Sixto-Clementine Vulgate

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Sixto-Clementine Vulgate
Frontispiece of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592).jpg
Frontispiece and title of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592) [note 1] [lower-alpha 1]
Country Papal States
LanguageLatin
GenreOfficial Bible of the Catholic Church
Published1592 (2nd edition in 1593; 3rd edition in 1598)
Preceded by Vulgata Sixtina  
Followed by Nova Vulgata  

The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate or Clementine Vulgate is the edition of the Latin Vulgate from 1592, prepared by Pope Clement VIII. It was the second edition of the Vulgate authorised by the Catholic Church, the first being the Sixtine Vulgate.

Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible

The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day.

Pope Clement VIII 17th-century Catholic pope

Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born in Fano, Italy to a prominent Florentine family, he initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 he was elected Pope and took the name of Clement. During his papacy he effected the reconciliation of Henry IV of France to the Catholic faith and was instrumental in setting up an alliance of Christian nations to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the so-called Long War. He also successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee which saw many pilgrimages to Rome. He had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee. Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Contents

The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate was used officially in the Catholic Church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by Pope John Paul II.

<i>Nova Vulgata</i> Official Classical Latin translation of the original language texts of the Bible

The Nova Vulgata, also called the Neo-Vulgate (NV), is the official Classical Latin translation of the original language texts of the Bible from modern critical editions published by the Holy See for use in the contemporary Roman rite, completed and promulgated in 1979 by John Paul II. A second revised edition was promulgated in 1986, again by John Paul II.

Pope John Paul II 264th Pope and saint of the Catholic Church

Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

The Clementine Vulgate is cited in all critical editions and it is designated by the siglum vgc or vgcl. [1]

History

Revision of the Sixtine Vulgate

Gregory XIV's two pontifical committees

The Sixtine Vulgate prepared by Pope Sixtus V was published in 1590, [2] "accompanied by a Bull, in which [...] Sixtus V declared that it was to be considered as the authentic edition recommended by the Council of Trent, that it should be taken as the standard of all future reprints, and that all copies should be corrected by it." [3]

Pope Sixtus V pope

Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal.

Council of Trent 19th Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church

The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

The College of Cardinals was dissatisfied with the Sixtine Vulgate, "and a week after the death of Pope Sixtus V (27 August 1590) they ordered, first, the suspension of the selling of this edition and the destruction of the printed copies shortly thereafter." [4] Since an official version of the Vulgate was still needed, Pope Gregory XIV, created a fourth committee [note 2] in 1591, which reorganized into the fifth and final committee in the same year. [5] "The basis of the Committee’s work was the Codex Carafianus, [note 3] viz. the Leuven Vulgate  [ pl ] emended by Carafa’s third Committee." [4]

College of Cardinals body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church

The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its current membership is 224, as of 8 October 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.

Pope Gregory XIV 16th-century Catholic pope

Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.

After the passing of Gregory XIV, Clement VIII (1592–1605) resumed the work on the revision; Clement VIII ordered Francisco de Toledo, Augustino Valeier, Frederico Borromeo, Robert Bellarmine, Antonius Agellius, and Petrus Morinus to make corrections and to prepare a revision to the Sixtine Vulgate. [7] "Under the leadership of Pope Clement VIII, the work of the comission was continued and drastically revised, with the Jesuit scholar Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542–1624) bringing to the task his lifelong research on the Vulgate text." [8]

Francisco de Toledo (Jesuit) Catholic cardinal

Francisco de Toledo was a Spanish Jesuit priest and theologian, Biblical exegete and professor at the Roman College. He is the first Jesuit to have been made a cardinal.

Agostino Valier 17th-century Catholic cardinal

Agostino Valier, also Augustinus Valerius or Valerio, was an Italian cardinal and bishop of Verona. He was a reforming bishop, putting into effect the decisions of the Council of Trent by means of administrative and disciplinary measures. He was one of the Christian humanist followers of Filippo Neri.

Federico Borromeo Cardinal Archbishop of Milan

Federico Borromeo was an Italian cardinal and Archbishop of Milan.

