Antipope

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An antipope (Latin : antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the legitimately elected pope, makes a significant attempt to occupy the position of Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church. [1] At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions within the Church itself and by secular rulers.

Contents

Sometimes it was difficult to distinguish which of two claimants should be called pope and which antipope, as in the case of Pope Leo VIII and Pope Benedict V. [2]

Persons who merely claim to be pope and have few followers, such as the modern conclavist antipopes, are not classified with the historical antipopes.

History

Hippolytus of Rome (d.  235) is commonly considered to be the earliest antipope, as he headed a separate group within the Church in Rome against Pope Callixtus I. Hippolytus was reconciled to Callixtus's second successor, Pope Pontian, and both he and Pontian are honoured as saints by the Catholic Church with a shared feast day on 13 August. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus [3] and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, since no such claim by Hippolytus has been cited in the writings attributed to him.

Eusebius quotes [4] from an unnamed earlier writer the story of Natalius, a 3rd-century priest who accepted the bishopric of the Adoptionists, [5] a heretical group in Rome. Natalius soon repented and tearfully begged Pope Zephyrinus to receive him into communion. [6] [7]

Novatian (d. 258), another third-century figure, certainly claimed the See of Rome in opposition to Pope Cornelius, and if Natalius and Hippolytus were excluded because of the uncertainties concerning them, Novatian could then be said to be the first antipope.

The period in which antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees to further their own causes. The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants (anti-kings) in Germany to overcome a particular emperor.

The Western Schism—which began in 1378, when the French cardinals, claiming that the election of Pope Urban VI was invalid, elected antipope Clement VII as a rival to the Roman Pope—led eventually to two competing lines of antipopes: the Avignon line (Clement VII took up residence in Avignon, France), and the Pisan line. The Pisan line, which began in 1409, was named after the town of Pisa, Italy, where the (Pisan) council had elected antipope Alexander V as a third claimant. To end the schism, in May 1415, the Council of Constance deposed antipope John XXIII of the Pisan line. Pope Gregory XII of the Roman line resigned in July 1415. In 1417, the council also formally deposed antipope Benedict XIII of Avignon, but he refused to resign. Afterwards, Pope Martin V was elected and was accepted everywhere except in the small and rapidly diminishing area that remained faithful to Benedict XIII.

List of historical antipopes

The following table gives the names of the antipopes included in the list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio , with the addition of the names of Natalius (in spite of doubts about his historicity) and Antipope Clement VIII (whose following was insignificant). [8]

An asterisk marks those who were included in the conventional numbering of later popes who took the same name. More commonly, the antipope is ignored in later papal regnal numbers; for example, there was an Antipope John XXIII, but the new Pope John elected in 1958 was also called John XXIII. For the additional confusion regarding popes named John, see Pope John numbering.

The list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio attaches the following note to the name of Pope Leo VIII (963–965):

At this point, as again in the mid-11th century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonising historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the popes. [9]

Thus, because of the obscurities about mid-11th-century canon law and the historical facts, the Annuario Pontificio lists Sylvester III as a pope, without thereby expressing a judgement on his legitimacy. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes, [10] but with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope". Other sources classify him as an antipope. [11]

As Celestine II resigned before being consecrated and enthroned in order to avoid a schism, Oxford's A Dictionary of Popes (2010) says he "...is classified, unfairly, as an antipope," [12] a position historian Salvador Miranda also shares. [13]

Those with asterisks (*) were counted in subsequent papal numbering.

