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Painting at Jeju Island shrine
|Venerated in|| Roman Catholicism |
|Canonized||6 May 1984, Yeouido, Seoul, South Korea by Pope John Paul II|
The Korean Martyrs were the victims of religious persecution against Catholic Christians during the 19th century in Korea. Between 8,000 - 10,000 Korean Christians were killed during this period, 103 of whom were canonized en masse in May 1984.In addition, Paul Yun Ji-Chung and 123 companions were declared "Venerable" on 7 February 2014, and on 16 August 2014, they were beatified by Pope Francis during the Asian Youth Day in Gwanghwamun Plaza, Seoul, South Korea. There are further moves to beatify Catholics who were killed by communists for their faith in the 20th century during the Korean War.
At the end of the 18th century, Korea was ruled by the Joseon Dynasty. It was a society based on Confucianism and its hierarchical, class relationships. There was a small minority of privileged scholars and nobility while the majority were commoners paying taxes, providing labour, and manning the military, all above a slave class.
Even though it was scholars who first introduced Christianity to Korea, it was the ordinary people who flocked to the new religion. The new believers called themselves Chonju Kyo Udul, literally "Friends of the Teaching of God of Heaven". The term "friends" was the only term in the Confucian understanding of relationships which implied equality.
During the early 17th century, Christian literature written in Chinese was imported from China to Korea. On one of these occasions, around 1777, Christian literature obtained from Jesuits in China led educated Korean Christians to study.Although no Koreans were converted to Catholicism by these books until the last quarter of the eighteenth century, the ideas of the Catholic priests espoused in them were debated and denounced as heterodox as early as 1724.
When a Chinese priest managed to secretly enter the country a dozen years later, he found 4,000 Catholics, none of whom had ever seen a priest.The dynamic Catholic communities were led almost entirely by educated laypeople from the aristocracy, as they were the only ones who could read the books that were written in Hanja.
The Christian community sent a delegation on foot to Beijing, 750 miles away, to ask the city's Bishop for bishops and priests. Eventually, two Chinese priests were sent, but their ministry was short-lived, and another forty years passed before the Paris Foreign Mission Society began its work in Korea with the arrival of Father Maubant in 1836. Paul Chong Hasang, Augustine Yu Chin-gil and Charles Cho Shin-chol had made several visits to Beijing in order to find ways of introducing missionaries into Korea. Since the persecution of 1801, there had been no priest to care for the Christian community. Serious dangers awaited the missionaries who dared to enter Korea. The bishops and priests who confronted this danger, as well as the lay Christians who aided and sheltered them, were in constant threat of losing their lives.
Bishop Laurent Imbert and ten other French missionaries were the first Paris Foreign Mission Society priests to enter Korea and to embrace a different culture. During the daytime, they kept in hiding, but at night they travelled about on foot attending to the spiritual needs of the faithful and administering the sacraments. The first Korean priest, Andrew Kim Taegon, succeeded in entering Korea as a missionary. However, thirteen months after his ordination he was put to death by the sword in 1846 at the age of 26.
The Catholics gathering in one place with no distinction on the basis of class were perceived to undermine 'hierarchical Confucianism', the ideology which held the State together. The new learning was seen to be subversive of the establishment and this gave rise to systematic suppression and persecution. The suffering the believers endured is well known through official documents which detail trials and the sentences. There were four major persecutions – the last one in 1866, at which time there were only 20,000 Catholics in Korea. 10,000 had died. Those figures give a sense of the enormous sacrifice of the early Korean Catholics. (Other Christian denominations did not enter Korea until sometime later).The vast majority of the martyrs were simple lay people, including men and women, married and single, old and young.
More than 10,000 martyrs died in persecutions which extended over more than one hundred years. Of all these martyrs, seventy-nine were beatified in 1925. They had died in the persecutions of 1839 (Ki-hae persecution), 1846 (Pyong-o persecution) and 1866 (Pyong-in persecution). In addition, twenty-four martyrs were beatified in 1968 on the 6th of October.All together, 103 martyrs were canonized by Pope John Paul II on 6 May 1984. In a break with tradition, the ceremony did not take place in Rome, but in Seoul. Their feast day is September 20. Currently, Korea has the 4th largest number of saints in the Catholic world.
