|Genre||Official Bible of the Catholic Church|
|Published||1979 (2nd revised edition in 1986)|
|Preceded by||Sixto-Clementine Vulgate|
|Part of a series on the|
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The Nova Vulgata (complete title: Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio; abr. NV), also called the Neo-Vulgate or New Latin Vulgate,is the official Classical Latin translation of the original-language texts of the Bible from modern critical editions published by the Holy See for use in the contemporary Roman rite. It was completed and promulgated in 1979 by John Paul II. A second, revised, edition was promulgated in 1986, again by John Paul II. It is the official Latin text of the Catholic Church.
Before the Nova Vulgata, the Clementine Vulgate was the standard Bible of the Catholic Church.
The Nova Vulgata is not a critical edition of the historical Vulgate. Rather, it is a revision of the text intended to accord with modern critical Hebrew and Greek texts, and to produce a style closer to Classical Latin.
In 1907, Pope Pius X commissioned the Benedictine Order to produce as pure a version as possible of Jerome's original text after conducting an extensive search for as-yet-unstudied manuscripts, particularly in Spain.Pope Pius XI established the Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City in 1933 to complete the work.
By the 1970s, the Benedictine edition was no longer required for official purposes because of liturgical changes that had spurred the Vatican to produce a new translation of the Latin Bible, the Nova Vulgata. [ citation needed ]In consequence, the abbey was suppressed in 1984. Five monks were nonetheless allowed to complete the final two volumes of the Old Testament, which were published under the abbey's name in 1987 and 1995. The Oxford editors had already published a full critical text of the Vulgate New Testament, and no attempt was made to duplicate their work.
The Second Vatican Council in Sacrosanctum Concilium mandated a revision of the Latin Psalter, to bring it in line with modern textual and linguistic studies while preserving or refining its Christian Latin style. In 1965, Pope Paul VI appointed a commission to revise the rest of the Vulgate following the same principles. The Commission published its work in eight annotated sections, and invited criticism from Catholic scholars as the sections were published. The Latin Psalter was published in 1969, the New Testament was completed by 1971, and the entire Nova Vulgata was published as a single-volume edition for the first time in 1979.
The foundational text of most of the Old Testament is the critical edition commissioned by Pope Pius X and produced by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Jerome.The foundational text of the Books of Tobit and Judith is from manuscripts of the Vetus Latina , rather than the Vulgate. The New Testament was based on the 1969 edition of the Stuttgart Vulgate, and hence on the Oxford Vulgate. All of these base texts were revised to accord with the modern critical editions in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic. A number of changes were also made where modern scholars felt that Jerome had failed to grasp the meaning of the original languages, or had rendered it obscurely.
The Nova Vulgata does not contain some books that were included in the earlier editions but omitted by the canon promulgated by the Council of Trent. Those omitted books are the Prayer of Manasses, the 3rd and 4th Book of Esdras (sometimes known by different names: see naming conventions of Esdras), Psalm 151, and the Epistle to the Laodiceans.[ citation needed ]
In 1979, after decades of preparation, the Nova Vulgata was published, and was made the official Latin version of the Bible of the Catholic Church in the apostolic constitution Scripturarum Thesaurus, promulgated by Pope John Paul II on April 25, 1979.
A second edition, published in 1986, added a Preface to the reader, [ citation needed ] used when translating the Tetragrammaton, with Dominus, in keeping with an ancient tradition.an Introduction to the principles used in producing the Nova Vulgata, and an appendix containing three historical documents from the Council of Trent and the Clementine Vulgate. This second edition included the footnotes to the Latin text found in the eight annotated sections published before 1979. It also replaced the few occurrences of the form Iahveh,
In 2001, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments released the instruction Liturgiam Authenticam . This text established the Nova Vulgata as "the point of reference as regards the delineation of the canonical text". Concerning the translation of liturgical texts, the instruction states:
"Furthermore, in the preparation of these translations for liturgical use, the Nova VulgataEditio, promulgated by the Apostolic See, is normally to be consulted as an auxiliary tool, in a manner described elsewhere in this Instruction, in order to maintain the tradition of interpretation that is proper to the Latin Liturgy. [...] [I]t is advantageous to be guided by the Nova Vulgata wherever there is a need to choose, from among various possibilities [of translation], that one which is most suited for expressing the manner in which a text has traditionally been read and received within the Latin liturgical tradition"
This recommendation is qualified, however: the instruction specifies (n. 24) that translations should not be made from the Nova Vulgata, but rather "must be made directly from the original texts, namely the Latin, as regards the texts of ecclesiastical composition, or the Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek, as the case may be, as regards the texts of Sacred Scripture". The instruction does not recommend translation of the Bible, or of the liturgy, based upon the Latin Nova Vulgata; the NV must instead simply be used as an "auxiliary tool".
