Last updated

Sistine jonah.jpg
Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo on the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Born9th century BCE
Died8th century BCE [1]
Venerated in Judaism
Major shrine Tomb of Jonah (destroyed), Mosul, Iraq
Parent(s)Rivka, Amittai
Feast September 21 (Roman Catholicism) [2]

Jonah or Jonas [lower-alpha 1] is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE. He is the eponymous central figure of the Book of Jonah, in which he is called upon by God to travel to Nineveh and warn its residents of impending divine wrath. Instead, Jonah boards a ship to Tarshish. Caught in a storm, he orders the ship's crew to cast him overboard, whereupon he is swallowed by a giant fish. Three days later, after Jonah agrees to go to Nineveh, the fish vomits him out onto the shore. Jonah successfully convinces the entire city of Nineveh to repent, but waits outside the city in expectation of its destruction. God shields Jonah from the sun with a plant, but later sends a worm to cause it to wither. When Jonah complains of the bitter heat, God rebukes him.

Hebrew Bible Canonical collection of Hebrew scripture

The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The Hebrew Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.

Old Testament First part of Christian Bibles based on the Hebrew Bible

The Old Testament is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God. The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament.

Prophet person claiming to speak for divine beings

In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.


In Judaism, the story of Jonah represents the teaching of teshuva , which is the ability to repent and be forgiven by God. In the New Testament, Jesus calls himself "greater than Jonah" and promises the Pharisees "the sign of Jonah", which is his resurrection. Early Christian interpreters viewed Jonah as a type for Jesus. Later, during the Reformation, Jonah came to be seen instead as an archetype for the "envious Jew". Jonah is regarded as a prophet in Islam and the biblical narrative of Jonah is repeated, with a few notable differences, in the Quran. Mainstream Bible scholars generally regard the Book of Jonah as fictional [3] and often at least partially satirical, [4] [5] but the character of Jonah may have been based on the historical prophet of the same name mentioned in 2 Kings 14:25.

Judaism The ethnic religion of the Jewish people

Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion, philosophy, and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. It encompasses a wide body of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world.

Repentance in Judaism

Repentance is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism. Judaism recognizes that everybody sins on occasion, but that people can stop or minimize those occasions in the future by repenting for past transgressions. Thus, the primary purpose of repentance in Judaism is ethical self transformation.

God in Judaism The concept of God in the Jewish faith

In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways. Traditionally, Judaism holds that YHWH, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, and gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah. According to the rationalist stream of Judaism articulated by Maimonides, which later came to dominate much of official traditional Jewish thought, God is understood as the absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Traditional interpretations of Judaism generally emphasize that God is personal yet also transcendent, while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is a force or ideal.

Although the word "whale" is often used in English versions of the Jonah story, the Hebrew text actually uses the phrase dag gadol, which means "giant fish". In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the species of the fish that swallowed Jonah was the subject of speculation for naturalists, who interpreted the story as an account of a historical incident. Some modern scholars of folklore have noted similarities between Jonah and other legendary figures, such as Gilgamesh and the Greek hero Jason.

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

Gilgamesh Sumerian ruler and protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC. He probably ruled sometime between 2800 and 2500 BC and was posthumously deified. He became a major figure in Sumerian legends during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh's legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems. The earliest of these is probably Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects called a mikku and a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu's death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld. The poem Gilgamesh and Agga describes Gilgamesh's revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh's defeat of the ogre Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven and a fifth, poorly preserved one apparently describes his death and funeral.

Jason Greek mythological hero

Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero and leader of the Argonauts, whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. He was also the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side.

Book of Jonah

Jonah and the Whale (1621) by Pieter Lastman Pieter Lastman - Jonah and the Whale - Google Art Project.jpg
Jonah and the Whale (1621) by Pieter Lastman

Jonah is the central character in the Book of Jonah, in which God commands him to go to the city of Nineveh to prophesy against it "for their great wickedness is come up before me," [6] but Jonah instead attempts to flee from "the presence of the Lord" by going to Jaffa (sometimes transliterated as Joppa or Joppe), and sailing to Tarshish. [7] A huge storm arises and the sailors, realizing that it is no ordinary storm, cast lots and discover that Jonah is to blame. [8] Jonah admits this and states that if he is thrown overboard, the storm will cease. [9] The sailors refuse to do this and continue rowing, but all their efforts fail and they are eventually forced to throw Jonah overboard. [10] As a result, the storm calms and the sailors then offer sacrifices to God. [11] Jonah is miraculously saved by being swallowed by a large fish, in whose belly he spends three days and three nights. [12] While in the great fish, Jonah prays to God in his affliction and commits to thanksgiving and to paying what he has vowed. [13] God then commands the fish to vomit Jonah out. [14]

Yahweh God of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah

Yahweh was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah. His exact origins are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age and even the Late Bronze: his name may have begun as an epithet of El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon, but the earliest plausible mentions of Yahweh are in Egyptian texts that refer to a similar-sounding place name associated with the Shasu nomads of the southern Transjordan. Some scholars believe that Yahweh was originally thought to be one of the seventy sons of El, who later killed his siblings and displaced his father El at the head of the Israelite pantheon.

Nineveh ancient Assyrian city, capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire

Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Today it is a common name for the half of Mosul that lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris.

Jaffa Old part of the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo

Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo and in Arabic Yaffa and also called Japho or Joppa, the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel. Jaffa is famous for its association with the biblical stories of Jonah, Solomon and Saint Peter as well as the mythological story of Andromeda and Perseus, and later for its oranges.