From the last letter of Andrew Kim Taegŏn to his parish as he awaited martyrdom with a group of twenty persons:
My dear brothers and sisters, know this: Our Lord Jesus Christ upon descending into the world took innumerable pains upon and constituted the holy Church through his own passion and increases it through the passion of its faithful....Now, however, some fifty or sixty years since the holy Church entered into our Korea, the faithful suffer persecutions again. Even today persecution rages, so that many of our friends of the same faith, among whom I am myself, have been thrown into prison....Since we have formed one body, how can we not be saddened in our innermost hearts? How can we not experience the pain of separation in our human faculties? However, as Scripture says, God cares for the least hair of our heads, and indeed he cares with his omniscience; therefore, how can persecution be considered as anything other than the command of God, or his prize, or precisely his punishment?...We are twenty here, and thanks be to God all are still well. If anyone is killed, I beg you not to forget his family. I have many more things to say, but how can I express them with pen and paper? I make an end to this letter. Since we are now close to the struggle, I pray you to walk in faith, so that when you have finally entered into Heaven, we may greet one another. I leave you my kiss of love.
In the early 1870s, Father Claude-Charles Dallet compiled a comprehensive history of the Catholic Church in Korea, largely from the manuscripts of martyred Bishop Antoine Daveluy. The Korean Martyrs were known for the staunchness, sincerity, and number of their converts. An English lawyer and sinologist Edward Harper Parker observed that
Coreans, unlike Chinese and Japanese, make the most staunch and devoted converts.... The Annamese make better converts than either Chinese or Japanese, whose tricky character, however, they share; but they are gentler and more sympathetic; they do not possess the staunch masculinity of the Coreans.
According to Ernst Oppert,
An observation, founded upon many years' experience, may not be out of place here, and that is, that among all Asiatic nationalities there is probably none more inclined to be converted to Christianity than the Corean....He becomes a Christian from conviction, not from any mercenary motives.
Bishop and martyr Simeon Francois Berneux wrote,
The Corean possesses the most perfect dispositions for receiving the faith. Once convinced, he accepts and attaches himself to it, in spite of all sacrifices it may cost him.
Rev. Francis Goldie stated,
Certainly few countries, if any, have to tell of such a painful apostolate, or of one which has had such success. Japan alone in later days can boast a martyrology at all to compare with that of Corea in the number of the slain, or in the heroism of those who died for Christ.
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The Christian community first began to take shape when Yi Sung-hun started to study Christian doctrine by himself and was eventually baptized and given the name Peter in 1784. Because of their belief in the Christian God, the first Korean Christians were persecuted repeatedly, rejected by their families, and suffered a loss of their social rank. Despite persecutions, the faith continued to spread.
The Christian community in Korea was given the assistance of two Chinese priests, but their ministry was short-lived, and another forty years passed before the Paris Foreign Mission Society began its work in Korea with the arrival of Father Mauban in 1836. A delegation was selected and sent to Beijing on foot, 750 miles, in order to ask the Bishop of Beijing to send them bishops and priests.
The same appeal was made to the Pope in Rome. Serious dangers awaited the missionaries who dared to enter Korea. The bishops and priests who confronted this danger, as well as the lay Christians who aided and sheltered them, were in constant threat of losing their lives.
In fact, until the granting of religious liberty in Korea in 1886, there was a multitude of "disciples who shed their blood, in imitation of Christ Our Lord, and who willingly submitted to death, for the salvation of the world" (Lumen Gentium, 42). Among those who died, and were later labelled as martyrs, were eleven priests and ninety-two lay people who would be canonized as saints.
Bishop Laurent Imbert and ten other French missionaries were the first Paris Foreign Mission Society priests to enter Korea and to embrace a different culture for the love of God. During the daytime, they kept in hiding, but at night they travelled about on foot attending to the spiritual needs of the faithful and administering the sacraments.
The first Korean priest, Andrew Kim Tae-gon, prompted by his faith in God and his love for the Christian people, found a way to make the difficult task of a missionary entry into Korea. However, just thirteen months after his ordination he was put to death by the sword when he was just 26 years old and the holy oils of ordination were still fresh on his hands.
Paul Chong Ha-sang, Augustine Yu Chin-gil and Charles Cho Shin-chol had made several visits to Beijing in order to find new ways of introducing missionaries into Korea. Since the persecution of 1801, there had been no priest to care for the Christian community. Finally, they succeeded in opening a new chapter in the history of the extension of the Church in Korea with the arrival of a bishop and ten priests of the Paris Foreign Mission Society.
Among the martyrs honored were fifteen virgins, including the two sisters Agnes Kim Hyo-ju and Columba Kim Hyo-im who loved Jesus with undivided heart (I Cor.7, 32–34). These women, in an era when Christian religious life was still unknown in Korea, lived in community and cared for the sick and the poor. Similarly, John Yi Kwang-hyol died a martyr's death after having lived a life of celibacy in consecrated service to the Church.
