Frontispiece and title of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592)
|Genre||Official Bible of the Catholic Church|
|Published||1592 (2nd edition in 1593; 3rd edition in 1598)|
|Preceded by||Sixtine Vulgate|
|Followed by||Nova Vulgata|
|Text||Sixto-Clementine Vulgate at Wikisource|
|Part of a series on the|
The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate or Clementine Vulgate is the edition promulgated in 1592 by Pope Clement VIII of the Vulgate—a 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was written largely by Jerome. It was the second edition of the Vulgate to be authorised by the Catholic Church, the first being the Sixtine Vulgate. The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate was used officially in the Catholic Church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by Pope John Paul II.
The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate is a revision of the Sixtine Vulgate; the latter had been published two years earlier under Sixtus V. Nine days after the death of Sixtus V, who had issued the Sixtine Vulgate, the College of Cardinals suspended the sale of the Sixtine Vulgate and later ordered the destruction of the copies. Therafter, two commissions under Gregory XVI were in charge of the revision of the Sixtine Vulgate. In 1592, Clement VIII, arguing printing errors in the Sixtine Vulgate, recalled all copies of the Sixtine Vulgate still in circulation; some suspect his decision was in fact due to the influence of the Jesuits. In the same year, a revised edition of the Sixtine Vulgate was published and promulgated by Clement VIII; this edition is known as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, or Clementine Vulgate.
The Sixtine Vulgate prepared under Pope Sixtus V was published in 1590;it was "accompanied by a Bull (Aeternus Ille), in which [...] Sixtus V declared it was to be considered the authentic edition recommended by the Council of Trent, that it should be taken as the standard of all future reprints, and that all copies should be corrected by it". The College of Cardinals was dissatisfied with the Sixtine Vulgate; on 5 September 1590, nine days after Pope Sixtus V's death, they ordered the suspension of its sales, withdrew as many copies as possible, and shortly afterwards ordered the destruction of the printed copies.
An official version of the Vulgate was still needed. Therefore, Pope Gregory XIV in 1591 created a fourth commission to revise the Sixtine Vulgate,which was subsequently reorganised as the fifth and final commission later the same year. The fourth commission was created by Gregory XIV on 7 February 1591. It was presided over by M. A. Colonna and comprised six other cardinals working on the revision. Ten other people were part of the commission as advisors, including Robert Bellarmine. These last commissions decided to make only the changes which were really necessary: to do so, the commission would consult ancient manuscripts in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. It was also decided to restore the passages unduly removed by Sixtus V, remove the additions, examine the other passages and correct them if needed, and revise the punctuation.
The fourth commission worked slightly more than one month; during this time the revision of the Book of Genesis was completed and on 18 March the revision of Exodus began. However, the commission was progressing slowly, and the revision was expected to take a year. Due to this slowness, the size of the commission was reduced, its mode of operation changed, and its workplace moved to the villa of M. A. Colonna in Zagarolo.Two people were members of this commission: M. A. Colonna, its president, and William Allen. This commission also comprised eight other people as advisors: Bartholomew Miranda, Andrea Salvener, Antonius Agellius, Robert Bellarmine, Bartholomew Valverde, Lelio Landi, Petrus Morinus, and Angelo Rocca.
Supposedly, the work of revision was finished in nineteen days. This was thanks to the guidance of the Codex Carafianus—the codex which contained the propositions made to Sixtus V by the commission presided over by Cardinal Carafa, which is a 1583 edition of the Leuven Vulgate that had been emended by the third commission under Carafa—and the experience of four members of the commission who had previously taken part in the work to produce the Sixtine edition (Landi, Valverde, Agellius, and Rocca). The work was completed either after 19 days on 23 June, or on 5 July or before, or in early October, 1591. Brooke Foss Westcott notes that "even if it can be shown that the work extended over six months, it is obvious that there was no time for the examination of new authorities, but only for making a rapid revision with the help of the materials already collected". The basis of the commission's work was the Codex Carafianus.
Francis J. Thomson considers that the work of revision was rather entrusted to the Congregations for the Index under the leadership of M. A. Colonna. Thomson adds that the Congregation included among others the cardinals Girolamo Della Rovere, Ascanio Colonna, William Allen, Frederico Borromeo as well as Robert Bellarmine and Francisco de Toledo. Thomson states that the "old idea that a special commission was entrusted with the work of revision [of the Sixtine Vulgate] is incorrect".
Gregory XIV died on 15 October 1591; his direct successor, Innocent IX, died on 30 December the same year, less than two months after his election. In January 1592, Clement VIII became pope. Clement VIII resumed work on the revision to produce a final edition;he appointed Francisco de Toledo, Agostino Valier and Federico Borromeo as editors, with Robert Bellarmine, Antonius Agellius, Petrus Morinus and two others to assist them. "Under Clement VIII's leadership, the commission's work was continued and drastically revised, with Bellarmine (1542–1624) bringing his research on the Vulgate to the task."