Jonah Preaching to the Ninevites (1866) by Gustave Dore Dore jonah.jpg
Jonah Preaching to the Ninevites (1866) by Gustave Doré

God again commands Jonah to travel to Nineveh and prophesy to its inhabitants. [15] This time he goes and enters the city, crying, "In forty days Nineveh shall be overthrown." [16] After Jonah has walked across Nineveh, the people of Nineveh begin to believe his word and proclaim a fast. [17] The king of Nineveh puts on sackcloth and sits in ashes, making a proclamation which decrees fasting, the wearing of sackcloth, prayer, and repentance. [18] God sees their repentant hearts and spares the city at that time. [19] The entire city is humbled and broken with the people (and even the animals) [20] [21] in sackcloth and ashes. [22]

Displeased by this, Jonah refers to his earlier flight to Tarshish while asserting that, since God is merciful, it was inevitable that God would turn from the threatened calamities. [23] He then leaves the city and makes himself a shelter, waiting to see whether or not the city will be destroyed. [24] God causes a plant (in Hebrew a kikayon ) to grow over Jonah's shelter to give him some shade from the sun. [25] Later, God causes a worm to bite the plant's root and it withers. [26] Jonah, now being exposed to the full force of the sun, becomes faint and pleads for God to kill him. [27]

Kikayon (קִיקָיוֹן) is the Hebrew name of a plant mentioned in the Biblical Book of Jonah.

But God said to Jonah: "Do you have a right to be angry about the vine?" And he said: "I do. I am angry enough to die."
But the LORD said: "You have been concerned about this vine, though you did not tend it or make it grow. It sprang up overnight, and died overnight.
But Nineveh has more than a hundred and twenty thousand people who cannot tell their right hand from their left, and many cattle as well. Should I not be concerned about that great city?"

Jonah 4:9-11 (NIV)

Religious views

In Judaism

Illustration of Jonah being swallowed by the fish from the Kennicott Bible, folio 305r (1476), in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Kennicott Bible 305r.l.jpg
Illustration of Jonah being swallowed by the fish from the Kennicott Bible, folio 305r (1476), in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

The Book of Jonah (Yonah יונה) is one of the twelve minor prophets included in the Tanakh. According to one tradition, Jonah was the boy brought back to life by Elijah the prophet in 1 Kings 17 . [28] Another tradition holds that he was the son of the woman of Shunem brought back to life by Elisha in 2 Kings 4 [29] and that he is called the "son of Amittai" (Truth) due to his mother's recognition of Elisha's identity as a prophet in 2 Kings 17:24 . [29] The Book of Jonah is read every year, in its original Hebrew and in its entirety, on Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement, as the Haftarah at the afternoon mincha prayer. [30] [31] According to Rabbi Eliezer, the fish that swallowed Jonah was created in the primordial era [32] and the inside of its mouth was like a synagogue; [32] the fish's eyes were like windows [32] and a pearl inside its mouth provided further illumination. [32]

According to the Midrash, while Jonah was inside the fish, it told him that its life was nearly over because soon the Leviathan would eat them both. [32] Jonah promised the fish that he would save them. [32] Following Jonah's directions, the fish swam up alongside the Leviathan [32] and Jonah threatened to leash the Leviathan by its tongue and let the other fish eat it. [32] The Leviathan heard Jonah's threats, saw that he was circumcised, and realized that he was protected by the Lord, [32] so it fled in terror, leaving Jonah and the fish alive. [32] The medieval Jewish scholar and rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra (1092 – 1167) argued against any literal interpretation of the Book of Jonah, [33] stating that the "experiences of all the prophets except Moses were visions, not actualities." [33] The later scholar Isaac Abarbanel (1437 – 1509), however, argued that Jonah could have easily survived in the belly of the fish for three days, [34] because "after all, fetuses live nine months without access to fresh air." [35]

Teshuva – the ability to repent and be forgiven by God – is a prominent idea in Jewish thought. This concept is developed in the Book of Jonah: Jonah, the son of truth (the name of his father "Amitai" in Hebrew means truth), refuses to ask the people of Nineveh to repent. He seeks the truth only, and not forgiveness. When forced to go, his call is heard loud and clear. The people of Nineveh repent ecstatically, "fasting, including the sheep," and the Jewish scripts are critical of this. [36] The Book of Jonah also highlights the sometimes unstable relationship between two religious needs: comfort and truth. [37]

In Christianity

In his fresco The Last Judgment, Michelangelo depicted Christ below Jonah (IONAS) to qualify the prophet as his precursor. Last Judgement (Michelangelo) - Jonah and Jesus.jpg
In his fresco The Last Judgment , Michelangelo depicted Christ below Jonah (IONAS) to qualify the prophet as his precursor.

In the Book of Tobit

Jonah is mentioned twice in the fourteenth chapter of the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, [38] the conclusion of which finds Tobit's son, Tobias, at the extreme age of 127 years, rejoicing at the news of Nineveh's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus in apparent fulfillment of Jonah's prophecy against the Assyrian capital. [38]

In the New Testament

In the New Testament, Jonah is mentioned in Matthew 12:38–41 and 16:4 and in Luke 11:29–32 . [39] In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus makes a reference to Jonah when he is asked for a sign by some of the scribes and the Pharisees. [40] [41] Jesus says that the sign will be the sign of Jonah: [40] [41] Jonah's restoration after three days inside the great fish prefigures His own resurrection. [40]

39He answered, "A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. 40For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 41The men of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and now something greater than Jonah is here."