PontificateCommon English nameRegnal (Latin) namePersonal namePlace of birthAge at election / Death or resignedYears as antipope (days)NotesIn opposition to
c. 199 – c. 200 Natalius NataliusNataliusc. 159 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 481 year, 0 days (365)Later reconciled (see above) Zephyrinus
20 Dec 217 – 28 Sept 235 Saint Hippolytus HippolytusHippolytus170 Rome. Roman Empire 45 / 65 (†66)17 years, 282 days (6491)Later reconciled with Pope Pontian (see above) Callixtus I
Urban I
Pontian
Mar 251 – Aug 258 Novatian NovatianusNovatianc. 200 Rome, Roman Empire 51 / 58 (†93)7 years, 153 days (2710)Founder of Novatianism Cornelius
Lucius I
Stephen I
Sixtus II
20 Apr 309 – 16 Aug 310 Heraclius HeracliusHeracliusc. 265 Rome, Roman Empire 45 / 461 year, 118 days (483) Eusebius
355 – 26 Nov 365 Felix II*Felix secundusFelixc. 270 Rome, Roman Empire 80 / 9010 years, 329 days (3982)Installed by Roman Emperor Constantius II Liberius
1 Oct 366 – 16 Nov 367 Ursicinus UrsicinusUrsinusc. 200 Rome, Roman Empire 66 / 671 year, 46 days (411) Damasus I
27 December 418 – 3 April 419 Eulalius EulaliusEulaliusc. 370 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 39 (†42)1 year, 46 days (411) Boniface I
22 Nov 498 – Aug 506/08 Laurentius LaurentiusLorenzo Celioc. 460 Rome, Roman Empire 38 / 46 (†48)9 years, 283 days (3569)Supported by Byzantine emperor Anastasius I Symmachus
22 Sep 530 – 14 Oct 530 Dioscorus DioscurusDióskorosc. 450 Alexandria 70 / 7022 days (22) Boniface II
21 Sep 687 Theodore TheodorusTheodorec. 599 Rome, Western Roman Empire 88 / 88 (†92)97 days (97) Sergius I
21 Sep 687 Paschal (I) PaschalisPascalec. 598 Rome, Western Roman Empire 89 / 89 (†94)97 days (97)
28 Jun 767 – 6 Aug 768 Constantine II Constantinus secundusKonstantinusc. 700 Rome, Western Roman Empire 67 / 68 (†69)1 year, 39 days (405)Between Paul I and Stephen III
31 Jul 768 Philip PhilippusPhilipc. 701 Rome, Western Roman Empire 68 / 68 (†99)0 days ()Installed by envoy of Lombard King Desiderius Stephen III
25 Jan – 31 May 844 John VIII Joannes octavusGiovannic. 800 Rome, Papal States 44 / 44 (†91)151 days (151)Elected by acclamation Sergius II
Jan 855 – 31 Mar 855 Anastasius III Bibliothecarius Anastasius tertiusAnastasiusc. 810 Rome, Papal States 45 / 45 (†68)89 days (89) Benedict III
3 Oct 903 – 27 Jan 904 Christopher ChristophorusChristoforoc. 850 Rome, Papal States 53 / 54116 days (116)Between Leo V and Sergius III
Jul 974 Boniface VII*BonifaciusFranco Ferruccic. 900 Rome, Papal States 73 / 73 and 84 / 8530 days (30)
334 days (334)
total 364 days (364 days)
Between Benedict VI and Benedict VII
20 Aug 984 – 20 Jul 985Between John XIV and John XV
Apr 997 – Feb 998 John XVI*JoannesJohn Filagattoc. 941 Rossano, Calabria, Papal States (Italy)56 / 56 (†59)1 year, 0 days (365)Supported by Byzantine emperor Basil II Gregory V
Jun 1012 Gregory VI Gregorius SextusGregorioc. 960 Rome, Papal States 52 / 52 (†60)29 days (29) Benedict VIII
4 Apr 1058 – 24 Jan 1059 Benedict X*Benedictus DecimusGiovanni Mincio dei Conti di Tusculo c. 1000 Rome, Papal States,58 / 59 (†80)295 days (295 )Supported by the Counts of Tusculum Nicholas II
July 1061 – 31 May 1064 Honorius II Honorius SecundusPietro Cadalus1010 Verona, Papal States 51 / 54 (†62)2 years, 335 days (1065)Supported by Agnes, regent of the Holy Roman Empire Alexander II