In January 1592, Clement VIII became pope and immediately recalled all copies of the Sixtine Vulgateas one of his first acts. The reason stated for the recall was printing errors, although the Sixtine Vulgate was mostly free of those.
According to James Hastings, "[t]he real reasons for the recall of the editions must have been partly personal hostility to Sixtus, and partly a conviction that the book was not quite a worthy representative of the Vulgate text".Eberhard Nestle suggests that the revocation was really due to the influence of the Jesuits, whom Sixtus had offended by putting one of Bellarmine's books on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (list of banned books). Frederic G. Kenyon writes that the Sixtine Vulgate was "full of errors" but that Clement VIII was also motivated in his decision to recall the edition by the Jesuits, "whom Sixtus had offended". Sixtus regarded the Jesuits with disfavour and suspicion. He considered making radical changes to their constitution, but his death prevented this from being carried out. Sixtus V objected to some of the Jesuits' rules and especially to the title "Society of Jesus", and was on the point of changing them when he died. Sixtus V "had some conflict with the Society of Jesus more generally, especially regarding the Society’s concept of blind obedience to the General, which for Sixtus and other important figures of the Roman Curia jeopardized the preeminence of the role of the pope within the Church." According to Jaroslav Pelikan, the Sixtine Vulgate "proved to be so defective that it was withdrawn".
The Clementine Vulgate was printed on 9 November 1592,in folio format, with an anonymous preface written by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. It was issued containing the Papal bull Cum Sacrorum of 9 November 1592, which asserted that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, that no word of the text may be changed and that variant readings may not be printed in the margin. Most of the misprints of this edition were removed in a second (1593) and a third (1598) edition. The 1593 and 1598 editions were in quarto. The 1592 edition contained a list of quotations, an interpretation of names, and a Biblical concordance; those were not present in the 1593 and 1598 editions. The 1593 and 1598 editions contained references in the margin, and "various prefaces"; the 1592 edition did not.
This new official version of the Vulgate, known as the Clementine Vulgate,or Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, became the official Bible of the Catholic Church.
The Appendix to the Clementine Vulgate contained additional apocryphal books: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras.Its version of the Book of Psalms was the Psalterium Gallicanum and not the versio juxta Hebraicum. The 1592 edition did not contain Jerome's prologues, but those prologues were present at the beginning of the volume of the 1593 and 1598 editions. The Clementine Vulgate contains texts of Acts 15:34, the Johannine Comma, and 1 John 5:7. The new system of verse enumeration introduced by the Sixtine Vulgate was replaced by the system of division of verses enumeration of the 1551 edition of the Bible of Robertus Stephanus.
The text of the Clementine Vulgate was close to the Hentenian edition of the Bible, which is the Leuven Vulgate;this is a difference from the Sixtine edition, which had "a text more nearly resembling that of Robertus Stephanus than that of John Hentenius". The Clementine Vulgate used the verse enumeration system of Stephanus and the Leuven Vulgate. The text of the Sixtine Vulgate left an "eternal mark" in the details of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate: in the latter's "spelling, especially that of the proper nouns, and in its corrections of details, even the less justified ones". The situation concerning the deeper modification Sixtus had made to the Leuven Vulgate text is totally different. The editors tried to make the Clementine Vulgate as similar as possible to the Sixtine Vulgate: titles and frontispieces were similar, and the page numbering of the Sixtine and Clementine editions was identical.
Scrivener notes that to avoid the appearance of a conflict between the two popes, the Clementine Bible was published under the name of Sixtus, with a preface by Bellarmine. This preface asserted that Sixtus had intended to publish a new edition due to errors that had occurred in the printing of the first, but had been prevented from doing this by his death, and that now, in accordance with his desire, the work was completed by his successor.
The full name of the Clementine Vulgate was Biblia sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Sixti Quinti Pont. Max. iussu recognita atque edita(translation: The Holy Bible of the Common/Vulgate Edition identified and published by the order of Pope Sixtus V). Because the Clementine edition retained the name of Sixtus on its title page, the Clementine Vulgate is sometimes known as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
E. Nestle notes that "the first edition to contain the names of both the Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII] upon the title page is that of 1604. The title runs: 'Sixti V. Pont. Max. iussu recognita et Clementis VIII. auctoritate edita.'" An analysis also shared by Scrivener and Hastings. Hastings adds that "[t]he regular form of title in a modern Vulgate Bible—'Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis Sixti V. Pont. Max. jussu recognita et Clementis VIII. auctoritate edita'" cannot be traced earlier than 1604. Up until that time Sixtus seems to have been alone on the title-page; after this date, "Clement occasionally figures by himself". This addition of Clement VIII on the title page is due to the printing press of Guillaume Rouillé.
