Frontispiece and title of the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate (1592)
|Genre||Official Bible of the Catholic Church|
|Published||1592 (2nd edition in 1593; 3rd edition in 1598)|
|Preceded by||Vulgata Sixtina|
|Followed by||Nova Vulgata|
|Part of a series on the|
The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate or Clementine Vulgate is the edition of the Latin Vulgate from 1592, prepared by Pope Clement VIII. It was the second edition of the Vulgate authorised by the Catholic Church, the first being the Sixtine Vulgate.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day.
Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605. Born in Fano, Italy to a prominent Florentine family, he initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 he was elected Pope and took the name of Clement. During his papacy he effected the reconciliation of Henry IV of France to the Catholic faith and was instrumental in setting up an alliance of Christian nations to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the so-called Long War. He also successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee which saw many pilgrimages to Rome. He had little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno and implementing strict measures against Jewish residents of the Papal States. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee. Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.
The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate was used officially in the Catholic Church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by Pope John Paul II.
The Nova Vulgata, also called the Neo-Vulgate (NV), is the official Classical Latin translation of the original language texts of the Bible from modern critical editions published by the Holy See for use in the contemporary Roman rite, completed and promulgated in 1979 by John Paul II. A second revised edition was promulgated in 1986, again by John Paul II.
Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
The Clementine Vulgate is cited in all critical editions and it is designated by the siglum vgc or vgcl.
The Sixtine Vulgate prepared by Pope Sixtus V was published in 1590,"accompanied by a Bull, in which [...] Sixtus V declared that it was to be considered as the authentic edition recommended by the Council of Trent, that it should be taken as the standard of all future reprints, and that all copies should be corrected by it."
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal.
The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
The College of Cardinals was dissatisfied with the Sixtine Vulgate, "and a week after the death of Pope Sixtus V (27 August 1590) they ordered, first, the suspension of the selling of this edition and the destruction of the printed copies shortly thereafter."Since an official version of the Vulgate was still needed, Pope Gregory XIV, created a fourth committee in 1591, which reorganized into the fifth and final committee in the same year. "The basis of the Committee’s work was the Codex Carafianus, viz. the Leuven Vulgate emended by Carafa’s third Committee."
The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its current membership is 224, as of 8 October 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.
Pope Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato or Sfondrati, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.
After the passing of Gregory XIV, Clement VIII (1592–1605) resumed the work on the revision; Clement VIII ordered Francisco de Toledo, Augustino Valeier, Frederico Borromeo, Robert Bellarmine, Antonius Agellius, and Petrus Morinus to make corrections and to prepare a revision to the Sixtine Vulgate."Under the leadership of Pope Clement VIII, the work of the comission was continued and drastically revised, with the Jesuit scholar Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542–1624) bringing to the task his lifelong research on the Vulgate text."
Francisco de Toledo was a Spanish Jesuit priest and theologian, Biblical exegete and professor at the Roman College. He is the first Jesuit to have been made a cardinal.
Agostino Valier, also Augustinus Valerius or Valerio, was an Italian cardinal and bishop of Verona. He was a reforming bishop, putting into effect the decisions of the Council of Trent by means of administrative and disciplinary measures. He was one of the Christian humanist followers of Filippo Neri.
Federico Borromeo was an Italian cardinal and Archbishop of Milan.
In 1592, Clement VIII recalled all the copies of the Sixtine Vulgatealmost immediately after his election in January 1592, as one of his first acts. The reason invoked for recalling Sixtus V's edition was printing errors, however the Sixtine Vulgate was mostly free of printing errors.
According to James Hastings, "[t]he real reasons for the recall of the editions must have been partly personal hostility to Sixtus, and partly a conviction that the book was not quite a worthy representative of the Vulgate text."Nestle "suggests that the revocation was really due to the influence of the Jesuits, whom Sixtus had offended by putting one of Bellarmine's books on the Index Librorum prohibitorum." Kenyon writes that the Sixtine Vulgate was "full of errors", but that Clement VIII was also motivated in his decision to recall the edition by the Jesuits, "whom Sixtus had offended." Sixtus V objected to some of the Jesuits' rules and especially to the title "Society of Jesus". He was on the point of changing these when he died. Sixtus V "had some conflict with the Society of Jesus more generally, especially regarding the Society’s concept of blind obedience to the General, which for Sixtus and other important figures of the Roman Curia jeopardized the preeminence of the role of the pope within the Church." Jaroslav Pelikan, without giving any more details, says that the Sixtine Vulgate "proved to be so defective that it was withdrawn".