Clement VIII's recall of the Sixtine Vulgate

In 1592, Clement VIII recalled all the copies of the Sixtine Vulgate [9] almost immediately after his election in January 1592, [10] as one of his first acts. [11] The reason invoked for recalling Sixtus V's edition was printing errors, however the Sixtine Vulgate was mostly free of printing errors. [12] [9]

According to James Hastings, "[t]he real reasons for the recall of the editions must have been partly personal hostility to Sixtus, and partly a conviction that the book was not quite a worthy representative of the Vulgate text." [9] Nestle "suggests that the revocation was really due to the influence of the Jesuits, whom Sixtus had offended by putting one of Bellarmine's books on the Index Librorum prohibitorum." [10] Kenyon writes that the Sixtine Vulgate was "full of errors", but that Clement VIII was also motivated in his decision to recall the edition by the Jesuits, "whom Sixtus had offended." [13] Sixtus V objected to some of the Jesuits' rules and especially to the title "Society of Jesus". He was on the point of changing these when he died. [14] Sixtus V "had some conflict with the Society of Jesus more generally, especially regarding the Society’s concept of blind obedience to the General, which for Sixtus and other important figures of the Roman Curia jeopardized the preeminence of the role of the pope within the Church." [15] Jaroslav Pelikan, without giving any more details, says that the Sixtine Vulgate "proved to be so defective that it was withdrawn". [8]

Publication

Title page of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592) Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592).jpg
Title page of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592)

The Clementine Vulgate was printed on 9 November 1592, [16] with an anonymous preface [7] written by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. [7] [16] [lower-alpha 2] It was issued with the Bull Cum Sacrorum (9 November 1592) [17] which asserted that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, no word of the text may be changed, nor even variant readings printed in the margin. [18] "The misprints of this edition were partly eliminated in a second (1593) and a third (1598) edition." [16]

This new official version of the Vulgate, known as the Clementine Vulgate [16] [19] or Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, [19] [4] became the official Bible of the Catholic Church. [16] [20]

Textual characteristics

The Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix additional apocryphal books: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras. [21] It contained also the Psalterium Gallicanum and not the Versio juxta Hebraicum. [22]

It contains texts of Acts 15:34 [23] and the Comma Johanneum, 1 John 5:7. [24] The new system of verse enumeration introduced by the Sixtine Vulgate was dropped and replaced with the system of division of verses enumeration of the 1551 edition of the Bible of Stephanus. [25]

The revision was close to the Hentenian edition; [note 4] [9] [12] this is a difference with the Sixtine edition [9] which had "a text more nearly resembling that of Robt. Stephen than that of John Hentenius." [10] [9]

Title

"To avoid the appearance of a conflict between the two Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII], the Clementine Bible was boldly published under the name of Sixtus, with a preface by Bellarmine asserting that Sixtus had intended to bring out a new edition in consequence of errors that had occurred in the printing of the first, but had been prevented by death; now, in accordance with his desire, the work was completed by his successor." [10]

The full name of the Clementine Vulgate was: Biblia sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Sixti Quinti Pont. Max. iussu recognita atque edita. [28] [12] [8] [25] (translation: The Holy Bible of the Common/Vulgate Edition identified and published by the order of Pope Sixtus V). [25] The fact that the Clementine edition retained the name of Sixtus on its title page is the reason why the Clementine Vulgate is sometimes known as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate. [25]

"It may be added that the first edition to contain the names of both the Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII] upon the title page is that of 1604. The title runs: "Sixti V. Pont. Max. iussu recognita et Clementis VIII. auctoritate edita."" [29]

Differences to the Sixtine Vulgate

Title pages of the Sixtine (1590) Vulgate (left) and title page of the Clementine (1592) Vulgate (right). Title pages of the Sixtine (1590) and the Clementine (1592) Vulgate.png
Title pages of the Sixtine (1590) Vulgate (left) and title page of the Clementine (1592) Vulgate (right).

