 Bahri Dynasty 1250 - 1382 (AD).PNG
The Bahri Mamluk Dynasty 1250–1382

Mamluk period

Ottoman period

Early Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, showing Jerusalem OttomanEmpire1683.png
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, showing Jerusalem

Late Ottoman period

Map of Jerusalem in 1883 Jerusalem1883.jpg
Map of Jerusalem in 1883
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887-88 Ottoman levant.png
"Independent" Vilayet of Jerusalem shown within Ottoman administrative divisions in the Levant after the reorganisation of 1887–88

British Mandate

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement Sykes-Picot-1916.gif
Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes–Picot Agreement
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917 Allenby enters Jerusalem 1917.jpg
General Allenby enters Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, 11 December 1917

After 1948

Partition into West (Israel) and East (Jordan)

Reunification after 1967

The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background The west wall and the temple mount.jpg
The Temple Mount as it appears today. The Western Wall is in the foreground with the Dome of the Rock in the background

Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods

Reunification of JerusalemEast JerusalemWest JerusalemBritish EmpireOttoman EmpireMamluk SultanateAyyubid dynastyKingdom of JerusalemAyyubid dynastyKingdom of JerusalemFatimid CaliphateSeljuk EmpireFatimid CaliphateIkhshidid dynastyAbbasid CaliphateTulunidsAbbasid CaliphateUmayyad CaliphateRashidun CaliphateByzantine EmpireSasanian EmpireByzantine EmpireRoman EmpireHasmonean dynastySyrian WarsAchaemenid EmpireNeo-Babylonian EmpireLate Period of ancient EgyptNeo-Babylonian EmpireNeo-Assyrian EmpireKingdom of JudahKingdom of Israel (united monarchy)JebusitesNew Kingdom of EgyptCanaanTimeline of Jerusalem