Gospel of Matthew, 12:39–41 (New International Version)

Matthew 12:41-42 and Luke 11:31–32 assert in parallel wording that Jesus is greater than Jonah and greater than Solomon. [40]

Post-Biblical views

Russian Orthodox icon of Jonah, 16th century (Iconostasis of Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia) Jonah.jpg
Russian Orthodox icon of Jonah, 16th century (Iconostasis of Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia)

Jonah is regarded as a saint by a number of Christian denominations. His feast day in the Roman Catholic Church is on 21 September, according to the Martyrologium Romanum . [2] On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, Jonah's feast day is on 22 September (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar; 22 September currently falls in October on the modern Gregorian calendar). [42] In the Armenian Apostolic Church, moveable feasts are held in commemoration of Jonah as a single prophet and as one of the Twelve Minor Prophets. [43] [44] [45] Jonah's mission to the Ninevites is commemorated by the Fast of Nineveh in Syriac and Oriental Orthodox Churches. [46] Jonah is commemorated as a prophet in the Calendar of Saints of the Missouri Synod of the Lutheran Church on 22 September. [47]

Christian theologians have traditionally interpreted Jonah as a type for Jesus Christ. [48] Jonah being in swallowed by the giant fish was regarded as a foreshadowing of Jesus's crucifixion [49] and the fish vomiting Jonah out onto the beach was seen as a parallel for Jesus's resurrection. [49] Saint Jerome equates Jonah with Jesus's more nationalistic side, [50] and justifies Jonah's actions by arguing that "Jonah acts thus as a patriot, not so much that he hates the Ninevites, as that he does not want to destroy his own people." [50]

Other Christian interpreters, including Saint Augustine and Martin Luther, have taken a directly opposite approach, [51] regarding Jonah as the epitome of envy and jealousness, which they regarded as inherent characteristics of the Jewish people. [52] Luther likewise concludes that the kikayon represents Judaism, [53] and that the worm which devours it represents Christ. [54] Luther also questioned the idea that the Book of Jonah was ever intended as literal history, [55] commenting that he found it hard to believe that anyone would have interpreted it as such if it had never been included in the Bible. [55] Luther's antisemitic interpretation of Jonah remained the prevailing interpretation among German Protestants throughout early modern history. [56] J. D. Michaelis comments that "the meaning of the fable hits you right between the eyes", [52] and concludes that the Book of Jonah is a polemic against "the Israelite people's hate and envy towards all the other nations of the earth." [52] Albert Eichhorn was a strong supporter of Michaelis's interpretation. [57]

John Calvin and John Hooper regarded the Book of Jonah as a warning to all those who might attempt to flee from the wrath of God. [58] While Luther had been careful to maintain that the Book of Jonah was not written by Jonah, [59] Calvin declared that the Book of Jonah was Jonah's personal confession of guilt. [59] Calvin sees Jonah's time inside the fish's belly as equivalent to the fires of Hell, intended to correct Jonah and set him on the path of righteousness. [60] Also unlike Luther, Calvin finds fault with all the characters in the story, [59] describing the sailors on the boat as "hard and iron-hearted, like Cyclops'", [59] the penitence of the Ninevites as "untrained", [59] and the king of Nineveh as a "novice". [59] Hooper, on the other hand, sees Jonah as the archetypal dissident [61] and the ship he is cast out from as a symbol of the state. [61] Hooper deplores such dissidents, [61] decrying: "Can you live quietly with so many Jonasses? Nay then, throw them into the sea!" [62] In the eighteenth century, German professors were forbidden from teaching that the Book of Jonah was anything other than a literal, historical account. [55]

In Islam

Jonah and the giant fish in the Jami' al-tawarikh (c. 1400), Metropolitan Museum of Art Jonah and the Whale, Folio from a Jami al-Tavarikh (Compendium of Chronicles).jpg
Jonah and the giant fish in the Jami' al-tawarikh (c. 1400), Metropolitan Museum of Art


Jonah (Arabic : يُونُس, romanized: Yūnus) is the title of the tenth chapter of the Quran. He is traditionally viewed as highly important in Islam as a prophet who was faithful to Allah and delivered His messages. Jonah is only one of the Twelve Minor Prophets to be mentioned by name in the Quran. [63] In Surahs 21:87 and 68:48, Jonah is called Dhul-Nūn (Arabic : ذُو ٱلنُّوْن; meaning "The One of the Fish"). [64] In 4:163 and 6:86, he is referred to as "an apostle of Allah". [64] Surah 37:139-148 retells the full story of Jonah: [64]

So also was Jonah among those sent (by Us).
When he ran away (like a slave from captivity) to the ship (fully) laden,
He (agreed to) cast lots, and he was condemned:
Then the big Fish did swallow him, and he had done acts worthy of blame.
Had it not been that he (repented and) glorified Allah,
He would certainly have remained inside the Fish till the Day of Resurrection.
But We cast him forth on the naked shore in a state of sickness,
And We caused to grow, over him, a spreading plant of the gourd kind.
And We sent him (on a mission) to a hundred thousand (men) or more.
And they believed; so We permitted them to enjoy (their life) for a while.

Quran, chapter 37 (As-Saaffat), verses 139–148 [65]

The Quran never mentions Jonah's father, [64] but Muslim tradition teaches that Jonah was from the tribe of Benjamin and that his father was Amittai. [63]


Jonah trying to hide his nakedness in the midst of bushes; Jeremiah in the wilderness (top left); Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem. Ottoman Turkish miniature, 16th century. Jonah and the fish Jeremiah in wilderness Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem.JPG
Jonah trying to hide his nakedness in the midst of bushes; Jeremiah in the wilderness (top left); Uzeyr awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem. Ottoman Turkish miniature, 16th century.

