Pope John XIV

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Pope

John XIV
Pope John XIV Illustration.jpg
Papacy beganDecember 983
Papacy ended20 August 984
Predecessor Benedict VII
Successor John XV
Personal details
Birth namePietro Canepanova
Born Pavia, Italy
Died(984-08-20)20 August 984
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named John

Pope John XIV (Latin : Ioannes XIV; died 20 August 984) was Pope from December 983 to his death in 984. He was the successor to Pope Benedict VII.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the bishop of Rome and leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

Pope Benedict VII pope

Pope Benedict VII was Pope from October 974 to his death in 983.

John XIV was born at Pavia, and before his elevation to the papal chair was imperial Archchancellor for Italy of Emperor Otto II. [1] His earliest document in that capacity dates from 28 December 980, and the latest from 27 August 983. [2] Queen Adelheid of Burgundy, the widow of Otto I, and Queen Theophanu, the widow of Otto II, on behalf of Otto III as his regents, wished to make Majolus of Cluny pope in 983, but he refused, and Pietro Canepanova, Bishop of Pavia, was chosen instead. [3]

Pavia Comune in Lombardy, Italy

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Adelaide of Italy Queen of Italy, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire and Santa

Adelaide of Italy, also called Adelaide of Burgundy, was a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto the Great; she was crowned as the Holy Roman Empress with him by Pope John XII in Rome on 2 February 962. She was regent of the Holy Roman Empire as the guardian of her grandson in 991-995.

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Theophanu, was an Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, and regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son from 983 until her death in 990. She was the niece of the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes.

His original name was Pietro Canepanova, [4] but he took the name John XIV to avoid being linked to St. Peter himself.

Papal name the regnal name taken by the head of the Catholic Church

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Otto II died shortly after his election, his heir Otto III, being only 3 years old and unable to protect John's position as Pope. Antipope Boniface VII (974, 984–985), on the strength of the popular feeling against the new Pope, returned from Constantinople and placed John XIV in prison in the Castel Sant'Angelo, where he died either from starvation or poison. [5]

Antipope Boniface VII Antipope

Antipope Boniface VII, was an antipope. He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974; he carried off a vast treasure, and returned in 984 and removed Pope John XIV (983–984) from office. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances.

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

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Castel SantAngelo castle and museum in Rome

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. The structure was once the tallest building in Rome.

There has been considerable confusion of the number of Popes John. There was only the one John XIV. However, by the 13th century, clerical authorities in the Vatican came to wrongly believe that there were two John XIVs and began to double-count John XIV accordingly. This led to a pope calling himself John XXI, instead of John XX, in 1276.

Pope John XXI pope

Pope John XXI, born Peter Juliani, was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277. Apart from Damasus I, he has been the only Portuguese pope. He is sometimes identified with the logician and herbalist Peter of Spain, which would make him the only pope to have been a physician.

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References

  1. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John XIV."  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 435.
  2. Gerhard Schwart (1907), [https://archive.org/details/MN42020ucmf_1 Die Besetzung der Bistümer Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern: mit den Listen der Bischöfe, 951-1122 (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner) (in German), p. 142.
  3. J. N. D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986), "John XIV", p. 132.
  4. George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy: The Families And Descendants Of The Popes, (McFarland & Company, 1998), 232.
  5. Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Death and Life in the Tenth Century, (University of Michigan Press, 1967), 110.

Sources

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict VII
Pope
983–984
Succeeded by
John XV