Joel (prophet)

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Joel
Joel (Michelangelo).jpg
Prophet Joel as imagined by Michelangelo (Fresco, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508–1512).
Prophet
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Major shrine Gush Halav, Israel
Feast October 19 (Orthodox)
Attributes Prophet
Major works Book of Joel

Joel ( /ˈəl/ ; Hebrew : יוֹאֵלʾēl; Greek : ἸωήλIōḗl; Syriac : ܝܘܐܝܠYu'il) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and according to the book itself the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to that book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH. [1] </nowiki></ref> has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times (c. 1600–1100 BC). [2] However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering [3] and to the standing temple [4] have led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple.[ citation needed ] Joel was originally from Judah/Judea, and, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite possibly a prophet associated with the ritual of Solomon's or even the Second temple. [5]

Contents

According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush Halav. [6]

In Christianity

On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is October 19. [7]

In the Roman Martyrology, the prophet is commemorated on July 13. [8]

He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.

Joel's statement that "I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions" was applied by St Peter in his sermon at Pentecost to the events of that day. [9] Since then, other religious figures have interpreted the words as having special significance for their own time.[ example needed ]

According to the Eastern Orthodox Christian hymns, the ancient hymnographer Anatolius links Joel’s prophecy to the birth of Christ. In Joel 2:30, he says that the blood refers to the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, the fire to the Divinity of Christ, and the pillars of smoke to the Holy Spirit. [10]

In the Baha'i Faith

Joel is considered a minor prophet in the Baha'i Faith. [11] In the Kitab-i-Iqan, Baha'ullah states that previous prophecies by minor prophets such as Joel have symbolic meanings and significance and therefore should not be understood literally. [12]

Related Research Articles

Book of Amos book of the Bible

The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition. Amos, an older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, was active c. 750 BC during the reign of Jeroboam II, making Amos the first prophetic book of the Bible to be written. Amos lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

Book of Jeremiah Book of the Bible

The Book of Jeremiah is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. The superscription at chapter Jeremiah 1:1–3 identifies the book as "the words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah". Of all the prophets, Jeremiah comes through most clearly as a person, ruminating to his scribe Baruch about his role as a servant of God with little good news for his audience. His book is intended as a message to the Jews in exile in Babylon, explaining the disaster of exile as God's response to Israel's pagan worship: the people, says Jeremiah, are like an unfaithful wife and rebellious children, their infidelity and rebelliousness made judgement inevitable, although restoration and a new covenant are foreshadowed. Authentic oracles of Jeremiah are probably to be found in the poetic sections of chapters 1–25, but the book as a whole has been heavily edited and added to by the prophet's followers and later generations of Deuteronomists. It has come down in two distinct though related versions, one in Hebrew, the other known from a Greek translation. The date of the two can be suggested by the fact that the Greek shows concerns typical of the early Persian period, while the Masoretic shows perspectives which, although known in the Persian period, did not reach their realisation until the 2nd century BCE.

Book of Ezekiel book of the Bible

The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah. According to the book itself, it records six visions of the prophet Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, during the 22 years from 593 to 571 BC, although it is the product of a long and complex history and does not necessarily preserve the very words of the prophet.

Book of Joel book of the Bible

The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible, one of twelve prophetic books known as the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Book of Micah book of the bible

The Book of Micah is the sixth of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament. Ostensibly, it records the sayings of Micah, whose name is Mikayahu, meaning "Who is like Yahweh?", an 8th-century BC prophet from the village of Moresheth in Judah.

Book of Malachi book of the Bible

Malachi is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In the Christian ordering, the grouping of the Prophetic Books is the last section of the Old Testament, making Malachi the last book before The New Testament.

Ezekiel Old Testament saint

Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

Hosea biblical character

In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea, son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name. He is one of the Twelve Prophets of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, also known as the Minor Prophets of the Christian Old Testament. Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy.

Isaiah Hebrew prophet

Isaiah was the 8th-century BCE Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi was the traditional writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Hebrew Bible. No allusion is made to him by Ezra, however, and he does not directly mention the restoration of the temple. The editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia implied that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah and speculated that he delivered his prophecies about 420 BCE, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia, or possibly before his return, comparing Malachi 2:8 with Nehemiah 13:15.

Nahum minor prophet

Nahum was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. His book comes in chronological order between Micah and Habakkuk in the Bible. He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style.

Obadiah Hebrew prophet

Obadiah is a Biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant or slave of God" or "worshiper of Yahweh." The form of Obadiah's name used in the Septuagint is Obdios. In Latin it is translated as Abdias while in Arabic it is عبداللّٰهʿAbdullah. The Bishops' Bible refers to the prophet as Abdi.

Prophet person claiming to speak for divine beings

In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.

Revelation the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity

In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

Zechariah (Hebrew prophet) Biblical prophet

Zechariah was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets. He was a prophet of the Kingdom of Judah, and, like the prophet Ezekiel, was of priestly extraction.

Zephaniah person in the bible

Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh; the most prominent one being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "YHWH (YH), phonetically (IAH), has concealed", "[he whom] YH has hidden", or "YH lies in wait".

Neviim Second main division of the Hebrew Bible

Nevi'im is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible, between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings). The Nevi'im are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings; while the Latter Prophets include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Amos (prophet) Hebrew prophet

In the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament, Amos was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets. An older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, Amos was active c. 760–755 BCE during the rule of kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah. He was from the southern Kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern Kingdom of Israel. Amos wrote at a time of relative peace and prosperity but also of neglect of God's laws. He spoke against an increased disparity between the very wealthy and the very poor. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy. The Book of Amos is attributed to him.

Micah (prophet) Prophet in Judaism

According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.

Jeremiah 28 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 28

Jeremiah 28 is the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The material found in Jeremiah 28 of the Hebrew Bible appears in Jeremiah 35 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains a confrontation between prophets Jeremiah and Hananiah: Hananiah's false prophecy is responded by Jeremiah's answer, Jeremiah 28:1-9. Hananiah breaks Jeremiah's yoke, Jeremiah foretells an iron yoke, and Hananiah's death, Jeremiah 28:10-17.

References

  1. "Commentary by A. R. Faussett". Jfb.biblecommenter.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2017. He is believed to have lived in the 9th century BCE,[ citation needed ] but the dating of his book is still debated. The book's mention of Greeks <ref>Joel 3:6 in chapter divisions of English bibles, 4:6 in the Hebrew Bible<nowiki>
  2. A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Joel
  3. Joel 3:19; 4:19 in the Hebrew Bible
  4. Joel 1:14
  5. Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976), p.31
  6. "Gush HaLav". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  7. "Prophet Joel in the Eastern Orthodox Church". Orthodox Church of America. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018.
  8. Editor. "Roman Martyrology July, in English". Boston-catholic-journal.com. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  9. Acts 2:16-21
  10. "Prophet Joel". oca.org. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  11. Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahái̓́ Theology – Volume 8 – Page 32, J. A. McLean – 1997
  12. Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith – Page 251, J. E. Esslemont – 2006