It is also important to recall in a special way some of the other martyrs who were canonized that day: Damien Nam Myong-hyok and Maria Yi Yon-hui were models of family life; John Nam Chong-sam, though of high social rank, was a model of justice, chastity and poverty; John Pak Hu-jae who, after he lost his parents in the persecutions, learnt to survive by making straw sandals; Peter Kwon Tug-in who devoted himself to meditation; Anna Pak A-gi who, although she did not have a deep grasp of Christian doctrine, was wholly devoted to Jesus and His Blessed Mother; and finally, Peter Yu Tae-chol who at the tender age of 13, bravely confessed his faith and died a martyr.
More than 10,000 martyrs died in persecutions which extended over more than one hundred years. Of all these martyrs, seventy-nine were beatified in 1925. They had died in the persecutions of 1839 (Ki-hae persecution), 1846 (Pyong-o persecution) and 1866 (Pyong-in persecution). In addition, twenty-four martyrs were beatified in 1968. All together, 103 martyrs were canonized on 6 May 1984 - on the shores of the Han River and in view of the martyrs' shrines at Saenamto and Choltusan, where they went to their eternal reward
Yun Ji Chung Paul and his 123 companions have been the foundation of the Korean Catholic Church until this day. They played a pivotal role in evangelization with their pious faith which contributed to the growth of faithful in Korea. The testimony of their faith attributed as great encouragement to all the believers in the early stage of Catholicism in Korea, where many suffered martyrdom.
Among Yun Ji Chung Paul and his fellow 123 Martyrs, fifty three of most of them suffered from persecution during the Shinyoo persecution period(1801). Prior to Shinyoo persecution, three Martyrs during Shinhae persecution(1791), three Martyrs during Eulmyo persecution(1795) and eight Martyrs were persecuted during the Jeongsa persecution(1797). Martyrs persecuted after the Shinyoo persecution are one Martyr in 1841, twelve(1815) and two(1819) respectively during the Eulhae persecution, four in Jeonghae persectution(1827), eighteen in Kihae persecution(1839), twenty during the Byeongin persecution(1866–1888). Regionally persecution was executed throughout the country. In the capital of Chosun, Hanyang, 38, Gyeongsan province 29, Jeongra province 24, Choongchung province 18, Gyeonggi province 12, Gangwon province 3. Hanyang, the capital was the region where most severe persecution was conducted.
The 124 Martyrs exhibited astonishing bravery in faith and witnessed the Love of God with their lives. Martyrs' confession of faith for love in Jesus Christ culminated with the sacrifice of their lives. Yun Ji Chung was the first Martyr during the Shinhae persecution which occurred in 1791, in the 15th year under the reign of King Jeong(1791). Yun Ji Chung Paul testified God as the "Almighty Father of all mankind". He testified "A man can go against a King or their parents, but never can I disobey the Almighty Lord, our Father". Yun strongly believed that he can glorify the Lord through his death. We must take a moment to reflect on the historical background of Chosun Dynasty. It was the time when fidelity towards parents and loyalty to the King dominated common value. Our Martyrs respected the King and loved their parents but their priority was the profound faith they had in God. Their love and faith in the Almighty Father ousted materialism and even mankind. Yun Ji Chung is distinguished as the representative of his fellow Martyrs because he was the very first Martyr from the land where Christianity, unprecedentedly sprout from laity without missionaries.
The abundant fruits of the 124 Martyrs continue to grow vividly not only in their dioceses, but throughout the whole Korean Church now until today. Many Catholics and their shepherds are inspired by the faith and love they have shown. Their testimony of faith came to be recognized immediately after the Beatification of the 103 Saints presided by John Paul II in 1984.
Yun Ji-chung Paul (1759–1791): Yun Ji-chung Paul, the first Chosun martyr killed for his Catholic faith, was born in 1759 to a noble family in Jinsan, Jeolla-do. Yun Ji-heon Francis, who was martyred during the Shinyu Persecution of 1801, was his younger brother.
In 1783, Yun passed the first state examination and learned about Catholicism for the first time through his cousin Jung Yak Yong John. After being baptized in 1787, he preached the Catholic doctrine to his mother, younger brother, and cousin Kwon Sang Yeon James. He also kept in touch with Yoo Hang Geom Augustine to keep up mission work.
In 1791, Bishop Gouvea of Beijing ordered a ban on traditional ancestral rites within his diocese. Yun Ji Chung and Kwon Sang Yeon, in accordance with the Church's commands, set their families ancestral tablets on fire. Chung's mother died the following year. She requested to receive a Catholic funeral which her son duly provided for her. These actions angered the royal family.
News of Yun's actions led to dispute in the royal court. In the end, Jeongjo backed the Noron faction push to oppress Catholicism and ordered the arrest of Yun and Kwon.
The governor of Jinsan went to Yun's house. He discovered the absence of the family's ancestral plates. At the time the pair were in hiding. Upon hearing that Yuns's uncle had been taken into custody they handed themselves into the authorities.
