Sacraments of the Catholic Church

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Seven Sacraments Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1448 Seven Sacraments Rogier.jpg
Seven Sacraments Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden, c.1448

There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church. Sacraments are visible rites seen as signs and efficacious channels of the grace of God to all those who receive them with the proper disposition. The sevenfold list of sacraments is often organized into three categories: the sacraments of initiation (into the Church, the body of Christ), consisting of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist; the sacraments of healing, consisting of Penance and Anointing of the Sick; and the sacraments of service: Holy Orders and Matrimony. [1]

Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on canonical scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church. This article serves as an introduction to various topics in Catholic theology, with links to where fuller coverage is found.

Sacrament sacred rite recognized as of particular importance and significance

A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, as well as a means by which God enacts his grace. Many denominations, including the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist, and Reformed, hold to the definition of sacrament formulated by Augustine of Hippo: an outward sign of an inward grace that has been instituted by Jesus Christ. Sacraments signify God's grace in a way that is outwardly observable to the participant.

Grace in Christianity aspect of Christianity

In Western Christian theology, grace is "the love and mercy given to us by God because God desires us to have it, not necessarily because of anything we have done to earn it". It is not a created substance of any kind. "Grace is favour, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life." It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to people "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" – that takes the form of divine favor, love, clemency, and a share in the divine life of God.

Contents

Enumeration

The seven sacraments of the Catholic Church The seven Sacrament.jpg
The seven sacraments of the Catholic Church

The Catechism of the Catholic Church lists the sacraments as follows: "The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments. There are seven sacraments in the Church: Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony." [2]

<i>Catechism of the Catholic Church</i> book by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

The Catechism of the Catholic Church is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992. It sums up, in book form, the beliefs of the Catholic faithful.

In the Catholic Church, liturgy is divine worship, the proclamation of the Gospel, and active charity.

Baptism Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water

Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be performed by sprinkling or pouring water on the head, or by immersing in water either partially or completely. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

These seven sacraments were codified in the documents of the Council of Trent [3] (1545–1563), which stated:

Council of Trent 19th Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church

The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, was the 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

CANON I.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord; or that they are more, or less, than seven, to wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not truly and properly a sacrament; let him be anathema.

Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned. In its other main usage, it is a formal excommunication. The latter meaning, its ecclesiastical sense, is based on New Testament usage. In the Old Testament, anathema referred either to something that was consecrated or to something denounced as evil or accursed and set aside for sacrificial offering.

CANON IV.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification; -though all (the sacraments) are not necessary for every individual; let him be anathema. [4]

Dogmatic nature

Dogma includes divine revelation, i.e., the word of God (bible and tradition) and the word of God incarnate (Jesus), [5] [6] and truths connected to divine revelation. [7] The sacraments, divinely instituted, are dogma [8] and are part of the liturgy, that is, public worship. [9] As dogma is immutable, [10] Baptism cannot be changed to allow a non-Trinitarian formula, [11] the Eucharist cannot be changed to allow unrepentant sinners to receive Jesus, [12] Matrimony cannot be changed to allow gay marriage, [13] and Holy Orders cannot be changed to allow priestesses. [14] The church believes all of the sacraments work ex opere operato [15] as manifestations of Jesus' actions and words during his life, [16] and that according to dogma Jesus commanded the apostles to baptize with the Trinitarian formula, instituted the Eucharist with the Last Supper, made marriage sacramental at the wedding at Cana, called the twelve apostles to himself, and otherwise instituted and commanded the other sacraments. [17]

Ex opere operato is a Latin phrase meaning "from the work worked" referring to sacraments deriving their power from Christ's work rather than the role of humans. The phrase is commonly misunderstood to mean that sacraments work automatically and independently of the faith of the recipient. However, in order to receive sacraments fruitfully, it is believed necessary for the recipient to have faith. In modern usage, the phrase often refers to the idea that sacraments are efficacious in and of themselves rather than depending on the attitude either of the minister or the recipient. For example, Confirmation might be held to bestow the Holy Spirit regardless of the attitude of both the bishop and the person being confirmed.

Dogma in the Catholic Church definitive articles of faith (de fide) according to the Roman Catholic Church

A dogma of the Catholic Church is defined as "a truth revealed by God, which the magisterium of the Church declared as binding." The Catechism of the Catholic Church states:

The Church's Magisterium asserts that it exercises the authority it holds from Christ to the fullest extent when it defines dogmas, that is, when it proposes, in a form obliging Catholics to an irrevocable adherence of faith, truths contained in divine Revelation or also when it proposes, in a definitive way, truths having a necessary connection with these.

Last Supper Final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion

The Last Supper, also known as the Passover meal, is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians especially on Maundy Thursday. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper".