Most of the approximately 2,000 changes made by the Nova Vulgata to the traditional text of Jerome's revision of the Gospels in the Stuttgart Vulgate are minor and stylistic in nature.
In addition, in the New Testament the Nova Vulgata introduced corrections to align the Latin with the Greek text, something that has been described as "an urgent need" in order to represent Jerome's text, as well as its Greek base for the New Testament, accurately. This alignment had not been achieved earlier, either in the edition of 1590, or in the 1592 edition which contained some 5,000 alterations to the 1590 text.
William Griffin used the Nova Vulgata for his Latin-to-English translation of the Books of Tobit, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Baruch, Wisdom, Sirach, and the additions to Esther and Daniel for the Catholic/Ecumenical Edition of The Message Bible.
The Nova Vulgata provides the Latin text of Kurt and Barbara Aland's bilingual Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine.Since the Alands' 1984 revision of the Novum Testamentum Latine, that version has also used the Nova Vulgata as its reference text.
The Nova Vulgata has been criticized as deviating frequently from the Latin manuscript tradition. 's New Testament readings are not found in any Latin manuscripts, meaning that the NV diverges from Jerome's translation. Zuiddan has called the NV "an imaginary text of Scripture on the authority of scholarship, based on a handful of manuscripts that run contrary to the textual traditions of both the Eastern and the Western Church".According to Protestant university professor Benno Zuiddan, many of the NV
Traditional Catholics object to the Nova Vulgata because, in their view, it lacks Latin manuscript support and breaks with the historical tradition of worship in the Church.
Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf was a world-leading biblical scholar in his time. In 1844 he discovered the world's oldest and most complete Bible dating from 325, with the complete New Testament not discovered before. This Bible is called Codex Sinaiticus, after the St. Catherine's Monastery at Mt. Sinai, where Tischendorf discovered it. The codex can be seen either in the British Library in London, or as a digitalised version on the Internet. Textual disputes are resolved when the two oldest books, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus, agree with each other. Tischendorf was made an Honorary Doctor by Oxford University on 16 March 1865, and an Honorary Doctor by Cambridge University on 9 March 1865 following this find of the century. While a student gaining his academic degree in the 1840s, he earned international recognition when he deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was to become the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century, and is still used fundamentally in the Latin Church to this day.
The Codex Vaticanus is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of a Greek Bible, one of the four great uncial codices. The Codex is named after its place of conservation in the Vatican Library, where it has been kept since at least the 15th century. It is written on 759 leaves of vellum in uncial letters and has been dated palaeographically to the 4th century.
Vetus Latina, also known as Vetus Itala, Itala ("Italian") and Old Italic, and denoted by the siglum , is the collective name given to the Latin translations of biblical texts that existed before the Vulgate, the Latin translation produced by Jerome in the late 4th century. The Vetus Latina translations continued to be used alongside the Vulgate, but eventually the Vulgate became the standard Latin Bible used by the Catholic Church, especially after the Council of Trent (1545–1563) affirmed the Vulgate translation as authoritative for the text of Scripture. However, the Vetus Latina texts survive in some parts of the liturgy.
The Codex Amiatinus is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate version of the Christian Bible. It was produced around 700 A.D in the north-east of England, at the Benedictine monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria and taken to Italy as a gift for Pope Gregory II in 716. It was one of three giant single-volume Bibles then made at Monkwearmouth–Jarrow, and is the earliest complete one-volume Latin Bible to survive, only the León palimpsest being older; and the oldest bible where all the Books of the Bible present what would be their Vulgate texts.
Novum Testamentum Graece is a critical edition of the New Testament in its original Koine Greek, forming the basis of most modern Bible translations and biblical criticism. It is also known as the Nestle-Aland edition after its most influential editors, Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland. The text, edited by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, is currently in its 28th edition, abbreviated NA28.
The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Romanesque and early Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated.