25 Jun 1080, 21 Mar 1084 – 8 Sep 1100 Clement III Clemens TertiusGuibert of Ravennac. 1029 Parma, Papal States 51 / 51, 54 / 7120 years, 44 days (7348)Supported by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Gregory VII
Victor III
Urban II
Paschal II
8 Sep 1100 – Jan 1101 Theodoric TheodoricusTheodoroc. 1030 Rome, Papal States,70 / 71 (†72)121 days (−244)Successor to Clement III Paschal II
Jan 1101 – Feb 1102 Adalbert or Albert AdalbertusAlbertc. 1046 Atella, Campania, Papal States,55 / 56 (†85)31 days (31)Successor to Theodoric
8 Nov 1105 – 11 Apr 1111 Sylvester IV Sylvester QuartusMaginulfc. 1050 Rome, Papal States 49 / 55 (†56)5 years, 324 days (31)Supported by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
10 Mar 1118 – 22 Apr 1121 Gregory VIII Gregorius OctavusMaurice Burdainc. 1057 Limousin, Occitania, France 61 / 65 (†72)3 years, 43 days (1139) Gelasius II
Callixtus II
16 Dec 1124 Celestine II Cœlestinus SecundusTeobaldo Boccapeccic. 1050 Rome, Papal States 74 / 74 (†86)0 days () Honorius II
14 Feb 1130 – 25 Jan 1138 Anacletus II Anacletus SecundusPietro Pierleonic. 1090 Rome, Papal States 48 / 487 years, 345 days (2902) Innocent II
23 Mar 1138 Victor IV Victor QuartusGregorio Contic. 1057 Ceccano, Papal States 81 / 81 (†90)2 days (2)Successor to Anacletus II
7 Sep 1159 – 20 Apr 1164 Victor IV Victor QuartusOttavio di Montecelioc. 1095 Tivoli, Papal States 64 / 694 years, 226 days (1687)Supported by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor Alexander III
22 Apr 1164 – 28 Sep 1168 Paschal III Paschalis TertiusGuido di Cremac. 1110 Crema, Lombardy, Papal States 54 / 584 years, 159 days (1620 days)
Sep 1168 – 29 Aug 1178 Callixtus III Callixtus TertiusGiovanni of Strumac. 1090 Arezzo, Papal States 78 / 88 (†90)9 years, 362 days (3649 days)
29 Sep 1179 – Jan 1180 Innocent III Innocentius TertiusLanzo of Sezzac. 1120 Sezze, Papal States 59 / 60 (†63)95 days (95 days)
12 May 1328 – 12 Aug 1330 Nicholas V Nicolaus QuintusPietro Rainalduccic. 1258 Corvaro, Papal States 70 / 742 years, 92 days (822 days)Supported by Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor John XXII
20 Sep 1378 – 16 Sep 1394 Clement VII ClemensRobert of Geneva1342 Annecy, France 36/5215 years, 361 days (5840 days) Avignon Urban VI
Boniface IX
28 Sep 1394 – 23 May 1423 Benedict XIII BenedictusPedro de Luna25 November 1328 Illueca, Aragon 65/9428 years, 237 days (10463 days) Avignon
Innocent VII
Gregory XII
Martin V
25 Jun 1409 – 3 May 1410 Alexander V*AlexanderPietro Philarghic. 1339 Crete, Republic of Venice 70 / 71312 days (312 days) Pisa Gregory XII
25 May 1410 – 29 May 1415 John XXIII Ioannes Vicecimus TertiusBaldassare Cossac. 136545 / 50 (†54)5 years, 6 days (1832 days) Pisa
10 Jun 1423 – 26 Jul 1429 Clement VIII Clemens OctavusGil Sánchez Muñoz y Carbón1370 Teruel, Aragon 52 / 59 (†77)6 years, 49 days (2241 days) Avignon Martin V
1424–1430 Benedict XIV Benedictus Quartus DecimusBernard Garnier1370 France 54 / 59 (†89)6 years, 211 days (2403 days)Claimed successor to Benedict XIII  
1430–1437 Benedict XIV Benedictus Quartus DecimusJean Carrierc. 1370 France 59 / 667 years, 242 days (2799 days)The "hidden pope"  
5 Nov 1439 – 7 Apr 1449 Felix V FœlixDuke Amadeus VIII of Savoy4 September 1383 Chambéry, Savoy 56/65 (†67)9 years, 153 days (3441)Elected by the Council of Basel Eugene IV
Nicholas V