In the face of calls to renounce their Catholic faith the pair refused. The governor judged that getting them to abandon their religion was beyond him. They were sent to a government building in Jeonju. The pair continued to refuse apostasy despite interrogation and torture. An official report on the situation was delivered to the royal court. Opinion within the court was in favour of the death penalty. Jeongjo supported this view and ordered their execution. On the 8th of the December 1791 Yun and Kwon were beheaded.
This episode is referred to as the 'Jinsan incident'.
Fr. Jacob Zhou Wenmo (1752–1801): The first missionary priest to be dispatched to Chosun. Born in Suzhou, China in 1752, he lost his parents early in life and were raised by his grandmother. He entered Catholic by himself and became a priest as one of the first graduates at Beijing Archdiocese seminary. At that time, Bishop Gouvea in Beijing was planning to send a clergy to Chosun. He chose Father Ju, who had a strong faith and looked similar to Chosun people. After leaving Beijing in February 1794, Father Ju waited at Yodong area until the Amnokgang River froze enough to cross across. On the appointed date, he went to a town located on the border between China and Chosun to meet secret envoys sent from Chosun and entered Chosun on the night of December 24. Since then, Father Ju stayed at the house of a faithful to learn Hangul, the Korean alphabets. On Easter of 1795, he held a mass with the faithful for the first time. However, after his entry was revealed, he escaped to female President Kang Wan Sook (Colomba)'s house and continued to pray in many areas in secrecy. The number of the faithful increased to 10,000 after six years but as the Catholic Persecution of 1801 occurred and the faithful were forced to confess the location of Father Ju, he decided to surrender on March 11 of that year. On May 31, Father Ju was decapitated at Saenamteo area near Han River at the age of 49.
Yun Yoo Il Paul (1760–1795): A secret envoy from Beijing who helped missionary to enter Chosun. He was born in Yeoju, Kyungki-do in 1760. After moving to Yanggeun, he encountered Catholic while studying under Kwon Chul Shin. He learned Catholic doctrine from Kwon Il Shin, the younger brother of Kwon Chul Shin, and entered into Catholic. He then preached the doctrine to his family. In 1789, Yun Yoo Il was selected as a secret envoy by the church leaders to report the situation of Chosun church to Bishop Gouvea. Thus, he went to Beijing two times: in 1789 and in 1790. In 1791, Bishop Gouvea's plan to dispatch a priest failed and persecution took place in Chosun. Nonetheless, Yun Yoo Il continued to endeavor to dispatch a priest. In 1794, he finally succeeded in bringing Father Ju Mun Mo to Chosun. Since then, he was responsible for keeping in contact with Beijing church. In 1795, Yun Yoo Il was arrested along with Ji Hwang (Sabas), Choi In Gil (Mathew). They were tortured to tell the location of Father Ju, but their strong endurance and wise response rather confused the persecutors. As a result, the three of them were beaten to death on June 28 of that year, when Yun Yoo Il was 35, Ji Hwang 28, and Choi In Gil 30.
Jeong Yak Jong Augustinus (1760–1801): The first Catholic lay theologian in Korea. In 1760, he was born into a family of scholars in Majae (current Neungnae-ri Joan-myeon, Namyangju-si Gyeonggi-go). He is the father of Jeong Chul Sang(Charles ?-1801) who will be beatified together with the 123 Blessed and St. Jeong Ha Sang Paul (martyred in 1839), who was declared saint in 1984. After learning Catholic doctrine from his older brother Jeong Yak Jeon in 1786, he moved to Yanggeon Bunwon (current Bunwon-ri, Namjeong-myeon, Gwangju-gun, Gyeonggi-go) to live a life of faith and preached a doctrine to his neighbors while participating in church activities. After Father Ju Mun Mo came in 1794, Jeong Yak Jong often visited Han Yang to help church work. He also wrote two easy Hangul textbooks called 'Jugyo-yoji' a Catechism in the Korean language and distributed them to Christians with Father Ju's approval. Moreover, he became the first president of a layperson association called 'Myeongdo-hoe' which was organized by Father Ju. When persecution began in his hometown in 1800, Jeong Yak Jong and his family moved to Han Yang. However, Catholic Persecution of 1801 began in the following year and Jeong Yak Jong was arrested. As he tried to preach the righteousness of Catholic doctrine to persecutors, he was decapitated at Seosomun in 15 days after he was arrested. When he was martyred, he said "I'd rather die looking up at the sky than to die looking down at the ground" and was decapitated while looking up at the sky. That was 8 April 1801, when he was at age 41.
Kang Wan Sook Columba (1761–1801): Female leader of Chosun Catholic. In 1761, she was born to a concubine of a noble family in Naepo area in ChungCheong-do. She learned about Catholic soon after she was married and practiced doctrine by reading Catholic books. During the persecution in 1791, she was imprisoned while taking care of the imprisoned faithful. Kang Wan Sook guided her mother-in-law and her son from previous marriage (Hong Pil Joo Phillips, martyred in 1801) to enter Catholic but she could not make her husband enter Catholic. Later, when her husband got a concubine, Kang Wan Sook and her husband lived separately. After hearing that the faithful in Han Yang are well-informed with Catholic doctrine, she moved to Han Yang with her mother-in-law and her son. She provided financial support to Christians working on recruiting a clergy and was baptized by Father Ju Mun Mo. Knowing her fine personality, Father Ju appointed Kang Wan Sook as a female President to take care of the faithful. When a persecution in 1795 took place, Kang Wan Sook took advantage of the fact that persecutors cannot search a house owned by a woman and let Father Ju to take refuge in her house. Her house was also used for the faithful's assembly. On April 6, 1801, Kang Wan Sook helped Father Ju to escape while being arrested. Although persecutors tried to trace Father Ju's whereabouts through her, she refused to confess. On 2 July, she was decapitated outside Seosomun at age 40.
Yu Hang-geom Augustine (1756–1801): The priest of Ho Nam. Yu Hang-geum Augustine was born in 1756 in Chonam, Jeonju. He learned the catechism soon after Catholicism was introduced to Korea in 1784 and became a Catholic. His sons Yu Jung-cheol John, Yu Mun-seok John and his daughter-in-law Yi Sun-i Lutgarda and his nephew Yu Jung-seong Matthew will be beatified along with Yu Hang-geom Augustine. He showed compassion and gave alms to poor neighbors as well as to his servants. Augustine Yu was appointed as pastor of Jeolla-do region when in the spring of 1786, the leaders of the Catholics held a meeting and appointed clergy at their own discretion. Afterwards, Augustine Yu returned to his hometown and celebrated Mass and administered the Sacraments to the faithful. However, after a while, the leaders of the Catholics understood that such an act was a sacrilege. As soon as this was brought to his attention, he stopped immediately. When the Persecution of 1801 broke out, Augustine Yu, who was recognized as the head of the Church in the Jeolla-do region, was first to be arrested. He was taken to Seoul (Hanyang) from Jeon ju where he underwent interrogation and torture at the Police Headquarters. However, since he was already determined to die a martyr, he neither betrayed the other believers nor said anything that would harm the Church. The persecutors, despite all their efforts, could not et any of the information they were looking for. Hence, they charged him with the crime of treason and ordered that he be executed. With this decision, Augustine Yu was transferred back to Jeonju, where he was hacked to pieces outside the South Gate of Jeonju.
Hwang Il-gwang Simon (1757–1802): Hwang Il-gwang Simon was born in Hongju, Chungcheong-do to a low-class family. Around 1792, he moved to Hongsan, where he went to see Yi Jon-chang Louis Gonzaga to learn about the Catholic teaching. After he understood the faith, he left his hometown and moved to Gyeongsang-do to have more freedom to practice his religious life. The Catholics knew about the social status of Simon Hwang, but they welcomed him with open hearts and surrounded him with Christian charity. On receiving such treatment he sometimes made jokes as follows: "Here, everybody treats me as a human being despite my low-class status. Now, I believe that Heaven exists here and hereafter." In 1800 Simon Hwang moved to the neighboring house of Jeong Yak-jong Augustine and when Augustine Jeong moved to Seoul (Hanyang), he also moved to Seoul (Hanyang) with his younger brother and made his living by selling firewood. In 1801, Simon Hwang was arrested while he was on his way to the mountain to get firewood. By stating that the Catholic religion is a 'holy religion', he was cruelly beaten to the point that one of his legs was broken. Simon Hwang was then transferred to his hometown Hong ju and was beheaded. It was on 30 January 1802 when Simon Hwang was 45 years old.
Yi Sun-I Lutgarda (1782–1802): A couple who kept their virginity through faith Yi Sun-I Lutgarda was born in 1782 to a well-known noble family. Her brothers Yi Gyeong-do Charles (martyred in 1801) and Yi Gyeong-eon Paul (martyred in 1827), and her husband Yu Jung-cheol John (martyred in 1801) will be beatified with her. Yi Yun-ha. Matthew, Lutgarda Yi's father, inherited the scholarship of his maternal grandfather Yi Ik who was a renowned scholar of the time. Matthew Yi became a Catholic in 1784, soon after Catholicism was introduced to Korea, when he met Kwon Chol-sin, and Kwon Il-sin. Lutgarda Yi received her First Holy Communion from Father Zhou Wen-mo James and made a vow of chastity. However, in the society of that time, it was extremely difficult for a young woman to remain single. When she was 15 years old, Lutgarda confessed to her mother that she had decided to keep her vow of chastity for God. Her mother agreed with her decision and consulted Father James Zhou. Father James Zhou remembered that Yu Jung-cheol John also wanted to live a life of celibacy. Hence, he immediately sent a messenger and arranged their marriage. In 1798, Lutgarda Yi went to her husband's hometown, Chonam in Jeonju and made a vow to live a celibate life. During Shinyu Persecution in 1801, Yu Hang-gom Augustine, her father-in-law, was first arrested. Lutgarda Yi was arrested later and was taken to Jeonju. Lutgarda Yi was condemned to exile and left for Hamgyeong-do. However soon the police followed them and arrested them again. On 31 January 1802, Lutgarda Yi was taken to the execution ground in Jeonju, called 'Supjeongi' and was beheaded. Lutgarda Yi was 20 years old. The letter she wrote while she was imprisoned in Jeonju still remains until today and testifies for the values of Catholics of the time.
Kim Jin-hu Pius (1739–1814): The ancestor of the St. Kim Taegon Andrew. Kim Jin-hu Pius was born in Solmoe, Chungcheong-do. He was the great-grandfather of St. Kim Taegon Andrew and the father of Kim Jong-han Andrew, who was martyred in 1816 and who will be beatified with the 123 Blessed. Pius Kim encountered Catholicism when his eldest son learned the catechism from Yi Jon-chang Gonzaga and taught it to his brothers. Then, Pius Kim was about 50 years old. As he obtained a small government post from the governor, he strongly refused the advice of his children. However, as his sons kept persuading him, he gradually drawn towards Jesus Christ and quitted his government position to focus on fulfilling religious duties. When Pius Kim was arrested during the Sinhae persecution in 1791, he professed his faith in God. He was arrested four to five more times but was released each time. He was also arrested during the Shinyu Persecution in 1801, but was exiled and set free. Pius Kim was arrested again in 1805 and was taken to Haemi. This time, he behaved like a real Catholic and professed his faith in God without hesitation. He stayed in prison for a long time without being sentenced to death. In prison, the officials and prison guards respected him for his noble and dignified personality and conduct. He spent 10 years in prison, during which he endured the sufferings and pains of prison. He died in prison on 1 December 1814 at the age of 75.
Yi Seong-rye (1801–1840): Mother who inherited faith to her children She was born in 1801 in Hongju, Chungcheong-do. She was from the family of Louis Gonzaga Yi Jon-chang. At the age of 17, she married St. Francis Choe Kyeong-hwan and lived in Darakgol, Hongju. In 1821 she gave birth to their first son, Thomas Choe Yang-up. Due to the danger of persecution the family had to move frequently but Yi Seong-rye told biblical stories to her children and taught them to endure difficulties and to be patient. After settling down in Surisan (currently Gunpo-city, Gyeonggi-do) she helped her husband to set up the Christian village. Meanwhile, her son Thomas Choe Yang-up was chosen to be a candidate for the seminarian and was sent to Macau to study theology. In 1839, during Gihae persecution her husband went back and forth Hanyang (now Seoul) to take care of the bodies of the Martyrs, she supported her husband and finally was arrested by the police with her whole family in Surisan. She suffered painfully not because of the torture, but because of her maternal love for her new-born baby who was nearly starved to death due to lack of milk from his mother. Yi could no longer abandon her baby so she yielded to defy her faith and was released from prison. When her eldest son left to China to be a seminarian, she was imprisoned once again. When she was sentenced to death, with divine grace and prayers from her Catholic friends, she overcame all the temptation and was sent to Danggogae (now Wonhyoro 2-ga, Yongsan-gu, Seoul) to be beheaded at the age of 39.
Pope John Paul II, speaking at the canonization, said, "The Korean Church is unique because it was founded entirely by lay people. This fledgling Church, so young and yet so strong in faith, withstood wave after wave of fierce persecution. Thus, in less than a century, it could boast of 10,000 martyrs. The death of these martyrs became the leaven of the Church and led to today's splendid flowering of the Church in Korea. Even today their undying spirit sustains the Christians in the Church of silence in the north of this tragically divided land". [ citation needed ]After the canonization of the 103 Martyrs, the Catholic Church in Korea felt that the martyrs who died in the other persecutions also need to be recognized. In 2003, the beatification process for 124 martyrs who died in persecutions between 1791 and 1888 began.
They were declared Venerable by Pope Francis on 7 February 2014. The group is headed by Paul Yun Ji-Chung, a nobleman who converted to Catholicism and refused to have his deceased mother buried under the traditional Confucian rite. His refusal led to a massive persecution of Christians called the Sinhae Persecution in 1791. Paul was beheaded on 8 December 1791, together with his cousin, James Kwon Sang-yeon. They were the first members of the Korean Nobility to be killed for the faith. Among the martyrs in this group are Fr. James Zhou Wen-mo (1752–1801), a Chinese priest who secretly ministered to the Christians in Korea; Augustine Jeong Yak-Jong (1760–1801), the husband of St. Cecilia Yu So-sa and father of Sts. Paul Chong Ha-sang and Elizabeth Chong Chong-hye; Columba Kang Wan-suk (1761–1801), known as the "catechist of the Korean Martyrs"; Augustine Yu Hang-geom (1756–1801), also known as the "apostle of Jeolla-do"; and Maria Yi Seong-rye (1801–1840), the wife of St. Francis Choe Kyeong-hwan. Also included in the group are Augustine Yu Hang-geom's son John Yu Jeong-cheol (1779–1801) and his wife Lutgarda Yi Sun-i (1782–1802). They both decided to live celibate lives in order to fully dedicate themselves to God, but the Confucian society, which greatly valued furthering the family line, made it impossible for them to live as celibates. Fr. James Zhou introduced the two to each other and suggested them to marry each other and live as a "virgin couple". The two were married in 1797 and were martyred 4 years later.[ citation needed ]
The Museum-Shrine, which contains rooms for liturgical celebration and prayer, was built in 1967 on the site in Jeoldusan, where many of the Korean martyrs died from 1866 to 1873. The Shrine-Museum presents numerous historical documents, visual reconstructions, photographs and documentaries. The Christian community suffered harsh persecutions, especially in the second half of the 1800s. In 2004 the Archdiocese of Seoul opened its investigation into the cause for beatification of the Servant of God Paul Yun Ji-Chung and his 123 companions who in 1791 were tortured and killed in odium fidei, in hatred of the faith.
The Korean independence movement was a military and diplomatic campaign to achieve the independence of Korea from Japan. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Korea's domestic resistance peaked in the March 1st Movement, which was crushed and sent Korean leaders to flee into China. In China, Korean independence activists built ties with the National Government of the Republic of China which supported the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (KPG), as a government in exile. At the same time, the Korean Liberation Army, which operated under the Chinese National Military Council and then the KPG, led attacks against Japan.
Jeong Yakyong / Jung Yak-Yong, often simply known as ‘Dasan’, was born on the 16th day of the 6th lunar month, 1762, in Gwangju county, Gyeonggi province, and died there on the 22nd day of the 2nd lunar month, 1836. He was one of the greatest thinkers of the later Joseon period, wrote highly influential books about philosophy, science and theories of government, held significant administrative positions, was a close confidant of King Jeongjo, and was noted as a poet. His philosophical position is often identified with the Silhak school, and his concerns are better seen as explorations of Neo-Confucian themes. He spent 18 years in exile in Gangjin, South Jeolla province, from 1801 until 1818, on account of his membership of the Southerners (Nam-in) faction, and also because of the Catholic faith of his elder brother. His clan originated in Naju, South Jeolla Province. At birth he was given the courtesy title Gwi’nong (歸農), and later he was also known by the ja Miyong (美鏞) and Songbu (頌甫)美庸); among his ho were Saam (俟菴), Tagong (籜翁), Taesu (苔叟), Jahadoin (紫霞道人), Cheolmasanin (鐵馬山人), Dasan (茶山), Yeoyudang, and Mundo. Korean Catholics sometimes claim that he was baptized with the name John Baptist, but there is no documentary proof of this.
Yi Seung-Hun was one of the first Roman Catholic martyrs in Korea. He was born in 1756 in Seoul. His father was Soam Yi Dong-uk who rose to the rank of champan (vice-minister) and, after possible initial interest, fiercely opposed the spread of Catholic teachings. His mother was a sister of Yi Ga-hwan, one of the Catholics executed with him in 1801. Yi Seung-hun first came into contact with Catholicism via Yi Byeok in 1779. In 1783-4, he accompanied his father on a diplomatic mission to Beijing, China, and on the suggestion of Yi Byeok contacted the Catholic priests there. He was baptised in Beijing in the spring of 1784. This was the first time that a member of the Korean yangban class was formally baptised as a Christian and he returned to Korea with books, crucifixes, and other Catholic artifacts. Yi Byeok then seems to have taken some time to study the books before declaring himself convinced. He then set about evangelizing those around him, including Gwon Cheol-sin and his younger brother Gwon Il-sin. This was also the moment when he spoke of the Catholic faith to the brothers Jeong Yak-jong, Jeong Yak-jeon, and Jeong Yak-Yong (who recorded the event in his epitaph myojimyeong.
Jeong Yak-jong, also known as Augustine Chong, was a Korean Roman Catholic martyr who contributed greatly to the spread of Roman Catholicism in Korea. He was an older brother of Jeong Yak-yong and the father of Paul Chong Hasang. He wrote the first Catholic catechism using only Korean letters so that he could reach out to the common people as well as the nobles who were the only ones in Korean society who could read Chinese characters. He was first converted to Catholicism himself by Chinese priest Chou Wen-Mu.
Parliamentary elections were held in North Korea on 2 November 1986. 655 Deputies were elected to the parliament.
Parliamentary elections were held for the first Supreme People's Assembly of the soon-to-be established Democratic People's Republic of Korea on 25 August 1948. Organised by the People's Committee of North Korea, the elections saw 572 deputies elected, of which 212 were from North Korea and 360 from South Korea.
Parliamentary elections were held for the second Supreme People's Assembly in North Korea on 27 August 1957. Voters were presented with a single list from the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea.
Paul Chong Hasang was one of the Korean Martyrs. His feast day is September 22, and he is also venerated along with the rest of the 103 Korean martyrs on September 20.
Portrait of a Beauty is a 2008 South Korean film directed by Jeon Yun-su. Adapted from the bestselling novel Painter of the Wind by Lee Jung-myung, the film portrays Joseon-era painter Shin Yun-bok as being a woman disguised as a man.
Yi Byeok was a scholar of Korea’s later Joseon period who, in 1784, played a leading role in the foundation of Korea’s first Roman Catholic community. It is reported in one source that his original name was Yi Taek-jo.
The Easterners were a political faction of the Joseon dynasty. This faction appeared during the reign of Seonjo of Joseon in sixteenth century Korea. Originating from friends of Gim Hyowon, they soon encompassed most of the disciples of Jo Sik and Yi Hwang, conflicting with Yi I and his followers, who formed the core of the Westerners. Though emerging as the dominant faction in the 1580s, it nearly collapsed at the suicide of Jeong Yeorip and the succeeding bloodshed in 1589. After Westerner Jeong Cheol was exiled for attempting to make Prince Gwanghae the Crown Prince, the Easterners divided into Northerners and Southerners.
Marshal Ri Ul-sol was a North Korean politician and military official. He played an important role in the administrations of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il, achieving the rank of Marshal of the Korean People's Army. He was responsible for the safety of top North Korean leaders and their families as Commander of the Guard.
God of War is a 2012 South Korean television series starring Kim Joo-hyuk as the real-life historical figure Kim Jun who was written about in the Goryeosa. It aired on MBC from February 11 to September 15, 2012 on Saturdays and Sundays at 20:40 for 56 episodes.
Choe Yang-Eop Thomas, also spelled Ch'oe Yang-Ōp Thomas, was a Korean Roman Catholic priest during the Joseon dynasty, who travelled across Eastern Asia as a seminarian and priest before settling at last after a period of persecution back in his homeland where he administered to hidden Christians until his death.
My First First Love is a South Korean web television series starring Ji Soo, Jung Chae-yeon and Jung Jin-young. The first season was released on Netflix on April 18, 2019. The second season was released on July 26, 2019.
Agatha Kwon Chin-i (1820–1840) is a Korean saint and martyr. She was born in 1820, to a government official and his wife, St. Magdalene Han Yong-i, who was martyred on December 29, 1839. Agatha was married at a young age, about 12 or 13 years old, but her husband was too poor to care for her, so she lived with her relatives. Agatha worked as a housekeeper for Chinese priest Yu Pang-che Pacificus during his visit to Korea; on her request, he had her marriage annulled "so that she could be a virgin". Yu returned to China after rumors spread about their relationship, and although they subsided, she "was repentant and determined to make up for it by offering herself as a martyr to God".
St. Agatha Yi Kyong-i (1814–1840) is a Korean saint and martyr. She was born in a Catholic family. She married a eunuch; her bishop advised her to separate from her husband, and she went to live with St. Agatha Kwon Chin-i because her mother was too poor to support her. She converted her family to the Christian faith, visited and helped many Catholics, and wanted to be a martyr for her faith. Agatha was arrested with Chin-i and a servant girl, and placed under house arrest. Their guards, "who had pity on them", helped all three women escape. The servant girl, however, was re-captured, and told her captors where the other women were hiding; they were re-arrested and the guards who helped them escape were punished by their superiors. They were severely tortured and beaten, "but they would not give up their faith". At the age of 27, Agatha was beheaded on January 31, 1840, with five other Catholics, including Chin-i, in Danggogae in what is now the Yongsan district of Seoul.