The Clementine edition differs from the Sistine edition in about 3,000 places, according to Carlo Vercellone, [18] James Hasting, [9] and Metzger; [16] or according to Kurt Aland in about 5,000 variants. [30]

Some examples are:

Vulgata SixtinaVulgata Clementina
Genesis 18 [31]
18:2tabernaculi suitabernaculi
18:2in terrain terram
18:4laventur pedes vestrilavate pedes vestros
18:5conforteturconfortate
18:5loquutuslocutus
18:20GomorrhaeorumGomorrhae
18:28quiapropter
Exodus 11
11:14constituit tete constituit
11:16venerantvenerunt
11:22et eripuiteripuit
11:25liberavitcognovit

Critiques

Prologue to the Gospel of John, Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, edition from 1922 Prologus Ioanni Vulgata Clementina.jpg
Prologue to the Gospel of John, Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, edition from 1922

The differences between the Sixtine and the Clementine editions of the Vulgate was an opportunity too good for Protestants to miss; Thomas James in his Bellum Papale sive Concordia discors (London, 1600) "upbraids the two Popes on their high pretensions and the palpable failure of at least one, possibly both of them." [32] He gave a long list of the differences (about 2,000) between these two editions. [33] Translators of the King James Version in the preface to the first edition from 1611 accused the pope of perversion of the Holy Scripture. [34]

Hastings "willingly admit[s]" that "on the whole [...] the Clementine text is critically an improvement upon the Sixtine." [9] However, Kenyon argues that the changes which differentiate the Clementine edition from the Sixtine edition "exept where they simply remove an obvious blunder, are, for the most part, no improvement" [35] Henri Quentin wrote: "Overall, the Clementine edition is a little better than the Sistine, but it does not mark a considerable progress" [36]

The Clementine Vulgate was criticised by such textual critics as Richard Bentley, John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White, Samuel Berger, and Peter Corssen. [35] Monsignor Roger Gryson, a patristics scholar at the Catholic University of Louvain, [37] asserts in the preface to 4th edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate (1994) that the Clementine edition "frequently deviates from the manuscript tradition for literary or doctrinal reasons, and offers only a faint reflection of the original Vulgate, as read in the pandecta of the first millennium." [38] By the same token however, the great extent to which the Clementine edition preserves contaminated readings from the medieval period can itself be considered to have critical value; Frans Van Liere states: "for the medieval student interested in the text as it was read, for instance, in thirteenth century Paris, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate might actually be a better representative of the scholastic biblical text that the modern critical editions of the text in its pre-Carolingian form." [39] Houghton states that "[t]he Clementine Vulgate is often a better guide to the text of the mediaeval Vulgate than critical editions of the earliest attainable text." [25]

Later printings

"At the beginning of the twentieth century, awareness of the inadequacies of the Clementine text increased. In 1906, Michael Hetzenauer produced a new edition of the Clementine Vulgate based on its three printings in 1592, 1593, and 1598 and incorporating officially-authorized corrections[.] The current standard reference edition [of the Clementine Vulgate] is that of Colunga & Turrado  [ es ] 1946, a form of which is available online. [lower-alpha 3] " [25]

Replacement by the Nova Vulgata

The Clementine Vulgate remained the standard Bible of the Roman Catholic Church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by John-Paul II. [20] [40]

See also

Notes

Explanatory notes

  1. See the Title section.
  2. Three committees had been previously created by Pius IV, Pius V, and Sixtus V. See Vulgata Sixtina#Three pontifical committees.
  3. The codex containing the propositions made to Sixtus V by the committee presided by cardinal Carafa. [6]
  4. 1547 edition of the Vulgate edited by Hentenius in Leuven  [ pl ]. [26] [27]