Quasi-cardinal-nephews

Many antipopes created cardinals, known as quasi-cardinals , and a few created cardinal-nephews, known as quasi-cardinal-nephews.

Quasi-cardinalNephew ofElevatedNotes
Giacomo Alberti Antipope Nicholas V 15 May 1328 Excommunicated by Pope John XXII. [14]
Amedeo Saluzzo Antipope Clement VII 23 December 1383Abandoned Antipope Benedict XIII after having been deposed by him on 21 October 1408; participated in the Council of Pisa, the election of Pope Alexander V (now regarded as an antipope), the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V. [14]
Tommaso Brancaccio Antipope John XXIII 6 June 1411Attended the Council of Constance, and the conclave of Pope Martin V. [15]
Gil Sánchez Muñoz Antipope Clement VIII 26 July 1429Submitted to Pope Martin V after his uncle abdicated. [16]

Modern claimants to papacy

In modern times various people claim to be pope and, though they do not fit the technical definition of "antipope", are sometimes referred to as such. They are usually leaders of sedevacantist groups who view the See of Rome as vacant and elect someone to fill it. They are sometimes referred to as conclavists because of their claim, on the basis of an election by a "conclave" of perhaps half a dozen laypeople, as in the case of David Bawden ("Pope Michael I"), to have rendered the See no longer vacant. A significant number of these have taken the name "Peter II", owing to its special significance. From the point of view of the Catholic Church, they are schismatics, and as such are automatically excommunicated. [17]

Collinites

Palmarian Catholic Church

The Palmarian Catholic Church regards Pope Paul VI, whom they revere as a martyr, and his predecessors as true popes, but hold, on the grounds of claimed apparitions, that the Pope of Rome is excommunicated and that the position of the Holy See has, since 1978, been transferred to the See of El Palmar de Troya.

Other examples

The following were elected by professedly faithful Catholics, none of whom were cardinals:

Antipope of Alexandria

As the Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, has historically also held the title of pope, a person who, in opposition to someone who is generally accepted as a legitimate pope of Alexandria, claims to hold that position may also be considered an antipope. In 2006, the defrocked married Coptic lector Max Michel became an antipope of Alexandria, calling himself Maximos I. His claim to the Alexandrine papacy was dismissed by both the Coptic Orthodox Pope Shenouda III and Pope Theodore II of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. [25] The Coptic pope of Alexandria and the Greek pope of Alexandria currently view one another, not as antipopes, but rather as successors to differing lines of apostolic succession that formed as a result of christological disputes in the fifth century.

Another Coptic (Alexandrian) antipope is known to have laid claim in the fourth century. His name was Gregory of Cappadocia.

In fiction

Antipopes have appeared as fictional characters. These may be either in historical fiction, as fictional portraits of well-known historical antipopes or as purely imaginary antipopes.

See also

Related Research Articles

Antipope John XXIII Italian bishop; Pisan antipope (1410–1415)

Baldassarre Cossa was Pisan antipope John XXIII (1410–1415) during the Western Schism. The Catholic Church regards him as an antipope, as he opposed Pope Gregory XII whom the Catholic Church now recognizes as the rightful successor of Saint Peter.

Antipope Felix, was a Roman archdecon in the 4th century. He was installed as antipope from 355 to 365. Previously he was an archdeacon of Rome. He was installed irregularly in 355 after Emperor Constantius banished the reigned pope Liberius. Constantius, following the refusal of the laity to accept Felix attempted to have them co-rule but Felix was forced to retire. He was resented in his lifetime but has enjoyed a more popular memory since. Antipope, in the Roman Catholic church described any figure attempting to oppose the legitimately elected Bishop of Rome, with Felix being among the unsuccessful.