Faith and grace

Distribution of divine graces by means of the Catholic Church and the sacraments (Johannes Hopffe, Wrisberg epitaph, Hildesheim, before 1615) Hildesheim Wrisberg-Epitaph Mitteltafel.jpg
Distribution of divine graces by means of the Catholic Church and the sacraments (Johannes Hopffe, Wrisberg epitaph, Hildesheim, before 1615)

The Catholic Church teaches that the sacraments are "efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions." [18]

While the Church itself is the universal sacrament of salvation, [19] [20] the sacraments of the Catholic Church in the strict sense [21] are seven sacraments that "touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian's life of faith". [22] "The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation", although not all are necessary for every individual, [23] and has placed under anathema those who deny it: "If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous; and that, without them, or without the desire thereof, men obtain of God, through faith alone, the grace of justification;-though all (the sacraments) are not indeed necessary for every individual; let him be anathema." [24]

The Church further teaches that the effect of a sacrament comes ex opere operato , by the very fact of being administered, regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering it. [25] However, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block the effectiveness of the sacrament in that person. The sacraments presuppose faith and through their words and ritual elements, nourish, strengthen and give expression to faith. [26]

Sacraments of initiation

The Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "Christian initiation is accomplished by means of the sacraments which establish the foundations of Christian life. The faithful born anew by Baptism are strengthened by Confirmation and are then nourished by the Eucharist." [27]

Baptism

Scene of baptism. Stained glass, Paris, last quarter of the 12th century. From the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris. Baptism Sainte-Chapelle MNMA Cl23717.jpg
Scene of baptism. Stained glass, Paris, last quarter of the 12th century. From the Sainte-Chapelle of Paris.

The Roman Catholic Church sees baptism as the first and basic sacrament of Christian initiation. [28] In the Western or Latin Church, baptism is usually conferred today by pouring water three times on the recipient's head, while reciting the baptismal formula: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (cf. Matthew 28:19). In the Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine Rite immersion or submersion is used, and the formula is: "The servant of God, N., is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." [29] Though sprinkling is not normally used, its validity is accepted, provided that the water flows over the skin, since otherwise it is not a washing. [30] [31]

Confirmation

Confirmation or Chrismation is the second sacrament of Christian initiation. [32] "It is called Chrismation (in the Eastern Churches: anointing with holy myron or chrism) because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism. It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace." [33] It is conferred by "the anointing with Sacred Chrism (oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop), which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite." [34] These words, in both their Western and Eastern variants, refer to a gift of the Holy Spirit that marks the recipient as with a seal. Through the sacrament the grace given in baptism is "strengthened and deepened." [35] Like baptism, confirmation may be received only once, and the recipient must be in a state of grace (meaning free from any known unconfessed mortal sin) in order to receive its effects. The "originating" minister of the sacrament is a validly consecrated bishop; if a priest (a "presbyter") confers the sacrament – as is done ordinarily in the Eastern Churches and in special cases (such as the baptism of an adult or in danger of the death of a young child) in the Latin Church (CCC 1312–1313) – the link with the higher order is indicated by the use of oil (known as "chrism" or "myron") blessed by the bishop on Holy Thursday itself or on a day close to it. In the East, which retains the ancient practice, the sacrament is administered by the parish priest immediately after baptism. In the West, where the sacrament is normally reserved for those who can understand its significance, it came to be postponed until the recipient's early adulthood; in the 20th century, after Pope Pius X introduced first Communion for children on reaching the age of discretion, the practice of receiving Confirmation later than the Eucharist became widespread; [36] but the traditional order, with Confirmation administered before First Communion, is being increasingly restored. [36] [37]

Eucharist

Communion of Saint Teresa, by Juan Martin Cabezalero, Museum of Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid Juan Martin Cabezalero Comunion de Santa Teresa Museo Lazaro Galdiano.jpg
Communion of Saint Teresa , by Juan Martín Cabezalero, Museum of Lázaro Galdiano, Madrid

The Eucharist, also called the Blessed Sacrament, is the sacrament (the third of Christian initiation, [38] the one that the Catechism of the Catholic Church says "completes Christian initiation") [39] by which Catholics partake of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and participate in his one sacrifice. The first of these two aspects of the sacrament is also called Holy Communion. The bread (which must be wheaten, and which is unleavened in the Latin, Armenian and Ethiopic Rites, but is leavened in most Eastern Rites) and wine (which must be from grapes) used in the Eucharistic rite are, in Catholic faith, transformed in their inner reality, though not in appearance, into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change that is called transubstantiation. "The minister who is able to confect the sacrament of the Eucharist in the person of Christ is a validly ordained priest alone." [40] The word "priest" here (in Latin sacerdos) includes both bishops and those priests who are also called presbyters. [41] Deacons as well as priests (sacerdotes) are ordinary ministers of Holy Communion, and lay people may be authorized in limited circumstances to act as extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion. The Eucharist is seen as "the source and summit" of Christian living, the high point of God's sanctifying action on the faithful and of their worship of God, the point of contact between them and the liturgy of heaven. So important is it that participation in the Eucharistic celebration (see Mass) is seen as obligatory on every Sunday and holy day of obligation and is recommended on other days. Also recommended for those who participate in the Mass is reception, with the proper dispositions, of Holy Communion. This is seen as obligatory at least once a year, during Eastertide.