The Clementine edition of the Vulgate differs from the Sixtine edition in about 3,000 places according to Carlo Vercellone,James Hastings, Eberhard Nestle, Kenyon, and Bruce M. Metzger; 4,900 according to Michael Hetzenauer, and Bruce M. Metzger & Bart D. Ehrman in their co-written book; and "roughly five thousand" according to Kurt and Barbara Aland.
Some examples of text changes include, for example in Exodus 2, where the text of the Sixtine Vulgate "constituit te" (2:14), "venerant" (2:16), "et eripuit" (2:22), and "liberavit" (2:25) is replaced in the Clementine Vulgate respectively by "te constituit", "venerunt", "eripuit", and "cognovit".
The differences between the Sixtine and Clementine editions of the Vulgate have been criticised by Protestants; Thomas James in his Bellum Papale sive Concordia discors (London, 1600) "upbraids the two Popes on their high pretensions and the palpable failure of at least one, possibly both of them".He gave a long list of about 2,000 differences between these two editions. In the preface to the first edition of the King James Version (1611), translators accused the pope of perversion of the Holy Scripture.
James Hastings said he "willingly admit[s]" that "on the whole [...] the Clementine text is critically an improvement upon the Sixtine". According to Frederic G. Kenyon, "[i]t cannot be pretended that the Clementine text is satisfactory from the point of view of history or scholarship"; he also said the changes that differentiate the Clementine edition from the Sixtine edition "except where they simply remove an obvious blunder, are, for the most part, no improvement". Henri Quentin wrote: "Overall, the Clementine edition is a little better than the Sixtine, but it does not mark considerable progress".
Kurt and Barbara Aland wrote that "neither the edition of 1590 nor that of 1592 [...] succeeded in representing either Jerome's original text [...] or its Greek base with any accuracy."Monsignor Roger Gryson, a patristics scholar at the Catholic University of Louvain, asserts in the preface to the 4th edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate (1994) that the Clementine edition "frequently deviates from the manuscript tradition for literary or doctrinal reasons, and offers only a faint reflection of the original Vulgate, as read in the pandecta of the first millennium." By the same token however, the great extent to which the Clementine edition preserves contaminated readings from the medieval period can itself be considered to have critical value; Frans Van Liere states: "for the medieval student interested in the text as it was read, for instance, in thirteenth century Paris, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate might actually be a better representative of the scholastic biblical text than the modern critical editions of the text in its pre-Carolingian form." Houghton states that "[t]he Clementine Vulgate is often a better guide to the text of the mediaeval Vulgate than critical editions of the earliest attainable text."
In the early 20th century, more people became aware of the inadequacies of the Clementine Vulgate, and in 1906 a new edition of the Clementine Vulgate edited by Michael Hetzenauer was published (Biblia sacra vulgatae editionis: ex ipsis exemplaribus vaticanis inter se atque cum indice errorum corrigendorum collatis critice); his edition was based on the 1592, 1593, and 1598 printings of the Clementine Vulgate, and includes authorised corrections. The 1946 edition by Alberto Colunga Cueto and Turrado is the current standard reference edition of the Clementine Vulgate, and a version of it is available online.
The 1592 edition of the Clementine Vulgate is cited in the Nestle-Aland, where it is designated by the siglum vgcl, C. The 1592, 1593 and 1598 editions are cited in the Stuttgart Vulgate, where they are collectively designated by the siglum𝔠.and in the Oxford Vulgate New Testament (also known as the Oxford Vulgate), where it is designated by the siglum
The Clementine Vulgate remained the standard Bible of the Roman Catholic church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by Pope John Paul II.
In 1591, Gregory XIV wondered what to do about the Bible published by Sixtus V, where so many things had been wrongly corrected. There was no lack of serious men who were in favor of a public condemnation. But, in the presence of the Sovereign Pontiff, I demonstrated that this edition should not be prohibited, but only corrected in such a way that, in order to save the honor of Sixtus V, it be republished amended: this would be accomplished by making disappear as soon as possible the unfortunate modifications, and by reprinting under the name of this Pontiff this new version with a preface where it would be explained that, in the first edition, because of the haste that had been brought, some errors were made through the fault either of printers or of other people. This is how I returned good for evil to Pope Sixtus. Sixtus, indeed, because of my thesis on the direct power of the Pope, had put my Controversies on the Index of Prohibited Books until after correction; but as soon as he died, the Sacred Congregation of Rites ordered my name to be removed from the Index. My advice pleased Pope Gregory. He created a Congregation to quickly revise the Sistine version and to bring it closer to the vulgates in circulation, in particular that of Leuven. [...] After the death of Gregory (XIV) and Innocent (V), Clement VIII edited this revised Bible, under the name of Sixtus (V), with the Preface of which I am the author.(in original Latin: Vita ven. Roberti cardinalis Bellarmini, pp. 30–31); (in French here, pp. 106–107)
Robert Bellarmine was an Italian Jesuit and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was canonized a saint in 1930 and named Doctor of the Church, one of only 36. He was one of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation.
Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born in Fano, Italy to a prominent Florentine family, he initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 he was elected Pope and took the name of Clement. During his papacy he effected the reconciliation of Henry IV of France to the Catholic faith and was instrumental in setting up an alliance of Christian nations to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the so-called Long War. He also successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee which saw many pilgrimages to Rome. He had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee. Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible. It was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day.
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal.
Vetus Latina, also known as Vetus Itala, Itala ("Italian") and Old Italic, and denoted by the siglum , is the collective name given to the Latin translations of biblical texts that existed before the Vulgate, the Latin translation produced by Jerome in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate became the standard Latin Bible used by the Catholic Church, especially after the Council of Trent (1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina texts survive in some parts of the liturgy.
The Codex Amiatinus is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Christian Bible. It was produced around 700 A.D in the north-east of England, at the Benedictine monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria and taken to Italy as a gift for Pope Gregory II in 716. It was one of three giant single-volume Bibles then made at Monkwearmouth–Jarrow, and is the earliest complete one-volume Latin Bible to survive, only the León palimpsest being older; and the oldest bible where all the Books of the Bible present what would be their Vulgate texts.
The Nova Vulgata, also called the Neo-Vulgate or New Latin Vulgate, is the official Classical Latin translation of the original-language texts of the Bible from modern critical editions published by the Holy See for use in the contemporary Roman rite. It was completed and promulgated in 1979 by John Paul II. A second, revised, edition was promulgated in 1986, again by John Paul II. It is the official Latin text of the Catholic Church.
Francisco de Toledo was a Spanish Jesuit priest and theologian, Biblical exegete and professor at the Roman College. He is the first Jesuit to have been made a cardinal.
Federico Borromeo was an Italian cardinal and Archbishop of Milan.
Jakub Wujek was a Polish Jesuit, religious writer, Doctor of Theology, Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy and translator of the Bible into Polish.
The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Romanesque and early Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated.
Willem Smits was a Dutch Franciscan orientalist and exegete.
The Sixtine Vulgate or Sistine Vulgate is the edition of the Vulgate—a 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was written largely by Jerome—which was published in 1590, prepared by a commission on the orders of Pope Sixtus V and edited by himself. It was the first edition of the Vulgate authorised by a pope. Its official recognition was short-lived; the edition was replaced in 1592 by the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
The Codex Toletanus, designated by T, is a 10th-century Latin manuscript of the Old and New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the Latin Vulgate Bible, which contains the entire Bible, including the trinity reference Comma Johanneum.
The Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City was a Benedictine monastery in Rome founded for the purpose of creating a critical edition of the Vulgate. This edition is known as the Benedictine Vulgate.
The Vulgate is a fourth-century translation of the Gospels and of most of the Old Testament into Latin produced by St. Jerome.
The Roman Septuagint, also known as the Sixtine Septuagint or the Roman Sixtine Septuagint, is an edition of the Septuagint published in 1587 commissioned by Sixtus V.
The Leuven Vulgate or Hentenian Bible is an edition of the Vulgate which was edited by Hentenius (1499–1566) and published in Louvain in 1547. This edition was republished several times, and in 1574 a revised edition was published.
Franciscus Lucas Brugensis or François Luc de Bruges (1548/9–1619) was a Roman Catholic biblical exegete and textual critic from the Habsburg Netherlands.
The Benedictine Vulgate is a critical edition of the Vulgate version of the Old Testament mainly done by the Benedictine monks of the pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City and published progressively from 1926 to 1995.
In the year 1604 the name of Clement VIII was added by Robillius [sic, Rovillius] of Lyons to that of Sixtus V, and thus our Vulgate in time came to be called the Sistine-Clementine edition.
[...] neither the edition of 1590 nor that of 1592 (which introduced roughly five thousand changes in the text despite the fact that changes in the 1590 text were expressly forbidden on pain of excommunication) succeeded in representing either Jerome's original text (see below) or its Greek base with any accuracy.
The various editions of the Vulgate are indicated by the following abbreviations when information about their text is necessary or informative: vgs for the Sixtine edition (Rome: 1590); vgcl for the Clementine edition (Rome: 1592) (vgs is not indicated independently when its text agrees with vgcl).
Vulgate is the name given the form of the Latin text which has been widely circulated (vulgata) in the Latin church since the seventh century, enjoying recognition as the officially authoritative text, first in the edition of Pope Sixtus V (Rome, 1590), and then of Pope Clement VIII (Rome, 1592), until the Neo-Vulgate.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sixto-Clementine Vulgate .|
|Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article:|