Complementary information

  1. This frontispiece is reproduced from the Sixtine Vulgate (way worse scan quality).
  2. See also Bellarmine's testimony in his autobiography:
    "In 1591, Gregory XIV wondered what to do about the Bible published by Sixtus V, where so many things had been wrongly corrected. There was no lack of serious men who were in favor of a public condemnation. But, in the presence of the Sovereign Pontiff, I demonstrated that this edition should not be prohibited, but only corrected in such a way that, in order to save the honor of Sixtus V, it be republished amended: this would be accomplished by making disappear as soon as possible the unfortunate modifications, and by reprinting under the name of this Pontiff this new version with a preface where it would be explained that, in the first edition, because of the haste that had been brought, some errors were made through the fault either of printers or of other people. This is how I returned good for evil to Pope Sixtus. Sixtus, indeed, because of my thesis on the direct power of the Pope, had put my Controversies on the Index of Prohibited Books until after correction; but as soon as he died, the Sacred Congregation of Rites ordered my name to be removed from the Index. My advice pleased Pope Gregory. He created a Congregation to quickly revise the Sistine version and to bring it closer to the vulgates in circulation, in particular that of Leuven  [ pl ]. [...] After the death of Gregory (XIV) and Innocent (V), Clement VIII edited this revised Bible, under the name of Sixtus (V), with the Preface of which I am the author."
    Bellarmino, Roberto Francesco Romolo (1999). "Memorie autobiografiche (1613)". In Giustiniani, Pasquale (ed.). Autobiografia (1613) (in Italian). Translated by Galeota, Gustavo. Internet Archive. Brescia: Morcelliana. pp. 59–60. ISBN   88-372-1732-3.
    (in original Latin: Vita ven. Roberti cardinalis Bellarmini, pp. 30–31); (in French here, pp. 106–107)
  3. Here (reference given in the source).

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References

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  3. Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, vol. 2 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 64.
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  5. Gerace, Antonio (2016). "Francis Lucas 'of Bruges' and Textual Criticism of the Vulgate before and after the Sixto-Clementine (1592)". Journal of Early Modern Christianity (pp. 201-237). 3 (2): 210, 225. doi:10.1515/jemc-2016-0008 via KULeuven.
  6. Quentin, Henri (1922). Mémoire sur l'établissement du texte de la Vulgate (in French). Kelly - University of Toronto. Rome: Desclée. p. 8.
  7. 1 2 3 Townley, James (1821). Illustrations of Biblical literature : exhibiting the history and fate of the sacred writings, from the earliest period to the present century; including biographical notices of translators and other eminent Biblical scholars. 2. Princeton Theological Seminary Library. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. p. 493.
  8. 1 2 3 Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan (1996). "1 : Sacred Philology". The reformation of the Bible, the Bible of the Reformation. Dallas : Bridwell Library ; Internet Archive. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 14.
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  23. UBS3, 478
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  26. https://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/thlou_0080-2654_1980_num_11_3_1779.pdf
  27. "Definition of HENTENIAN". www.merriam-webster.com.
  28. Delville, Jean-Pierre (2008). "L'évolution des Vulgates et la composition de nouvelles versions latines de la Bible au XVIe siècle". In Gomez-Géraud, Marie-Christine (ed.). Biblia (in French). Presses Paris Sorbonne. p. 80. ISBN   9782840505372.
  29. Nestle, Eberhard; Edie, William; Menzies, Allan (1901). Introduction to the textual criticism of the Greek New Testament. University of California Libraries. London [etc.] Williams and Norgate; New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 128.
  30. Aland, Kurt (1989). Der Text des Neuen Testaments. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. p. 196. ISBN   3-438-06011-6.
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  32. Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose; Edward Miller (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament . 2 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 64-65.
  33. Thomas James (1843). A Treatise of the Corruptions of Scripture, Councils, and Fathers, by the Prelates, Pastors, and pillars of the Church of Rome for the maintenance of Popery. New York Public Library. J. W. Parker. p. 170.
  34. "Bible (King James)/Preface - Wikisource, the free online library".
  35. 1 2 Kenyon, F. G. (1903). Our Bible and the ancient manuscripts; being a history of the text and its translations (4th ed.). London, New York [etc.]: Eyre and Spottiswoode. p. 188. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
  36. Quentin, Henri (1922). "Les éditions Sixtines et Clémentines". Mémoire sur l'établissement du texte de la Vulgate. Kelly - University of Toronto. Rome: Desclée. p. 197.
  37. "A return to church tradition on women deacons". CatholicNetwork.US. 2018-05-03. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  38. Biblia Sacra iuxta vulgatam versionem. Robert Weber, Roger Gryson (eds.) (4 ed.). Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. 1994. ISBN   978-3-438-05303-9.CS1 maint: others (link)
  39. Van Liere, Frans (2012). The Lain Bible, c 900 to the Council of Trent 1546. The New Cambridge History of the Bible. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  40. "Scripturarum Thesarurus, Apostolic Constitution, 25 April 1979, John Paul II". Vatican: The Holy See. Retrieved 19 December 2013.

Further reading