Jonah is also mentioned in a few incidents during the lifetime of Muhammad. In some instances, Jonah's name is spoken of with praise and reverence by Muhammad. According to historical narrations about Muhammad's life, after ten years of receiving revelations, Muhammad went to the city of Ta’if to see if its leaders would allow him to preach his message from there rather than Mecca, but he was cast from the city by the people. He took shelter in the garden of Utbah and Shaybah, two members of the Quraysh tribe. They sent their servant, Addas, to serve him grapes for sustenance. Muhammad asked Addas where he was from and the servant replied Nineveh. "The town of Jonah the just, son of Amittai!" Muhammad exclaimed. Addas was shocked because he knew that the pagan Arabs had no knowledge of the prophet Jonah. He then asked how Muhammad knew of this man. "We are brothers" Muhammad replied. "Jonah was a Prophet of God and I, too, am a Prophet of God." Addas immediately accepted Islam and kissed the hands and feet of Muhammad. [67]

One of the sayings of Muhammad, in the collection of Imam Bukhari, says that Muhammad said "One should not say that I am better than Jonah". [68] [69] [70] [71] A similar statement occurs in a hadith written by Yunus bin Yazid, the second caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. [71] Umayya ibn Abi al-Salt, an older contemporary of Muhammad, taught that, had Jonah not prayed to Allah, he would have remained trapped inside the fish until Judgement Day, [71] but, because of his prayer, Jonah "stayed only a few days within the belly of the fish". [71]

The ninth-century Persian historian Al-Tabari records that, while Jonah was inside the fish, "none of his bones or members were injured". [71] Al-Tabari also writes that Allah made the body of the fish transparent, allowing Jonah to see the "wonders of the deep" [72] and that Jonah heard all the fish singing praises to Allah. [72] Kisai Marvazi, a tenth-century poet, records that Jonah's father was seventy years old when Jonah was born [71] and that he died soon afterwards, [71] leaving Jonah's mother with nothing but a wooden spoon, which turned out to be a cornucopia. [71]

Tomb at Nineveh

Photograph of the ruins of the mosque of Yunus, following its destruction by ISIL Ruins of the Mosque of Yunus.png
Photograph of the ruins of the mosque of Yunus, following its destruction by ISIL

Nineveh's current location is marked by excavations of five gates, parts of walls on four sides, and two large mounds: the hill of Kuyunjik and hill of Nabi Yunus (see map link in footnote). [73] A mosque atop Nabi Yunus was dedicated to the prophet Jonah and contained a shrine, which was revered by both Muslims and Christians as the site of Jonah's tomb. [74] The tomb was a popular pilgrimage site [75] and a symbol of unity to Jews, Christians, and Muslims across the Middle East. [75] On July 24, 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) destroyed the mosque containing the tomb as part of a campaign to destroy religious sanctuaries it deemed to be idolatrous. [76] [75] [77] After Mosul was taken back from ISIL in January 2017, an ancient Assyrian palace dating to around 600 BCE was discovered beneath the ruined mosque. [75] [78] ISIL had plundered the palace of items to sell on the black market, [75] [78] but some of the artifacts that were more difficult to transport still remained in place. [75] [78]

Other reputed locations of Jonah's tomb include the Arab village of Mashhad, located on the ancient site of Gath-hepher, [39] the Palestinian West Bank town of Halhul, 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Hebron, [79] and a sanctuary near the city of Sarafand (Sarepta) in Lebanon. [80]

Scholarly interpretations


The consensus of mainstream Biblical scholars holds that the contents of the Book of Jonah are entirely ahistorical. [81] [82] [3] Although the prophet Jonah allegedly lived in the eighth century BCE, [1] the Book of Jonah was written centuries later during the time of the Achaemenid Empire. [1] [83] The Hebrew used in the Book of Jonah shows strong influences from Aramaic [1] and the cultural practices described in it match those of the Achaemenid Persians. [1] [21] Many scholars regard the Book of Jonah as an intentional work of parody or satire. [4] [5] [84] [85] [86] [87] If this is the case, then it was probably admitted into the canon of the Hebrew Bible by sages who misunderstood its satirical nature [88] [86] [87] and mistakenly interpreted it as a serious prophetic work. [88] [86] [87]

While the Book of Jonah itself is considered fiction, [81] [82] [3] Jonah himself may have been a historical prophet; [89] he is briefly mentioned in the Second Book of Kings: [90] [3]

He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath unto the sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke by the hand of His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher.

2 Kings 14:25, JPS (1917)

Most scholars believe that the anonymous author of the Book of Jonah may have seized upon this obscure prophet from 2 Kings and used him as the basis for the fictional character of Jonah, [91] but some have contended that the figure of Jonah himself is entirely legendary. [82]

Parodic elements

Modern restoration of the Adad gate at Nineveh in a photograph taken prior to the gate's total destruction by ISIL in April 2016. The Book of Jonah exaggerates the size of Nineveh far beyond what it actually was historically. Nineveh Adad gate exterior entrance far2.JPG
Modern restoration of the Adad gate at Nineveh in a photograph taken prior to the gate's total destruction by ISIL in April 2016. The Book of Jonah exaggerates the size of Nineveh far beyond what it actually was historically.

