Pope Urban III

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Pope

Urban III
B Urban III.jpg
Papacy began25 November 1185
Papacy ended20 October 1187
Predecessor Lucius III
Successor Gregory VIII
Orders
Consecration1182
Created cardinalSeptember 1173
by Pope Lucius III
Personal details
Birth nameUberto Crivelli
Born1120
Cuggiono, Holy Roman Empire
Died(1187-10-20)20 October 1187
Ferrara, Holy Roman Empire
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Other popes named Urban

Pope Urban III (Latin : Urbanus III; died 20 October 1187), born Uberto Crivelli, reigned from 25 November 1185 to his death in 1187. [1]

Contents

Life

Early life and papal election

Crivelli was born in Cuggiono as the son of Guala Crivelli and had four brothers: Pietro, Domenico, Pastore and Guala. He was, on his mother's side, the uncle of the future Pope Celestine IV. He studied in Bologna.

Cuggiono Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Cuggiono is a small Italian town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Milan, 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Milan on the Motorway A4 to Turin, gate of Marcallo-Mesero.

Pope Celestine IV pope

Pope Celestine IV, born Goffredo da Castiglione, was Pope from 25 October 1241 to his death on 10 November of the same year after a short reign of sixteen days.

Bologna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people.

In 1182, he was made a cardinal by Pope Lucius III. His original title is unknown, but he opted to be the Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina in 1182. Lucius appointed him Archbishop of Milan in 1185. Lucius III died on 25 November 1185; Cardinal Crivelli was elected that same day. [2] The haste was probably due to fear of imperial interference. [3]

Cardinal (Catholic Church) Senior official of the Catholic Church

A cardinal is a leading bishop and prince of College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. Their duties include participating in Papal consistories, and Papal conclaves, when the Holy See is vacant. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. During the sede vacante, the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. The right to enter the Papal conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs.

Pope Lucius III pope

Pope Lucius III, born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185.

Pontificate

He vigorously took up his predecessor's quarrels with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, including the standing dispute about the disposal of the territories of the countess Matilda of Tuscany. This was embittered by personal enmity, for at the sack of Milan in 1162 the emperor had caused several of the pope's relatives to be proscribed or mutilated. Even after his elevation to the papacy, Urban III continued to hold the archbishopric of Milan, and in this capacity refused to crown as King of Italy Frederick I's son Henry, who had married Constance, the heiress of the kingdom of Sicily. By this marriage the papacy lost that Norman support on which it had so long relied in its contests with the emperor. [3]

Holy Roman Emperor Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Emperor, officially the Emperor of the Romans, and also the German-Roman Emperor, was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

Matilda of Tuscany Italian feudal margrave of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy

Matilda of Tuscany was a powerful feudal Margravine of Tuscany, ruler in northern Italy and the chief Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy; in addition, she was one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments, thanks to which she was able to dominate all the territories north of the Papal States.

Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Henry VI, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death. From 1194 he was also King of Sicily.

Urban exerted himself to bring about peace between England and France, and on 23 June 1187, his legates by threats of excommunication prevented a pitched battle between the armies of the rival kings near Châteauroux, and brought about a two years' truce. [3]

While Henry in the south cooperated with the rebel Senate of Rome, his father Frederick blocked the passes of the Alps and cut off all communication between the Pope, then living in Verona, and his German adherents. Urban III now resolved on excommunicating Frederick I, but the Veronese protested against such a proceeding being resorted to within their walls. He accordingly withdrew to Ferrara, but died before he could give effect to his intentions. According to the chronicler Ernoul, he died of shock after Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre brought him news of the Christian defeat at the Battle of Hattin.

Roman Senate A political institution in ancient Rome

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome. It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries.

Excommunication Censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community

Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other. The purpose of the institutional act is to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular, those of being in communion with other members of the congregation, and of receiving the sacraments.

Ferrara Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara. As of 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants. It is situated 44 kilometres northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance, it has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

His successor was Gregory VIII.

See also

Notes

  1. Duffy, Eamon, Saints & sinners: A History of the Popes, (Yale University Press, 2001), 392.
  2. Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 249.
  3. 1 2 3 Webster, Douglas Raymund. "Pope Urban III." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Lucius III
Pope
1185–87
Succeeded by
Gregory VIII

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