Pope Leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, the Roman pontiff or the Sovereign Pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church and head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State. According to Catholics, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.

Pope Gregory XII Claimant to the papacy during the Western Schism; Pope from 1406 to 1415

Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Corraro, Corario, or Correr, was the Roman claimant to the headship of the Catholic Church from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415. Reigning during the Western Schism, he was opposed by the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and the Pisan popes Alexander V and John XXIII. Gregory XII was a very holy man who wanted the Church to be unified, and voluntarily abdicated in 1415 to end the Schism.

Pope Gelasius II, born Giovanni Caetani or Giovanni da Gaeta, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1118 to his death in 1119. A monk of Monte Cassino and chancellor of Pope Paschal II, Caetani was unanimously elected to succeed him. In doing so he also inherited the conflict with Emperor Henry V over investiture. Gelasius spent a good part of his brief papacy in exile.

Pope Nicholas II, otherwise known as Gerard of Burgundy, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was bishop of Florence. During his Papacy, Nicholas II successfully expanded the influence of the papacy in Milan and southern Italy. He was also responsible for passing papal election reforms which resulted in greater papal influence in electing new Popes.

Western Schism Split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, The Vatican Standoff, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which bishops residing in Rome and Avignon both claimed to be the true pope, joined by a third line of Pisan popes in 1409. The schism was driven by personalities and political allegiances, with the Avignon papacy being closely associated with the French monarchy. These rival claims to the papal throne damaged the prestige of the office.

Benedict XIV was the name used by two closely related minor antipopes of the 15th century. The first, Bernard Garnier became antipope in 1424 and died c. 1429. The second, Jean Carrier, became antipope c. 1430 and apparently left office, whether by death or resignation, by 1437.

Gregory VIII, born Mauritius Burdinus, was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121.

Adalbert was elected pope of the Catholic Church in February 1101 and served for 105 days. He was a candidate of the Roman party opposed to Pope Paschal II and is regarded today as an antipope. Prior to his election he was created a cardinal by the antipope Clement III. He was captured by partisans of Paschal II and forced to live out his days as a monk.

A papal renunciation occurs when the reigning pope of the Catholic Church voluntarily steps down from his position. As the reign of the pope has conventionally been from election until death, papal renunciation is an uncommon event. Before the 21st century, only five popes unambiguously resigned with historical certainty, all between the 10th and 15th centuries. Additionally, there are disputed claims of four popes having resigned, dating from the 3rd to the 11th centuries; a fifth disputed case may have involved an antipope.

Antipope Benedict XIII Antipope from 1328 to 1423

Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor, known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope by the Catholic Church.

Antipope Paschal III was a 12th-century clergyman who, from 1164 to 1168, was the second antipope to challenge the reign of Pope Alexander III. He had previously served as Cardinal of St. Maria.

<i>Annuario Pontificio</i> Catholic Holy See annual directory

The Annuario Pontificio is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church. It lists the popes in chronological order and all officials of the Holy See's departments. It also provides names and contact information for all cardinals and bishops, the dioceses, the departments of the Roman Curia, the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad, the embassies accredited to the Holy See, the headquarters of religious institutes, certain academic institutions, and other similar information. The index includes, along with all the names in the body of the book, those of all priests who have been granted the title of "Monsignor".

Papal name Regnal name taken by a pope

A papal name or pontificial name is the regnal name taken by a pope. Both the head of the Catholic Church, usually known as the pope, and the pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria choose papal names. As of 2013, Pope Francis is the Catholic pope, and Tawadros II or Theodoros II is the Coptic pope. This article discusses and lists the names of Catholic popes; another article has a list of Coptic Orthodox popes of Alexandria.

