Timeline of the Hebrew prophets

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This is a timeline of the development of prophecy among the Jews in Judaism . All dates are given according to the Common Era, not the Hebrew calendar.


See also Jewish history which includes links to individual country histories.

the Exodus

c.1450-1350 BC(?)[ citation needed ]
the Exodus from Egypt (prophecy of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam)

the Land of Israel

c. 1300-1250 BC[ citation needed ]
Joshua leads the people
c. 1250 BCc. 1025 BC[ citation needed ]
Biblical Judges lead the people. (prophecy of Deborah)

During the Kingdom of Israel and Judah

c. 1025 BCc. 1003 BC[ citation needed ]
King Saul, prophecy of Samuel,
c. 1003 BCc. 963 BC[ citation needed ]
King David, prophecy of Nathan prophecy of Gad
c. 963 BCc. 923 BC[ citation needed ]
King Solomon
c. 923 BCc. 913 BC[ citation needed ]
King Rehoboam of Judah, prophecy of Shemaiah
c. 922 BCc. 910 BC[ citation needed ]
King Jeroboam of Israel, prophecy of Ahijah
c. 913 BCc. 910 BC[ citation needed ]
King Asa of Judah

prophecies of Elijah, Micaiah, and Elisha

c. 837 BCc. 800 BC[ citation needed ]
King Joash of Judah

prophecy of Jonah [1] during the time of Babylonian captivity, though dating of the book ranges from the 6th to the late 3rd century BC.

c. 796 BCc. 768 BC[ citation needed ]
King Amaziah of Judah

prophecy of Amos, Hosea

c. 767 BCc. 754 BC[ citation needed ]
King Uzziah of Judah
c. 740 BCc. 700 BC[ citation needed ]
prophecy of Isaiah

prophecy of Micah

c. 722 BC[ citation needed ]
Kingdom of Israel falls to Neo-Assyrian Empire
c. 715 BCc. 687 BC[ citation needed ]
King Hezekiah of Judah

prophecy of Joel(?) prophecy of Nahum

c. 648 BC c. 609 BC
King Josiah of Judah

prophesy of Jeremiah

Before and during Exile

c. 609 BC[ citation needed ]

King Jehoahaz of Judah 3 Months

c. 608 BCc. 598 BC[ citation needed ]

King Jehoiakim of Judah

c. 598 BCc. 597 BC[ citation needed ]

King Jeconiah of Judah

c. 597 BCc. 520 BC[ citation needed ]

In Judea: prophecy of Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Obadiah, and Habakkuk In Babylon: prophecy of Ezekiel

Post Exile

c. 530 BC
First view (and traditional one) is that Daniel was written immediately after the Babylonian exile ended and many Jews returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple. Daniel's prophetic visions revealed successive empires that would follow, one after the other as well as providing a backdrop of God's eternal, unshakeable kingdom continuing in spite of the earthly upheaval and power struggles. The scholarly view is that the "prophecy" of Daniel was written in the 2nd Century B.C. during the time of the Seleucid dynasty. Note that in Jewish scripture, Daniel is not considered a prophet and is not included among the prophetic books. [2]
c. 520 BCc. 411 BC[ citation needed ]
prophecy of Haggiah, Zechariah, Joel(?)

Return to the land under Persian rule, and writings of Ezra-Nehemiah Story of Esther

c. 433 BC [?][ citation needed ]
prophecy of Malachi during the times of the Persian Empire

(535 BC: First portion of Ezra; 515 BC: Second portion of Ezra and Haggai and Zecharia; Joel possibly some time later; 474 BC: Esther; 450 BC: Remainder of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Malachi.)

c. 312 BCc. 63 BC[ citation needed ]
Judah's subjugation under the Seleucid Empire

During this period Judah became the sovereign nation of Israel: The Maccabean Revolt 167 to 160 BC

Related Research Articles

The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah. The two became separated with the first printed rabbinic bibles of the early 16th century, following late medieval Latin Christian tradition. Composed in Hebrew and Aramaic, its subject is the Return to Zion following the close of the Babylonian captivity. Together with the Book of Nehemiah, it represents the final chapter in the historical narrative of the Hebrew Bible.

The Book of Nehemiah in the Hebrew Bible, largely takes the form of a first-person memoir by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, concerning the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).

The Book of Joel is a Jewish prophetic text containing a series of "divine announcements". The first line attributes authorship to "Joel the son of Pethuel". It forms part of the Book of the twelve minor prophets or the Nevi'im ("Prophets") in the Hebrew Bible, and is a book in its own right in the Christian Old Testament. Joel is not mentioned elsewhere in either collection.

The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Nahum, and was probably written in Jerusalem in the 7th century BCE.

The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and is the third-to-last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. It is a short book, consisting of only two chapters. The historical setting dates around 520 BC before the Temple had been rebuilt. The original text was written in Biblical Hebrew.