The views expressed by Jonah in the Book of Jonah are a parody of views held by members of Jewish society at the time when it was written. [5] [93] [85] The primary target of the satire may have been a faction whom Morton Smith calls "Separationists", [94] who believed that God would destroy those who disobeyed him, [85] that sinful cities would be obliterated, [85] and that God's mercy did not extend to those outside the Abrahamic covenant. [94] McKenzie and Graham remark that "Jonah is in some ways the most 'orthodox' of Israelite theologians – to make a theological point." [85] Jonah's statements throughout the book are characterized by their militancy, [85] [95] but his name ironically means "dove", [85] [95] a bird which the ancient Israelites associated with peace. [85]

Jonah's rejection of God's commands is a parody of the obedience of the prophets described in other Old Testament writings. [96] The king of Nineveh's instant repentance parodies the rulers throughout the other writings of the Old Testament who disregard prophetic warnings, such as Ahab and Zedekiah. [87] The readiness to worship God displayed by the sailors on the ship and the people of Nineveh contrasts ironically with Jonah's own reluctance, [97] as does Jonah's greater love for kikayon providing him shade than for all the people in Nineveh. [97]

The Book of Jonah also employs elements of literary absurdism; [21] it exaggerates the size of the city of Nineveh to an implausible degree [1] [21] and incorrectly refers to the administrator of the city as a "king". [1] [21] According to scholars, no human being could realistically survive for three days inside a fish, [1] and the description of the livestock in Nineveh fasting alongside their owners is "silly". [21] The motif of a protagonist being swallowed by a giant fish or whale became a stock trope of later satirical writings. [98] Similar incidents are recounted in Lucian of Samosata's A True Story , which was written in the second century CE, [99] and in the novel Baron Munchausen's Narrative of his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia , published by Rudolf Erich Raspe in 1785. [100] The story of a man surviving after being swallowed by a whale or giant fish is classified as ATU 1889G. [101]

The fish


Depiction of Jonah and the "great fish" on the south doorway of the Gothic-era Dom St. Peter, in Worms, Germany Germany Worms Cathedral Jonah.jpg
Depiction of Jonah and the "great fish" on the south doorway of the Gothic-era Dom St. Peter, in Worms, Germany

Though it is often called a whale today, the Hebrew, as throughout scripture, refers to no species in particular, simply saying "great fish" or "big fish" (whales are today classified as mammals and not fish, but no such distinction was made in antiquity). While some biblical scholars suggest the size and habits of the great white shark correspond better to the representations given of Jonah's being swallowed, normally an adult human is too large to be swallowed whole. The development of whaling from the 18th century onwards made it clear that most, if not all, species of whale were incapable of swallowing a man, leading to much controversy about the veracity of the biblical story of Jonah. [102]

In Jonah 2:1 (1:17 in English translations), the Hebrew text reads dag gadol [103] (דג גדול) or, in the Hebrew Masoretic Text, dāḡ gā·ḏō·wl (דָּ֣ג גָּד֔וֹל), which means "great fish." [103] [104] The Septuagint translates this phrase into Greek as kētei megalōi (κήτει μεγάλῳ), meaning "huge fish". [105] In Greek mythology, the same word meaning "fish" ( kêtos ) is used to describe the sea monster slain by the hero Perseus that nearly devoured the Princess Andromeda. [106] Jerome later translated this phrase as piscis grandis in his Latin Vulgate. He translated kétos, however, as ventre ceti in Matthew 12:40 : this second case occurs only in this verse of the New Testament. [107] [108]

At some point cetus became synonymous with "whale" (the study of whales is now called cetology ). In his 1534 translation, William Tyndale translated the phrase in Jonah 2:1 as "greate fyshe" and the word kétos (Greek) or cetus (Latin) in Matthew 12:40 as "whale". Tyndale's translation was later incorporated into the Authorized Version of 1611. Since then, the "great fish" in Jonah 2 has been most often interpreted as a whale. In English some translations use the word "whale" for Matthew 12:40, while others use "sea creature" or "big fish". [109]

Scientific speculation

Photograph of a whale shark, the largest known species of fish Whale shark Georgia aquarium.jpg
Photograph of a whale shark, the largest known species of fish

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, naturalists, interpreting the Jonah story as a historical account, became obsessed with trying to identify the exact species of the fish that swallowed Jonah. [111] In the mid-nineteenth century, Edward Bouverie Pusey, professor of Hebrew at Oxford University, claimed that the Book of Jonah must have been authored by Jonah himself [112] and argued that the fish story must be historically true, or else it would not have been included in the Bible. [112] Pusey attempted to scientifically catalogue the fish, [113] hoping to "shame those who speak of the miracle of Jonah's preservation in the fish as a thing less credible than any of God's other miraculous doings". [114]

The debate over the fish in the Book of Jonah played a major role during Clarence Darrow's cross-examination of William Jennings Bryan at the Scopes Trial in 1925. [115] [116] [55] Darrow asked Bryan "When you read that... the whale swallowed Jonah... how do you literally interpret that?" [115] Bryan replied that "a God who can make a whale and can make a man and make both of them do what He pleases." [115] [55] Bryan ultimately admitted that it was necessary to interpret the Bible, [115] and is generally regarded as having come off looking like a "buffoon". [116]

The largest whales—baleen whales, a group which includes the blue whale—eat plankton and "it is commonly said that this species would be choked if it attempted to swallow a herring." [117] As for the whale shark, Dr. E. W. Gudger, an Honorary Associate in Ichthyology at the American Museum of Natural History, notes that, while the whale shark does have a large mouth, [118] its throat is only four inches wide, with a sharp elbow or bend behind the opening, [118] meaning that not even a human arm would be able to pass through it. [118] He concludes that "the whale shark is not the fish that swallowed Jonah." [118]

Cultural influence

Depiction of Jonah in a champleve enamel (1181) by Nicholas of Verdun in the Verduner altar at Klosterneuburg abbey, Austria. Jonah in the whale detail Verdun altar.jpg
Depiction of Jonah in a champlevé enamel (1181) by Nicholas of Verdun in the Verduner altar at Klosterneuburg abbey, Austria.