See also

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  1. Steckoll, Solomon H., The gates of Jerusalem, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1968, preface
  2. "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.. According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN   978-0-8225-3218-7
  4. Mazar, Benjamin. 1975. The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., p. 45. ISBN   0-385-04843-2
  5. Jane M. Cahill (2003). "Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy". In Vaughn, Andrew; Killebrew, Ann. E. (eds.). Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 21. ISBN   978-1-58983-066-0.
  6. Crouch, C. L. (1 October 2014). Israel and the Assyrians: Deuteronomy, the Succession Treaty of Esarhaddon, and the Nature of Subversion. SBL Press. ISBN   978-1-62837-026-3. Judah's reason(s) for submitting to Assyrian hegemony, at least superficially, require explanation, while at the same time indications of its read-but-disguised resistance to Assyria must be uncovered... The political and military sprawl of the Assyrian empire during the late Iron Age in the southern Levant, especially toward its outer borders, is not quite akin to the single dominating hegemony envisioned by most discussions of hegemony and subversion. In the case of Judah it should be reiterated that Judah was always a vassal state, semi-autonomous and on the periphery of the imperial system, it was never a fully-integrated provincial territory. The implications of this distinction for Judah's relationship with and experience of the Assyrian empire should not be underestimated; studies of the expression of Assyria's cultural and political powers in its provincial territories and vassal states have revealed notable differences in the degree of active involvement in different types of territories. Indeed, the mechanics of the Assyrian empire were hardly designed for direct control over all its vassals' internal activities, provided that a vassal produced the requisite tribute and did not provoke trouble among its neighbors, the level of direct involvement from Assyria remained relatively low. For the entirety of its experience of the Assyrian empire, Judah functioned as a vassal state, rather than a province under direct Assyrian rule, thereby preserving at least a certain degree of autonomy, especially in its internal affairs. Meanwhile, the general atmosphere of Pax Assyriaca in the southern Levant minimized the necessity of (and opportunities for) external conflict. That Assyrians, at least in small numbers, were present in Judah is likely - probably a qipu and his entourage who, if the recent excavators of Ramat Rahel are correct, perhaps resided just outside the capital - but there is far less evidence than is commonly assumed to suggest that these left a direct impression of Assyria on this small vassal state... The point here is that, despite the wider context of Assyria's political and economic power in the ancient Near East in general and the southern Levant in particular, Judah remained a distinguishable and semi-independent southern Levantine state, part of but not subsumed by the Assyrian empire and, indeed, benefitting from it in significant ways.
  7. Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  8. Ben-Dov, Meir. 1985. In the Shadow of the Temple. New York, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., pp. 34–35. ISBN   0-06-015362-8
  9. Bright, John (1980). A History of Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 311. ISBN   978-0-664-22068-6.
  10. http://studentreader.com/jerusalem/#Edict-of-Cyrus Student Reader Jerusalem: "When Cyrus captured Babylon, he immediately issued the Edict of Cyrus, a decree that those who had been exiled by the Babylonians could return to their homelands and start rebuilding."
  11. 1 2 Betlyon, John Wilson (1986). "The Provincial Government of Persian Period Judea and the Yehud Coins". Journal of Biblical Literature . Society of Biblical Literature. 105 (4): 633–642 [637–638]. doi:10.2307/3261210. JSTOR   3261210.
  12. Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE. Oxford Handbooks. OUP Oxford. pp. 142–143. ISBN   978-0-19-166255-3 . Retrieved 24 September 2020. For the Sidonian revolt of King Tennes.
  13. Richard Gottheil; Gotthard Deutsch; Martin A. Meyer; Joseph Jacobs; M. Franco (1906). "Jerusalem". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 September 2020 via JewishEncyclopedia.com.
  14. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XI, Chapter 7. William Whiston edition, London 1737. Accessed 23 September 2020.
  15. "Maccabean Revolt". Virtualreligion.net. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  16. Josephus The Jewish Wars (1:60)
  17. Barthold Georg Niebuhr; Marcus Carsten Nicolaus von Niebuhr (1852). Lectures on Ancient History. Taylor, Walton, and Maberly. p. 465.
  18. "Josephus, chapter 10". Christianbookshelf.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  19. Encyclopaedic dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, William George Smith. Concept Publishing Company. 1893. ISBN   978-81-7268-095-4.
  20. Sievers, 142
  21. Martin Sicker (2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 39. ISBN   978-0-275-97140-3.
  22. "Armenians of Jerusalem Launch Project To Preserve History and Culture". Pr-inside.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  23. Aram Topchyan; Aram Tʻopʻchʻyan (2006). The Problem of the Greek Sources of Movses Xorenacʻi's History of Armenia. Isd. ISBN   978-90-429-1662-3.
  24. Jacob Neusner (1997). A History of the Jews in Babylonia. Vol. 2. Brill Archive. p. 351.
  25. "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee." Josephus, Ant. xiv 54:
  26. "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv 5, § 4)." via Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin:
  27. Armstrong 1996, p. 126
  28. Sicker 2001, p. 75
  29. Dave Winter (1999). Israel Handbook: With the Palestinian Authority Areas. Footprint Handbooks. p. 123. ISBN   978-1-900949-48-4.
  30. Emil Schürer; Géza Vermès; Fergus Millar (1973). History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. p. 318. ISBN   978-0-567-02242-4.
  31. "Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews – Book XVIII, "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria"". Ccel.org. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  32. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 247–248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria."
  33. A History of the Jewish People, H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, p. 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province [in 6 CE, p. 246], Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."
  34. John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew, vol. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   0-674-39731-2, p. 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  35. Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2010). Turning the Tables on Jesus: The Mandaean View. In Horsley, Richard (March 2010). Christian Origins. ISBN   978-1-4514-1664-0.(pp94-111). Minneapolis: Fortress Press
  36. Drower, Ethel Stefana (1953). The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa. Biblioteca Apostolica Vatican.
  37. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pp. 254–256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37–41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then—if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment—there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  38. See also Flavius Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, ix, 1.
  39. Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xxxii.
  40. Christopher Mackay. "Ancient Rome a Military and Political History" 2007: 230
  41. Beckles Willson, Rachel (2013). Orientalism and Musical Mission: Palestine and the West. Cambridge University Press. p. 146. ISBN   978-1-107-03656-7.
  42. Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the "precedence" granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge William Beveridge?] consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
  43. Browning, Robert. 1978. The Emperor Julian. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, p. 176. ISBN   0-520-03731-6
  44. Horn, Cornelia B.; Robert R. Phenix, Jr. 2008. The Lives of Peter the Iberian, Theodosius of Jerusalem, and the Monk Romanus. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, p. lxxxviii. ISBN   978-1-58983-200-8
  45. The Emperor Justinian and Jerusalem (527–565)
  46. Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
  47. Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN   0-345-39168-3
  48. "Surah Al-Isra - 1-111".
  49. "Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 21, Number 281: "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)."". Islamicity.com. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  50. Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN   0-8135-0599-2
  51. Leslie J. Hoppe (2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament. Liturgical Press. ISBN   978-0-8146-5081-3.
  52. Theophilus (of Edessa) (2011). Theophilus of Edessa's Chronicle and the Circulation of Historical Knowledge in Late Antiquity and Early Islam. Liverpool University Press. p. 169. ISBN   978-1-84631-698-2.
  53. Elizabeth Jeffreys; Fiona K. Haarer (2006). Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies: London, 21-26 August, 2006. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 198. ISBN   978-0-7546-5740-8.
  54. Miriam Greenblatt (2002). Charlemagne and the Early Middle Ages. Benchmark Books. p. 29. ISBN   978-0-7614-1487-2.
  55. Majid Khadduri (2006). War and Peace in the Law of Islam. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 247. ISBN   978-1-58477-695-6.
  56. 1 2 Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund.
  57. Ross Burns (2005). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 138. ISBN   978-0-415-27105-9.
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