The Book of Malachi is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In most Christian orderings, the grouping of the prophetic books is the last section of the Old Testament, making Malachi the last book before the New Testament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ezra</span> Figure in early Jewish history

Ezra or Esdras, also called Ezra the Scribe in Chazalic literature, and Ezra the Priest was an important Jewish scribe (sofer) and priest (kohen) in the early Second Temple period. In Greco-Latin Ezra is called Esdras. His name is probably a shortened Aramaic translation of the Hebrew name עזריהוAzaryahu, "Yah helps". In the Greek Septuagint the name is rendered Ésdrās, from which the Latin name Esdras comes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haggai</span> Hebrew prophet

Haggai or Aggeus was a Hebrew prophet during the building of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, and one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the author of the Book of Haggai. He is known for his prophecy in 520 BCE, commanding the Jews to rebuild the Temple. He was the first of three post-exile prophets from the Neo-Babylonian Exile of the House of Judah, who belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. His name means "my holidays."

The Nevi'im is the second major division of the Hebrew Bible, lying between the Torah ("instruction") and Ketuvim ("writings"). The Nevi'im are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings; while the Latter Prophets include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Babylonian captivity</span> Period in Jewish history, c. 586-539 BCE

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a large number of Judeans from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital city of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, following their defeat in the Jewish–Babylonian War and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. The event is known to be historical, and is described in the Hebrew Bible in addition to archaeological and extra-biblical sources.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zerubbabel</span> Biblical figure; governor of the Achaemenid province of Yehud

According to the biblical narrative, Zerubbabel was a governor of the Achaemenid Empire's province of Yehud and the grandson of Jeconiah, penultimate king of Judah. Zerubbabel led the first group of Jews, numbering 42,360, who returned from the Babylonian captivity in the first year of Cyrus the Great, the king of the Achaemenid Empire. The date is generally thought to have been between 538 and 520 BC. Zerubbabel also laid the foundation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem soon after.

The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets, occasionally Book of the Twelve, is a collection of prophetic books, written between about the 8th and 4th centuries BCE, which are in both the Jewish Tanakh and Christian Old Testament.

Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians. Apocalypse is a Greek word meaning "revelation", "an unveiling or unfolding of things not previously known and which could not be known apart from the unveiling".

According to Jewish tradition the Great Assembly was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, which existed from the early Second Temple period to the early Hellenistic period, roughly coinciding with the Persian hegemony over the nation of Israel. The assembly's members, known as Anshei Knesset HaGedolah, traditionally included such figures as Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah, Mordechai and Zerubbabel.

The Prophecy of Seventy Weeks is the narrative in chapter 9 of the Book of Daniel in which Daniel prays to God to act on behalf of his people and city, and receives a detailed but cryptic prophecy of "seventy weeks" by the angel Gabriel. The prophecy has been the subject of "intense exegetical activity" since the Second Temple period. James Alan Montgomery referred to the history of this prophecy's interpretation as the "dismal swamp" of critical exegesis.

A Biblical genre is a classification of Bible literature according to literary genre. The genre of a particular Bible passage is ordinarily identified by analysis of its general writing style, tone, form, structure, literary technique, content, design, and related linguistic factors; texts that exhibit a common set of literary features are together considered to be belonging to a genre. In Biblical studies, genres are usually associated with whole books of the Bible, because each of its books comprises a complete textual unit; however, a book may be internally composed of a variety of styles, forms, and so forth, and thus bear the characteristics of more than one genre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Return to Zion</span> Biblical event

The return to Zion is an event recorded in Ezra–Nehemiah of the Hebrew Bible, in which the Jews of the Kingdom of Judah—subjugated by the Neo-Babylonian Empire—were freed from the Babylonian captivity following the Persian conquest of Babylon. After their release, the Persian king Cyrus the Great issued a proclamation known as the Edict of Cyrus that enabled the freed Jewish populace, exiled from Judah, to return to Jerusalem and the Land of Judah, which had begun to function as a self-governing Jewish province under the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yehud Medinata</span> Province of the Achaemenid Empire

Yehud, also known as Yehud Medinata or Yehud Medinta, was an autonomous administrative province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It was one of several such provinces in Palestine, with the others being Moab, Ammon, Gilead, Samaria, Ashdod and Idumea, constituting the fifth Persian satrapy of Eber-Nari. Located in Judea, it continued to exist for two centuries before it was incorporated into the Hellenistic empires following the Wars of Alexander the Great.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ezra 5</span> A chapter in the Book of Ezra

Ezra 5 is the fifth chapter of the Book of Ezra in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, or the book of Ezra–Nehemiah in the Hebrew Bible, which treats the book of Ezra and book of Nehemiah as one book. Jewish tradition states that Ezra is the author of Ezra–Nehemiah as well as the Book of Chronicles, but modern scholars generally accept that a compiler from the 5th century BCE is the final author of these books. The section comprising chapter 1 to 6 describes the history before the arrival of Ezra to the land of Judah in 468 BCE. This chapter records the contribution of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah to the temple building project and the investigation by Persian officials.


  1. Anthony R. Ceresko, "Jonah" in New Jerome Biblical Commentary Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. pp. 580-584.
  2. Louis F. Hartman and Alexander A. Di Lella, "Daniel" in New Jerome Biblical Commentary Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. pp. 406-420.