Joel (prophet)

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Joel
Joel (Michelangelo).jpg
Prophet Joel as imagined by Michelangelo (Fresco, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508–1512).
Prophet
Venerated in Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Major shrine Gush Halav, Israel
Feast October 19 (Orthodox)
Attributes Prophet
Major works Book of Joel

Joel ( /ˈəl/ ; Hebrew : יוֹאֵלYō'ēl; Greek : ἸωήλIōḗl; Syriac : ܝܘܐܝܠYu'il) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and according to the book itself the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to that book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH. [1]

Contents

Some commentators suggest that Joel lived in the 9th century BC, [1] whereas others assign him to the 5th or 4th century BC. [2] The dating of his book is similarly debated; there are no mentions of kings that might help locate it in time. The book's mention of Greeks [Joel 3:6] has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times (c. 1600–1100 BC). [3] However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering [Joel 3:19] and to the standing temple [Joel 1:14] have led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple.[ citation needed ] Joel was originally from Judah/Judea, and, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite possibly a prophet associated with the ritual of either Solomon's or the Second temple, depending on the date when he lived. [4]

According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush Halav. [5]

In Christianity

On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is October 19. [6]

In the Roman Martyrology, the prophet is commemorated on July 13. [7]

He is commemorated with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.

Joel's statement that "I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions" was applied by St Peter in his sermon at Pentecost to the events of that day. [Acts 2:16-21] Since then, other religious figures have interpreted the words as having special significance for their own time.[ example needed ]

According to the Eastern Orthodox Christian hymns, the ancient hymnographer Anatolius links Joel's prophecy to the birth of Christ. In Joel 2:30, he says that the blood refers to the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, the fire to the Divinity of Christ, and the pillars of smoke to the Holy Spirit. [6]

In the Baha'i Faith

Joel is considered a minor prophet in the Baha'i Faith. [8] In the Kitab-i-Iqan, Baha'ullah states that previous prophecies by minor prophets such as Joel have symbolic meanings and significance and therefore should not be understood literally. [9]

Related Research Articles

Book of Amos

The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition. Amos, an older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, was active c. 750 BC during the reign of Jeroboam II, making Amos the first prophetic book of the Bible to be written. Amos lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

Book of Jeremiah Book of the Bible

The Book of Jeremiah is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament. The superscription at chapter Jeremiah 1:1–3 identifies the book as "the words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah". Of all the prophets, Jeremiah comes through most clearly as a person, ruminating to his scribe Baruch about his role as a servant of God with little good news for his audience.

Book of Ezekiel Book of the Bible

The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah. According to the book itself, it records six visions of the prophet Ezekiel, exiled in Babylon, during the 22 years from 593 to 571 BC, although it is the product of a long and complex history and does not necessarily preserve the very words of the prophet.

Book of Joel Book of the Bible

The Book of Joel is collected as one of the twelve minor prophets of the Nevi'im ("Prophets") in the Hebrew Bible, and as a book in its own right in the Christian Old Testament.

Book of Nahum Book of the Bible

The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Nahum, and was probably written in Jerusalem in the 7th century BC.

Book of Malachi Book of the Bible

The Book of Malachi is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In the Christian ordering, the grouping of the Prophetic Books is the last section of the Old Testament, making Malachi the last book before The New Testament.

Book of Habakkuk Book of the Bible

The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and was probably composed in the late 7th century BC.

Ezekiel Prophet in the Abrahamic religions

Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

Hosea Biblical character

In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea, son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel and the nominal primary author of the Book of Hosea. He is the first of the Twelve Minor Prophets, whose collective writings were aggregated and organized into a single book in the Jewish Tanakh by the Second Temple period, forming the last book of the Nevi'im; but which writings are distinguished as individual books in Christianity. Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy.

Habakkuk Prophet of the Hebrew Bible

Habakkuk, who was active around 612 BC, was a prophet whose oracles and prayer are recorded in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. He is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Isaiah Israelite prophet

Isaiah ; was the 8th-century BC Israelite prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Prophet Person claimed to speak for a divine being

In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.

Zephaniah Person in the bible

Zephaniah Arabic:Safi is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh; the most prominent one being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "YHWH (YH), phonetically (IAH), has concealed", "[he whom] YH has hidden", or "YH lies in wait".

Amos (prophet) Hebrew prophet

In the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament, Amos was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets. An older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, Amos was active c. 760–755 BCE during the rule of kings Jeroboam II and Uzziah. He was from the southern Kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern Kingdom of Israel. Amos wrote at a time of relative peace and prosperity but also of neglect of God's laws. He spoke against an increased disparity between the very wealthy and the very poor. His major themes of justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy. The Book of Amos is attributed to him.

False prophet Person who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration

In religion, a false prophet is a person who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or to speak for God, or who makes such claims for evil ends. Often, someone who is considered a "true prophet" by some people is simultaneously considered a "false prophet" by others, even within the same religion as the "prophet" in question. In a wider sense, it is anyone who, without having it, claims a special connection to the Deity and sets him or herself up as a source of spirituality, as an authority, preacher, or teacher. Analogously, the term is sometimes applied outside religion to describe someone who fervently promotes a theory that the speaker thinks is false.

Bible prophecy

Bible prophecy or biblical prophecy comprises the passages of the Bible that are claimed to reflect communications from God to humans through prophets. Jews and Christians usually consider the biblical prophets to have received revelations from God.

Micah (prophet) Prophet in Judaism

According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.

This is a table containing prophets, sometimes called messengers, of the Abrahamic religions.

Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is also venerated as a manifestation of God in Hinduism and the Baháʼí Faith. Some Hindu texts regard Buddha as an avatar of the god Vishnu, who came to Earth to delude beings away from the Vedic religion. Some Non-denominatonal and Quranist Muslims believe he was a prophet. He is also regarded as a prophet by the Ahmadiyyah Muslim sect.

Ezekiel 8

Ezekiel 8 is the eighth chapter of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet/priest Ezekiel, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. In this chapter, Ezekiel condemns the idolatry which he sees in the Jerusalem Temple. His vision of the defiled temple continues as far as Ezekiel 11:25.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 "Commentary by A. R. Faussett". Jfb.biblecommenter.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  2. Anderson, B.W. (1988), The living world of the Old Testament, 4th edition. Harlow, UK: Longman. p.524
  3. Noegel & Wheeler 2010, p. 172.
  4. Allen 1976, p. 31.
  5. "Gush HaLav". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  6. 1 2 "Prophet Joel in the Eastern Orthodox Church". Orthodox Church of America. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  7. "Roman Martyrology, Complete, July". Boston Catholic Journal. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  8. McLean 1997, p. 32.
  9. Esslemont 2006, p. 251.

Sources