Conclavism is the claim to election as pope by a group acting or purporting to act in the stead of the established College of Cardinals. This claim is usually associated with the claim, known as sedevacantism, that the present holder of the title of pope is a heretic and therefore not truly pope, as a result of which the faithful remnant of the Catholic Church has the right to elect a true pope.

1119 papal election

The 1119 papal election was, by an order of magnitude, the 12th century's smallest papal election that is currently considered legitimate by the Roman Catholic Church.

The numbering of "popes John" does not occur in strict numerical order. Although there have been twenty-one legitimate popes named John, the numbering has reached John XXIII because of two errors that were introduced in the Middle Ages. First, antipope John XVI was kept in the numbering sequence instead of being removed. Then, the number XX was skipped because pope John XXI counted John XIV twice.

References

  1. "One who opposes the legitimately elected bishop of Rome, endeavours to secure the papal throne, and to some degree succeeds materially in the attempt" (Encyclopædia Britannica: Antipope).
  2. Of Pope Leo VIII, the Annuario Pontificio , the Holy See's yearbook, says: "At this point, as again in the mid-eleventh century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonizing historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the Successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the Popes" (note 19 to the list of popes in the Annuario Pontificio). Of Pope Benedict V it says: "If Pope Leo VIII was lawful Pope, [...] Benedict V is an antipope" (note 20 to the list of popes).
  3. "The catacombs the destination of the great jubilee". Vatican City. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  4. Historia Ecclesiastica , V, 28
  5. Dix, Gregory; Chadwick, Henry (2013). The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St Hippolytus of Rome, Bishop and Martyr. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN   9781136101465 . Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  6. Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature: Zephyrinus
  7. "Monarchians – Dynamists, or Adoptionists". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  8. "Pope Martin V". Catholic Encyclopedia via newadvent.org.
  9. Annuario Pontificio. Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2008. 2012. p. 12. ISBN   978-88-209-8722-0.
  10. "List of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 20 August 2015 via newadvent.org.
  11. Previté-Orton, Charles William (1952). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. 1 (1975 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 477. ISBN   0-521-20962-5.
  12. "Celestine (d. 1124)", A Dictionary of Popes, 2 ed., (J. N. D. Kelly and Michael J. Walsh, eds.) OUP ISBN   9780199295814
  13. Miranda, Salvatore. "Boccapecora, Teobaldo", The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Florida International University, 2018
  14. 1 2 Miranda, Salvador (1998). "14th Century (1303–1404)" via fiu.edu.
  15. Miranda, Salvador (1998). "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Biographical Dictionary: Antipope] John XXIII (1410–1415): Consistory of 6 June 1411 (I)" via fiu.edu.
  16. Miranda, Salvador (1998). "15th Century (1404–1503)" via fiu.edu.
  17. "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". www.vatican.va.
  18. "Self-styled 'Pope' dies in France". Chicago Tribune . Chicago, IL. Reuters. 24 June 1974. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019 via Newspapers.com. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  19. "Hiérarchie – Magnificat".
  20. "10 Most Bizarre People on Earth". Oddee. 6 December 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  21. "Modern Alternative Popes 17: Linus II". magnuslundberg.net/. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  22. 1 2 George D. Chryssides (25 November 2011). Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements. Scarecrow Press. p. 100. ISBN   978-0-8108-7967-6.
  23. "Iglesia Católica Apostólica Española Tradicionalista y Mercedaria – Iglesia Católica Apostólica Española Tradicionalista y Mercedaria". Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  24. Iglesia Católica Remanente. "Iglesia Católica Apostólica Remanente" . Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  25. "Common Statement Between The Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa Regarding Max Michel" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  26. Jean Raspail, L'Anneau du pêcheur, Paris: Albin Michel, 1994. 403 p. ISBN   2-226-07590-9
  27. Gérard Bavoux, Le Porteur de lumière, Paris: Pygmalion, 1996. p. 329 ISBN   2-85704-488-7
  28. Zladko Vladcik – I am the Antipope. YouTube. 21 January 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2015.