Third Council of the Lateran

Last updated
Third Council of the Lateran
Date1179
Accepted by Catholic Church
Previous council
Second Council of the Lateran
Next council
Fourth Council of the Lateran
Convoked by Pope Alexander III
President Pope Alexander III
Attendance302
Topics Catharism and Waldensianism, church discipline
Documents and statements
twenty-seven canons, limitation of papal election to the cardinals, condemnation of simony
Chronological list of ecumenical councils

The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council. Pope Alexander III presided and 302 bishops attended.

Ecumenical council conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice

An ecumenical council is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.

Pope Alexander III 12th-century Pope

Pope Alexander III, born Roland of Siena, was pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

By agreement reached at the Peace of Venice in 1177 the bitter conflict between Alexander III and Emperor Frederick I was brought to an end. When Pope Adrian IV died in 1159, the divided cardinals elected two popes: Roland of Siena, who took the name of Alexander III, and Octavian of Rome who, though nominated by fewer cardinals, was supported by Frederick and assumed the name of Pope Victor IV. [1] Frederick, wishing to remove all that stood in the way of his authority in Italy, declared war upon the Italian states and especially the Church which was enjoying great authority. A serious schism arose out of this conflict, and after Victor IV's death in 1164, two further antipopes were nominated in opposition to Alexander III: Paschal III (11641168) and Callistus III (11681178). Eventually, at the Peace of Venice, when Alexander gained victory, he promised Frederick that he would summon an ecumenical council.

Pope Adrian IV Pope from 1154 to 1159

Pope Adrian IV, also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.

Victor IV was elected as a Ghibelline antipope in 1159, following the death of Pope Adrian IV and the election of Alexander III. His election was supported by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He took the name Victor IV, not accounting for Antipope Victor IV of 1138, whose holding of the papal office was deemed illegitimate.

Antipope Paschal III Italian priest and diplomat

Antipope Paschal III was, from 1164 to 20 September 1168, the second of the antipopes to challenge the reign of Pope Alexander III.

Besides removing the remains of the recent schism, the Council condemned the Cathar heresies and pushed for the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline. It also became the first general Council of the Church to legislate against sodomy.[ citation needed ] Three sessions were held, on 5, 14, and 19 March, in which 27 canons were promulgated.

Sodomy anal or oral sex with people, any sex with an animal, non-procreative sex

Sodomy or buggery is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity. Originally, the term sodomy, which is derived from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis, was commonly restricted to anal sex. Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized the behavior. In the Western world, many of these laws have been overturned or are not routinely enforced.

Canon law is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion. The way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies widely among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was originally a rule adopted by a church council; these canons formed the foundation of canon law.

The most important of these were:

Excommunication Censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community

Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other. The purpose of the institutional act is to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular, those of being in communion with other members of the congregation, and of receiving the sacraments.

Ordination religious process by which individuals are consecrated as clergy

Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorized to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by religion and denomination. One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination.

Antipope Callixtus III or Callistus III was antipope from September 1168 to 29 August 1178.

Among the many attendees at the Council was William of Tyre, the famous historian and, at the time, archbishop of Tyre. William was sent by Baldwin IV as the representative of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and wrote about the journey to the Council in his history. [4]

William of Tyre 12th-century clergyman, writer, and Archbishop of Tyre

William of Tyre was a medieval prelate and chronicler. As archbishop of Tyre, he is sometimes known as William II to distinguish him from his predecessor, William I, the Englishman and former Prior of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, who was Archbishop of Tyre from 1127 to 1135. He grew up in Jerusalem at the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which had been established in 1099 after the First Crusade, and he spent twenty years studying the liberal arts and canon law in the universities of Europe.

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tyre was an archbishopric in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Baldwin IV of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Baldwin IV, called the Leper, or The Leper King, reigned as King of Jerusalem from 1174 until his death. He was the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first wife, Agnes of Courtenay.

Footnotes

  1. J. P. Adams, Conclave, Sede Vacante 1159, retrieved: 2017-03-21.
  2. Nicholas Orme, Medieval Schools, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006.
  3. Karen Sullivan, Truth and the heretic: crises of knowledge in medieval French literature, (University of Chicago Press, 2005) p. 120
  4. William of Tyre, XXI.26

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