In Turkish, "Jonah fish" (in Turkish yunus baligi) is the term used for dolphins. [119] A long-established expression among sailors uses the term, "a Jonah", to mean a sailor or a passenger whose presence on board brings bad luck and endangers the ship. [120] Later, this meaning was extended to mean, "a person who carries a jinx, one who will bring bad luck to any enterprise." [121]

Despite its brevity, the Book of Jonah has been adapted numerous times in literature and in popular culture. [122] [123] In Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Father Mapple delivers a sermon on the Book of Jonah. Mapple asks why Jonah does not show remorse for disobeying God while he is inside of the fish. He comes to the conclusion that Jonah admirably understands that "his dreadful punishment is just." [124] Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) features the title character and his father Geppetto being swallowed by a whale, an allusion to the story of Jonah. [125] Walt Disney's 1940 film adaptation of the novel retains this allusion. [126] The story of Jonah was adapted into Phil Vischer and Mike Nawrocki's animated film Jonah: A VeggieTales Movie (2002). In the film, Jonah is swallowed by a gargantuan whale. [127] The film was Big Idea Entertainment's first full-length theatrical release [128] and, on its first weekend, it earned approximately $6.5 million. [129]

Suggested connections to legends

Jonah being swallowed by a great toothed sea-monster. Sculpted column capital from the nave of the abbey-church in Mozac, France, 12th century. Chapiteau Mozac Jonas 1.JPG
Jonah being swallowed by a great toothed sea-monster. Sculpted column capital from the nave of the abbey-church in Mozac, France, 12th century.

Joseph Campbell suggests that the story of Jonah parallels a scene from the Epic of Gilgamesh , in which Gilgamesh obtains a plant from the bottom of the sea. [130] In the Book of Jonah, a worm (in Hebrew tola'ath, "maggot") bites the shade-giving plant's root causing it to wither; [130] whereas in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh ties stones to his feet and plucks his plant from the floor of the sea. [130] [131] Once he returns to the shore, the rejuvenating plant is eaten by a serpent. [130] [132]

Campbell also noted several similarities between the story of Jonah and that of Jason in Greek mythology. [130] The Greek rendering of the name Jonah is Jonas, which differs from Jason only in the order of sounds—both os are omegas suggesting that Jason may have been confused with Jonah. [130] Gildas Hamel, drawing on the Book of Jonah and Greco-Roman sources—including Greek vases and the accounts of Apollonius of Rhodes, Gaius Valerius Flaccus and Orphic Argonautica—identifies a number of shared motifs, including the names of the heroes, the presence of a dove, the idea of "fleeing" like the wind and causing a storm, the attitude of the sailors, the presence of a sea-monster or dragon threatening the hero or swallowing him, and the form and the word used for the "gourd" (kikayon). [133] Hamel takes the view that it was the Hebrew author who reacted to and adapted this mythological material to communicate his own, quite different message. [134]

See also


  1. Hebrew: יוֹנָהYōnāh, "dove"; Greek: ἸωνᾶςIōnâs; Arabic: يونسYūnus, Yūnis or يونانYūnān; Latin: Ionas

Related Research Articles

Book of Amos book of the Bible

The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition. Amos, an older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah, was active c. 750 BC during the reign of Jeroboam II, making Amos the first prophetic book of the Bible to be written. Amos lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

Book of Joel book of the Bible

The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible, one of twelve prophetic books known as the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Book of Jonah book of the Bible

The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi'im ("Prophets") in the Hebrew Bible. It tells of a Hebrew prophet named Jonah son of Amittai who is sent by God to prophesy the destruction of Nineveh but tries to escape the divine mission. Set in the reign of Jeroboam II (786–746 BC), it was probably written in the post-exilic period, some time between the late 5th to early 4th century BC. The story has a long interpretive history and has become well known through popular children's stories. In Judaism, it is the Haftarah portion read during the afternoon of Yom Kippur to instill reflection on God's willingness to forgive those who repent; it remains a popular story among Christians. It is also retold in the Quran.

Book of Nahum book of the Bible

The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Nahum, and was probably written in Jerusalem in the 7th century BC.

Book of Habakkuk Book of the Bible

The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and was probably composed in the late 7th century BC.

Elijah Biblical prophet

Elijah or latinized form Elias was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab. In 1 Kings 18, Elijah defended the worship of the Hebrew God over that of the Canaanite deity Baal. God also performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection, bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by fire". He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets". Following his ascension, Elisha, his disciple and most devoted assistant took over his role as leader of this school. The Book of Malachi prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD", making him a harbinger of the Messiah and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings.

Habakkuk prophet of the Hebrew Bible

Habakkuk, who was active around 612 BC, was a prophet whose oracles and prayer are recorded in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. He is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

Isaiah Hebrew prophet

Isaiah was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet after whom the Book of Isaiah is named.

Nahum minor prophet

Nahum was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. His book comes in chronological order between Micah and Habakkuk in the Bible. He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style.

Jeremiah Biblical prophet

Jeremiah, also called the "weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the Books of Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple.

Ishmael son of Abraham

Ishmael, a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran, was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar). According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137.

Yunus (surah) 10th chapter of the Quran

Yūnus is the 10th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 109 verses (āyāt). Yūnus is named after the prophet Jonah. According to traditional islamic chronology, it is believed to have been formulated or "revealed" before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hegira), as such, it is known as a Meccan surah.

David in Islam Prophet and King in Islam

The biblical David, who was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning c. 1010–970 BCE, is also venerated in Islam as a prophet and messenger of God, and as a righteous, divinely-anointed monarch of the ancient United Kingdom of Israel, which itself is revered in Islam. Additionally, Muslims also honor David for having received the divine revelation of the Psalms. Mentioned sixteen times in the Quran, David appears in the Islamic scripture as a link in the chain of prophets who preceded Muhammad. Although he is not usually considered one of the "law-giving" prophets, "he is far from a marginal figure" in Islamic thought. In later Islamic traditions, he is praised for his rigor in prayer and fasting. He is also presented as the prototypical just ruler and as a symbol of God's authority on earth, having been at once a king and a prophet. David is particularly important to the religious architecture of Islamic Jerusalem.

Biblical and Quranic narratives Comparison between the texts of the Bible and the Qoran

The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible. While the stories told in each book are generally comparable, important differences sometimes emerge. The versions written in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament predate the Quran's versions. As such, Christians regard the Quran's versions as being derived directly or indirectly from the earlier materials. Muslims understand the Quran's versions to be witness accounts from an omnipotent God. As such, Muslims generally hold that the earlier versions are distorted through flawed processes of transmission and interpretation, and understand the Quran's versions to be more accurate to the actual events.

Islamic view of the Bible Islams view of the Bible

The Qur’an mentions the Torah, the Zabur ("Psalms") and the Injil ("Gospel") as being revealed by God to the prophets Moses, David and Jesus respectively in the same way the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad, the final prophet and messenger of God according to Muslims. However, Muslims generally view these books as having been corrupted, altered and interpolated over time, while maintaining that the Qurʾan remains as the final, unchanged and preserved word of God.

Prophets and messengers in Islam Individuals who Muslims believe were sent by God to various communities in order to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread Gods message on Earth

Prophets in Islam are individuals who Muslims believe were sent by God to various communities in order to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers, those who transmit divine revelation through the intercession of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.

Jonah 1

Jonah 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Jonah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Jonah, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Nahum 1

Nahum 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Nahum in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Nahum, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter describes the character of God in giving a fair judgment upon Nineveh.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Levine 2000, p. 71.
  2. 1 2 The Roman Martyrology. Westminster, Maryland: Newman Bookshop. 1944. p.  327.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Kripke 1980, p. 67.
  4. 1 2 Band 2003, pp. 105–107.
  5. 1 2 3 Ben Zvi 2003, pp. 18–19.
  6. Jonah 1:2
  7. Jonah 1:3
  8. Jonah 1:4-7
  9. Jonah 1:8-12
  10. Jonah 1:13-15
  11. Jonah 1:15-16
  12. Jonah 1:17
  13. Jonah 2:1-9
  14. Jonah 2:10
  15. Jonah 3:1-2
  16. Jonah 3:2-4
  17. Jonah 3:5
  18. Jonah 3:6-9
  19. Jonah 3:10
  20. Jonah 3:8
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Gaines 2003, p. 25.
  22. Jonah 3:
  23. Jonah 4:1-4
  24. Jonah 4:5
  25. Jonah 4:6
  26. Jonah 4:7
  27. Jonah 4:8
  28. Green 2005, pp. 126–127.
  29. 1 2 Green 2005, p. 127.
  30. Mirsky 1990, p. 354.
  31. Isaacs 2006, p. 65.
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Green 2005, p. 128.
  33. 1 2 Gaines 2003, p. 20.
  34. Gaines 2003, p. 18.
  35. Gaines 2003, pp. 18–19.
  36. "Sanhedrin", Babylonian Talmud, 61a.
  37. Bashevkin, Dovid. "Jonah and the Varieties of Religious Motivation." Archived 2016-10-12 at the Wayback Machine Lehrhaus. 9 October 2016. 11 October 2016.
  38. 1 2 Bredin 2006, pp. 47–50.
  39. 1 2 Limburg 1993, p. 39.
  40. 1 2 3 4 Stein 1994, p. 3.
  41. 1 2 Sanders 1993, p. 167.
  42. "Lives of all saints commemorated on September 22". Orthodox Church in America. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  43. "Commemoration of the Prophet Jonah". Diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Holy Church in Georgia. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  44. "Commemoration of the 12 Minor Prophets". Diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Holy Church in Georgia. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  45. "Commemoration Day of the 12 Minor Prophets. 24 July 2018". Saint Stepanos Armenian Apostolic Church of Elberon in New Jersey. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  46. "Three day fast of Nineveh". Syriac Orthodox Resources. 8 February 1998. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  47. "The Commemoration of Jonah, Prophet, 22 September". Concordia and Koinonia. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  48. Sherwood 2000, pp. 11–20.
  49. 1 2 Sherwood 2000, pp. 11–13.
  50. 1 2 Sherwood 2000, p. 20.
  51. Sherwood 2000, pp. 23–25.
  52. 1 2 3 Sherwood 2000, p. 25.
  53. Sherwood 2000, pp. 23–24.
  54. Sherwood 2000, p. 24.
  55. 1 2 3 4 5 Gaines 2003, p. 19.
  56. Sherwood 2000, pp. 24–26.
  57. Sherwood 2000, pp. 25–26.
  58. Sherwood 2000, pp. 32–33.
  59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sherwood 2000, p. 33.
  60. Sherwood 2000, pp. 34–36.
  61. 1 2 3 Sherwood 2000, pp. 39–40.
  62. Sherwood 2000, p. 40.
  63. 1 2 Encyclopedia of Islam, Yunus, pg. 348
  64. 1 2 3 4 Vicchio 2008, p. 67.
  65. Quran   37:139–148
  66. G’nsel Renda (1978). "The Miniatures of the Zubdat Al- Tawarikh". Turkish Treasures Culture /Art / Tourism Magazine. Archived from the original on 2016-09-04.
  67. Summarized from The Life of the Prophet by Ibn Hisham Volume 1 pp. 419–421
  68. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4:55:608
  69. Wheeler 2002, p. 172.
  70. Graham 1977, p. 167.
  71. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vicchio 2008, p. 73.
  72. 1 2 Vicchio 2008, p. 74.
  73. "Link to Google map with Nineveh markers at gates, wall sections, hills and mosque". 2013-03-19. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
  74. "ISIS destroys 'Jonah's tomb' in Mosul". Al Arabiya. 25 July 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014. The radical Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) group has destroyed shrines belonging to two prophets, highly revered by both Christians and Muslims, in the northern city of Mosul, al-Sumaria News reported Thursday. "ISIS militants have destroyed the Prophet Younis (Jonah) shrine east of Mosul city after they seized control of the mosque completely," a security source, who kept his identity anonymous, told the Iraq-based al-Sumaria News.
  75. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Farhan, Lawandow & Samuel 2017.
  76. Ford & Tawfeeq 2014.
  77. ISIS militants blow up Prophet Jonas’ tomb in Iraq – video Archived 2015-03-09 at the Wayback Machine RT. July 25, 2014
  78. 1 2 3 Ensor 2017.
  79. Friedman 2006, p. 64.
  80. Costa 2013, p. 97.
  81. 1 2 Ingram 2012, p. 140.
  82. 1 2 3 Levine 2000, pp. 71–72.
  83. Ben Zvi 2003, pp. 15–16.
  84. Ingram 2012, pp. 140–142.
  85. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 McKenzie & Graham 1998, p. 113.
  86. 1 2 3 Person 1996, p. 155.
  87. 1 2 3 4 Gaines 2003, pp. 22–23.
  88. 1 2 Band 2003, pp. 106–107.
  89. Kripke 1980, pp. 67–68.
  90. Doyle 2005, p. 124.
  91. Doyle 2005, pp. 124–125.
  92. Romey 2016.
  93. Band 2003, p. 106.
  94. 1 2 Band 2003, p. 105.
  95. 1 2 Ingram 2012, p. 142.
  96. Gaines 2003, p. 22.
  97. 1 2 Gaines 2003, p. 23.
  98. Ziolkowski 2007, pp. 74–81.
  99. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 76-77.
  100. Ziolkowski 2007, pp. 77–78.
  101. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 78.
  102. Kemp, Peter Kemp (1979). The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea. Oxford University Press. p. 434. ISBN   978-0-586-08308-6. Archived from the original on 2017-02-17.
  103. 1 2 "Yonah - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (LXX)". Blue Letter Bible . Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  104. Interlinear Bible: Greek, Hebrew, Transliterated, English ... Bible Hub. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  105. Robertson, A. T. (197x). Word Pictures in the New Testament – Matthew. CCEL. p.  99. ISBN   978-1-610-25188-4. ISBN   1-61025188-1. Archived from the original on 2016-12-06.
  106. Bremmer 2014, p. 28.
  107. Ziolkowski 2007, p. 81.
  108. Parris, David Paul (2015). Reading the Bible with Giants. How 2000 Years of Biblical Interpretation Can Shed New Light on Old Texts. Second Edition (2 ed.). Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN   978-1-625-64728-3. ISBN   1-62564728-X. Archived from the original on 2016-12-06. What is the way that Jerome...translated the references to the big fish in Jonah and Matthew. [...] In translating Matt 12:40, however, he follows the Greek text and says that Jonah was in the ventre ceti—the belly of the whale/sea monster" (p. 40).
  109. Huber, Walt; Huber, Rose (2013). How Did God Do It? A Symphony of Science and Scripture. Victoria, British Columbia: Friesen Press. ISBN   978-1-460-21127-4. ISBN   1-46021127-8. The word whale is never used in the book of Jonah. The only biblical reference to "Jonah and the whale" appears in the New Testament in Matthew 12:40 (KJV & RSV). [...] Whale is not used in the other translations: TEV uses big fish; NLT, great fish; and TNIV, huge fish" (p. 216).
  110. Wood, Gerald L. (1976). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Guinness Superlatives. ISBN   978-0-900424-60-1.
  111. Sherwood 2000, pp. 42–45.
  112. 1 2 Green 2011, p. 48.
  113. Sherwood 2000, pp. 47–48.
  114. Sherwood 2000, p. 48.
  115. 1 2 3 4 Smolla 1997.
  116. 1 2 Lidz 2016.
  117. Lydekker's New Natural History, Vol, III, p. 6
  118. 1 2 3 4 Gudger 1940, p. 227.
  119. Sevket Turet; Ali Bayram (1 May 1996). Practical English-Turkish handbook. Hippocrene Books. p. 361. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
  120. "Afflicted with a Jonah; The Sea Captain's Fear of Parsons' Sons" (PDF). The New York Times. March 6, 1885.
  121. "Jonah". Collins English Dictionary (Complete & Unabridged 11th ed.). Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  122. Green 2005, p. xv.
  123. Sherwood 2000, pp. 71–72.
  124. Lewis, John (2017-07-21). "The Problem with Herman Melville's Reading of the Book of Jonah". Mosaic . Archived from the original on 2018-02-13. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  125. Marrone 2007, p. 486.
  126. Pinsky 2004, p. 31.
  127. Deming, Mark. "Jonah: A VeggieTales Movie (2002)". AllMovie. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  128. Dunlap & Warren 2013, p. 238.
  129. Dunlap & Warren 2013, p. 240.
  130. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Campbell 1988, pp. 90–95.
  131. Dalley 1989, pp. 118–119.
  132. Dalley 1989, p. 119.
  133. Hamel 2015, pp. 1–20.
  134. Hamel 2015, pp. 18–20.