The Clementine Vulgate was printed on 9 November 1592,with an anonymous preface written by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. It was issued with the Bull Cum Sacrorum (9 November 1592) which asserted that every subsequent edition must be assimilated to this one, no word of the text may be changed, nor even variant readings printed in the margin. "The misprints of this edition were partly eliminated in a second (1593) and a third (1598) edition."
This new official version of the Vulgate, known as the Clementine Vulgateor Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, became the official Bible of the Catholic Church.
The Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix additional apocryphal books: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras.It contained also the Psalterium Gallicanum and not the Versio juxta Hebraicum.
It contains texts of Acts 15:34and the Comma Johanneum, 1 John 5:7. The new system of verse enumeration introduced by the Sixtine Vulgate was dropped and replaced with the system of division of verses enumeration of the 1551 edition of the Bible of Stephanus.
The revision was close to the Hentenian edition;this is a difference with the Sixtine edition which had "a text more nearly resembling that of Robt. Stephen than that of John Hentenius."
"To avoid the appearance of a conflict between the two Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII], the Clementine Bible was boldly published under the name of Sixtus, with a preface by Bellarmine asserting that Sixtus had intended to bring out a new edition in consequence of errors that had occurred in the printing of the first, but had been prevented by death; now, in accordance with his desire, the work was completed by his successor."
The full name of the Clementine Vulgate was: Biblia sacra Vulgatae Editionis, Sixti Quinti Pont. Max. iussu recognita atque edita.(translation: The Holy Bible of the Common/Vulgate Edition identified and published by the order of Pope Sixtus V). The fact that the Clementine edition retained the name of Sixtus on its title page is the reason why the Clementine Vulgate is sometimes known as the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
"It may be added that the first edition to contain the names of both the Popes [Sixtus V and Clement VIII] upon the title page is that of 1604. The title runs: "Sixti V. Pont. Max. iussu recognita et Clementis VIII. auctoritate edita.""
The Clementine edition differs from the Sistine edition in about 3,000 places, according to Carlo Vercellone,James Hasting, and Metzger; or according to Kurt Aland in about 5,000 variants.
Some examples are:
|Vulgata Sixtina||Vulgata Clementina|
|18:2||in terra||in terram|
|18:4||laventur pedes vestri||lavate pedes vestros|
|11:14||constituit te||te constituit|
The differences between the Sixtine and the Clementine editions of the Vulgate was an opportunity too good for Protestants to miss; Thomas James in his Bellum Papale sive Concordia discors (London, 1600) "upbraids the two Popes on their high pretensions and the palpable failure of at least one, possibly both of them."He gave a long list of the differences (about 2,000) between these two editions. Translators of the King James Version in the preface to the first edition from 1611 accused the pope of perversion of the Holy Scripture.
Hastings "willingly admit[s]" that "on the whole [...] the Clementine text is critically an improvement upon the Sixtine."However, Kenyon argues that the changes which differentiate the Clementine edition from the Sixtine edition "exept where they simply remove an obvious blunder, are, for the most part, no improvement" Henri Quentin wrote: "Overall, the Clementine edition is a little better than the Sistine, but it does not mark a considerable progress"
The Clementine Vulgate was criticised by such textual critics as Richard Bentley, John Wordsworth, Henry Julian White, Samuel Berger, and Peter Corssen.Monsignor Roger Gryson, a patristics scholar at the Catholic University of Louvain, asserts in the preface to 4th edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate (1994) that the Clementine edition "frequently deviates from the manuscript tradition for literary or doctrinal reasons, and offers only a faint reflection of the original Vulgate, as read in the pandecta of the first millennium." By the same token however, the great extent to which the Clementine edition preserves contaminated readings from the medieval period can itself be considered to have critical value; Frans Van Liere states: "for the medieval student interested in the text as it was read, for instance, in thirteenth century Paris, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate might actually be a better representative of the scholastic biblical text that the modern critical editions of the text in its pre-Carolingian form." Houghton states that "[t]he Clementine Vulgate is often a better guide to the text of the mediaeval Vulgate than critical editions of the earliest attainable text."