Editio Critica Maior (ECM) is a critical edition of the Greek New Testament being produced by the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung - which is famous, for example, for the Novum Testamentum Graece - in collaboration with other international institutes. The ECM is the printed documentation of the expressions of Christian faith communities as they transmitted the New Testament in time through Greek manuscripts, translations, and ancient citations in the first 1,000 years of New Testament transmission. The difference between earlier and later readings is shown by the concept of 'direction' in the ECM, with the earliest expression of the Christian readings printed in the main text. The Coherence Based Genealogical Method (CBGM) is the method being used to construct the ECM. The CBGM has two components - pregenealogical coherence and genealogical coherence. Pregenealogical coherence is a text-critical method which uses computer tools to compare the places of variation New Testament Witnesses to determine if the readings are related. Then, critical principles are applied by a textual scholar to make a decision on the directionality of the reading itself. Places where the direction cannot be determined, or split readings, are indicated by a diamond in the text. The ECM is the first critical edition of the Greek New Testament to include a 1) systematic assessment of witnesses, 2) a mature consideration of those witnesses, 3) a reconstruction of the oldest form of the recoverable text, or initial text, 4) a complete and systematic apparatus, and 5) a full explanation and justification of its methodology and conclusions.
The Institute for New Testament Textual Research at the University of Münster, Westphalia, Germany, is to research the textual history of the New Testament and to reconstruct its Greek initial text on the basis of the entire manuscript tradition, the early translations and patristic citations; furthermore the preparation of an Editio Critica Maior based on the entire tradition of the New Testament in Greek manuscripts, early versions and New Testament quotations in ancient Christian literature. Under Kurt Aland's supervision, the INTF collected almost the entire material that was needed - Manuscript count 1950: 4250; 1983: 5460; 2017: approx. 5800.
Liturgiam authenticam(De usu linguarum popularium in libris liturgiae Romanae edendis) is an instruction of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, dated 28 March 2001.
Minuscule 629, α 460, is a Latin–Greek diglot minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. It is known as Codex Ottobonianus. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 14th century. The manuscript is lacunose. It is known for the Comma Johanneum.
Barbara Aland, née Ehlers is a German theologian and was a Professor of New Testament Research and Church History at Westphalian Wilhelms-University of Münster until 2002.
The Vulgata Sixtina, Sixtine Vulgate or Sistine Vulgate is the edition of the Vulgate which was published in 1590, prepared by a committee on the orders of Pope Sixtus V and edited by himself. It was the first edition of the Latin Vulgate authorised by a pope. Its official recognition was short-lived; the edition was replaced in 1592 by the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate.
The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate or Clementine Vulgate is the edition of the Vulgate promulgated in 1592 by Pope Clement VIII. It was the second edition of the Vulgate to be authorised by the Catholic Church, the first being the Sixtine Vulgate. The Vulgate is a 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that was written largely by St. Jerome.
The New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE) is an English-language Catholic Bible translation, the first major update in 20 years to the New American Bible (NAB), originally published in 1970 by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine. Released on March 9, 2011, it consists of the 1986 revision of the NAB New Testament with a fully revised Old Testament approved by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops in 2010.
The Bible translations into Latin are the versions used in the Western part of the former Roman Empire until the Reformation and still used, along with translations from Latin into the vernacular, in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Codex Sangallensis 907, designated S, is an 8th-century Latin manuscript of the New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the Latin Vulgate Bible. It contains the text of the Catholic epistles, Book of Revelation, and non-biblical material. The manuscript did not survived in a complete condition and some parts of it has been lost. The codex contains the Comma Johanneum.
The Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City was a Benedictine monastery in Rome founded for the purpose of creating a critical edition of the Vulgate.
The Vulgate is a fourth-century translation of the Gospels and of most of the Old Testament into Latin produced by St. Jerome.
Griffin said he used the Catholic-approved New Latin Vulgate as the basis for his translations. The Latin was no problem for him, he said, but finding English expressions that were both faithful to the Latin meaning and suitable for a contemporary audience was a challenge.
There are approximately 2,000 differences between the Nova Vulgata and the critical text of Jerome's revision of the Gospels in the Stuttgart Vulgate, most of which are very minor. Following the appearance of the Nova Vulgata, Nestle's Novum Testamentum Latine was revised by Kurt and Barbara Aland: the Clementine text was replaced with the Nova Vulgata and an apparatus added showing differences from eleven other editions, including the Stuttgart, Oxford, Sixtine, and Clementine Vulgates; the first edition of 1984 was followed by a second edition in 1992. The Nova Vulgata is also the Latin text in the Alands' bilingual edition, Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine.