Pope Stephen IV

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Pope

Stephen IV
97-Stephen IV.jpg
19th century depiction of Pope Stephen IV
Papacy began22 June 816
Papacy ended24 January 817
Predecessor Leo III
Successor Paschal I
Personal details
Birth nameStephanus
Bornc. 770
Rome, Byzantine Empire
Died24 January 817
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named Stephen

Pope Stephen IV (Latin : Stephanus IV; c. 770 – 24 January 817) was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from June 816 to his death in 817. [1]

Papal States Territories mostly in the Appenine Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope between 752–1870

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia successfully unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

Contents

Stephen belonged to a noble Roman family. He was consecrated pope on or about 22 June 816. The following October, he crowned Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims, and persuaded the emperor to release some Roman political prisoners he held in custody. He returned to Rome, by way of Ravenna, sometime in November and died the following January.

Biography

The son of a Roman noble called Marinus, Stephen IV belonged to the same family which also produced the Popes Sergius II and Adrian II. [2] At a young age he was raised at the Lateran Palace during the pontificate of Pope Adrian I, and it was under Stephen's predecessor Pope Leo III that he was first ordained a Subdeacon before he was subsequently made a Deacon. Very popular among the Roman people, [3] within ten days of Leo III's death, he was escorted to Saint Peter's Basilica and consecrated Bishop of Rome on 22 June 816. It has been conjectured that his rapid election was an attempt by the Roman clergy to ensure that the emperor could not interfere in the election. [3]

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Pope Sergius II pope

Pope Sergius II was Pope from January 844 to his death in 847.

Pope Adrian II pope

Pope Adrian II was Pope from 14 December 867 to his death in 872. He was a member of a noble Roman family who became pope at an advanced age, despite his objections.

Immediately after his consecration he ordered the Roman people to swear fidelity to the Frankish king and Roman emperor Louis the Pious, after which Stephen sent envoys to the emperor notifying him of his election, and to arrange a meeting between the two at the emperor's convenience. [4] With Louis’ invitation, Stephen left Rome in August 816, crossing the Alps together with Bernard, the King of the Lombards, who was ordered to accompany Stephen to the emperor. [5] In early October, the Pope and Emperor met at Rheims, where Louis prostrated himself three times before Stephen. [6] At Mass on Sunday, 5 October 816, Stephen consecrated and anointed Louis as emperor, placing a crown on his head that was claimed to belong to Constantine the Great. [7] At the same time he also crowned Louis’ wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, and saluted her as Augusta . [8] This event has been seen as an attempt by the papacy to establish a role in the creation of an emperor, which had been placed in doubt by Louis' self-coronation in 813. [9]

Franks Germanic people

The Franks were a group of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They then imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, and still later they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.

Louis the Pious Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks and of Aquitaine

Louis the Pious, also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. He was also King of Aquitaine from 781. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed.

Bernard of Italy King of the Lombards

Bernard was the King of the Lombards from 810 to 818. He plotted against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious, when the latter's Ordinatio Imperii made Bernard a vassal of his cousin Lothair. When his plot was discovered, Louis had him blinded, a procedure which killed him.

While with Louis, the emperor gave Stephen a number of presents, including an estate of land (most likely at Vendeuvre-sur-Barse) granted to the Roman church. [10] They also renewed the pact between the Popes and the kings of the Franks, confirming the privileges of the Roman church, and the continued existence of the recently emerged Papal States. [11] Stephen also raised Bishop Theodulf of Orléans to the rank of Archbishop, and had Louis release from their exile all political prisoners originally from Rome who had been held by the emperor resulting from the conflict that plagued the early part of Pope Leo III's reign. [12] It is also believed that Stephen asked Louis to enforce reforms for the clergy who lived under the Rule of Chrodegang. This included ensuring that the men and women who lived there were to stay in separate convents, and that they were to hold the houses under a title of common property. He also regulated how much food and wine they could consume. [13]

Vendeuvre-sur-Barse Commune in Grand Est, France

Vendeuvre-sur-Barse is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.

Theodulf of Orléans Bishop and saint; hymnwriter

Theodulf of Orléans was a writer, poet and the Bishop of Orléans during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. He was a key member of the Carolingian Renaissance and an important figure during the many reforms of the church under Charlemagne, as well as almost certainly the author of the Libri Carolini, "much the fullest statement of the Western attitude to representational art that has been left to us by the Middle Ages". He is mainly remembered for this and the survival of the private oratory or chapel made for his villa at Germigny-des-Prés, with a mosaic probably from about 806. It was in Bible manuscripts produced under his influence that the Book of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah became part of the Western (Vulgate) Bible canon.

Archbishop Bishop of higher rank in many Christian denominations

In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, patriarchs, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, and suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops, priests, and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached.

After visiting Ravenna on his way back from Rheims, Stephen returned to Rome before the end of November 816. [14] Here, he apparently discontinued Leo III's policies of favouring clergy over lay aristocracy. After holding the traditional ordination of priests and bishops in December and confirming Farfa Abbey’s possessions on condition that every day the monks would recite one hundred "Kyrie Eleisons" as well as a yearly payment to the Roman Church of ten golden solidi, Stephen died on 24 January 817. [15] He was buried at St. Peter's, and was succeeded by Pope Paschal I. At some point, Stephen was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church. [16]

Ravenna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476. It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Eastern Roman Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards.

Farfa Abbey Church in Fara in Sabina, Italy

Farfa Abbey is a territorial abbey in northern Lazio, central Italy. It is one of the most famous abbeys of Europe. It belongs to the Benedictine Order and is located about 60 km from Rome, in the commune of Fara Sabina, of which it is also a hamlet.

Kyrie Christian liturgical prayer

Kyrie, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος (Kyrios), is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called the Kyrie eleison.

Notes

  1. Mann, Horace. "Pope Stephen (IV) V." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 19 September 2017
  2. Mann, pgs. 111–112
  3. 1 2 Mann, pg. 112
  4. Mann, pgs. 112–113
  5. Mann, pgs. 113–114
  6. Mann, pg. 114
  7. Duffy, pg. 77
  8. Mann, pg. 115
  9. Duffy, pg. 78
  10. Mann, pg. 117–118
  11. Mann, pg. 118
  12. Mann, pgs. 118–119
  13. Louis Marie DeCormenin; James L. Gihon, A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the First Bishop to Pius the Ninth, (1857) pg. 212
  14. Mann, pg. 119
  15. Mann, pgs. 119–120
  16. Artaud de Montor, The lives and times of the Roman Pontiffs, from St. Peter to Pius IX Volume 1 (1867), pg. 94

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Stephen (IV) V". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.

<i>Catholic Encyclopedia</i> English-language encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine".

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References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo III
Pope
816–817
Succeeded by
Paschal I