"At the beginning of the twentieth century, awareness of the inadequacies of the Clementine text increased. In 1906, Michael Hetzenauer produced a new edition of the Clementine Vulgate based on its three printings in 1592, 1593, and 1598 and incorporating officially-authorized corrections[.] The current standard reference edition [of the Clementine Vulgate] is that of Colunga & Turrado1946, a form of which is available online. "
The Clementine Vulgate remained the standard Bible of the Roman Catholic Church until 1979, when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated by John-Paul II.
Robert Bellarmine was an Italian Jesuit and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was canonized a saint in 1930 and named Doctor of the Church, one of only 36. He was one of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation.
The Great Bible of 1539 was the first authorized edition of the Bible in English, authorized by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. The Great Bible was prepared by Myles Coverdale, working under commission of Thomas, Lord Cromwell, Secretary to Henry VIII and Vicar General. In 1538, Cromwell directed the clergy to provide "one book of the bible of the largest volume in English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the said church that ye have care of, whereas your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same and read it."
The Douay–Rheims Bible is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes twenty-seven years later in 1609 and 1610 by the University of Douai. The first volume, covering Genesis through Job, was published in 1609; the second, covering Psalms to 2 Machabees plus the apocrypha of the Vulgate was published in 1610. Marginal notes took up the bulk of the volumes and had a strong polemical and patristic character. They offered insights on issues of translation, and on the Hebrew and Greek source texts of the Vulgate.
Vetus Latina, also known as Vetus Itala, Itala ("Italian") and Old Italic, and denoted by the siglum , is the collective name given to the Latin translations of biblical texts that existed before the Vulgate, the Latin translation produced by Jerome in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate became the standard Latin Bible used by the Catholic Church, especially after the Council of Trent (1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina texts survive in some parts of the liturgy.
The Codex Amiatinus is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Christian Bible. It was produced around 700 A.D in the north-east of England, at the Benedictine monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria and taken to Italy as a gift for Pope Gregory II in 716. It was one of three giant single-volume Bibles then made at Monkwearmouth–Jarrow, and is the earliest complete one-volume Latin Bible to survive, only the León palimpsest being older; and the oldest bible where all the Books of the Bible present what would be their Vulgate texts.
Esdras is a Greco-Latin variation of the name of Hebrew Ezra the Scribe. The name is found in the titles of several books attributed to or associated with the scribe that are in or related to the Hebrew and Christian Bibles.
Jakub Wujek son of Maciej Wujek; a Polish Jesuit, religious writer, Doctor of Theology, Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy and translator of the Bible into Polish.
The biblical apocrypha denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books, thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 100 AD. and most are seen in copies of the Septuagint dating from the 4th century BC,, and which are included in some versions and editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament. Some Christian Churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament.
The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Romanesque and early Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated.
The Jakub Wujek Bible was the main Polish Bible translation used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland from the late 16th century till the mid-20th century.
The Vulgata Sixtina or Sixtine Vulgate is the edition of the Latin Vulgate published in 1590, prepared on the orders of Pope Sixtus V. It was the first edition of the Latin Vulgate authorised by a pope, but its official recognition was short-lived. This edition was replaced in 1592 by the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
The Bible translations into Latin are the versions used in the Western part of the former Roman Empire until the Reformation and still used, along with translations from Latin into the vernacular, in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Codex Toletanus, designated by T, is a 10th-century Latin manuscript of the Old and New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the Latin Vulgate Bible, which contains the entire Bible, including the trinity reference Comma Johanneum.
Vulgate refers to texts created for the use of the common people, Latin vulgus, on specific topics. It may refer to:
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