Restored order of initiation

As a growing trend during the second half of the 2010s, many US dioceses of Latin Rite are officially returning to the traditional order of the three sacraments of Christian initiation, that is: Baptism, Confirmation and, lastly, the first Communion. [42]

This order of Sacraments is referenced in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (n. 1212), and "The holy Eucharist completes Christian initiation" (n. 1322).

The current order – with Eucharist preceding the Confirmation – was started in 1910 with the decree by Pope Pius X, Quam Singulari Christus Amore (transl.: "How Special Christ's Love"), which said Communion should not be delayed beyond when a child reaches the age of reason. U.S. dioceses complied at that time, but they did not bring confirmation forward with it in a subsequent age. [42] [43] [44]

Sacraments of healing

Penance

The Sacrament of Penance (or Reconciliation) is the first of two sacraments of healing. The Catechism of the Catholic Church mentions in the following order and capitalization different names of the sacrament, calling it the sacrament of conversion, Penance, confession, forgiveness and Reconciliation. [45] It is the sacrament of spiritual healing of a baptized person from the distancing from God resulting from sins committed. When people sin after baptism, they cannot have baptism as a remedy; Baptism, which is a spiritual regeneration, cannot be given a second time.

The sacrament involves four elements:

  1. Contrition (the penitent's sincere remorse for wrongdoing or sin, repentance, without which the rite has no effect);
  2. Confession to a priest who has the faculty to hear confessions (Canon 966.1) – while it may be spiritually helpful to confess to another, only a priest has the power to administer the sacrament;
  3. Absolution by the priest; and,
  4. Satisfaction or penance.

"Many sins wrong our neighbour. One must do what is possible in order to repair the harm (e.g., return stolen goods, restore the reputation of someone slandered, pay compensation for injuries). Simple justice requires as much. But sin also injures and weakens the sinner himself, as well as his relationships with God and neighbour. Absolution takes away sin, but it does not remedy all the disorders sin has caused. Raised up from sin, the sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something more to make amends for the sin: he must 'make satisfaction for' or 'expiate' his sins. This satisfaction is also called 'penance'" (CCC 1459). In early Christian centuries, this element of satisfaction was quite onerous and generally preceded absolution, but now it usually involves a simple task for the penitent to perform later, in order to make some reparation and as a medicinal means of strengthening against further temptation.

The priest is bound by the "seal of confession", which is inviolable. "Accordingly, it is absolutely wrong for a confessor in any way to betray the penitent, for any reason whatsoever, whether by word or in any other fashion." [46] A confessor who directly violates the sacramental seal incurs an automatic excommunication whose lifting is reserved to the Holy See. [47]

In some dioceses, certain sins are "reserved" which means only certain confessors can absolve them. Some sins, such as violation of the sacramental seal, consecration of bishops without authorization by the Holy See, direct physical attacks on the Pope, and intentional desecration of the Eucharist are reserved to the Holy See. A special case-by-case faculty from the Sacred Penitentiary is normally required to absolve these sins.

Anointing of the Sick

Extreme Unction, from Rogier van der Weyden's altarpiece Extreme Unction Rogier Van der Weyden.jpg
Extreme Unction, from Rogier van der Weyden's altarpiece

Anointing of the Sick is the second sacrament of healing. In this sacrament a priest anoints the sick with oil blessed specifically for that purpose. "The anointing of the sick can be administered to any member of the faithful who, having reached the use of reason, begins to be in danger by reason of illness or old age" (canon 1004; cf. CCC 1514). A new illness or a worsening of health enables a person to receive the sacrament a further time.

When, in the Western Church, the sacrament was conferred only on those in immediate danger of death, it came to be known as "Extreme Unction", i.e. "Final Anointing", administered as one of the Last Rites. The other Last Rites are Confession (if the dying person is physically unable to confess, at least absolution, conditional on the existence of contrition, is given), and the Eucharist, which when administered to the dying is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for a journey".

Sacraments of service

Holy Orders

Holy Orders is the Sacrament by which a man is made a bishop, a priest, and thus dedicated to be an image of Christ, or as a deacon, dedicated for service to the church. The three degrees are referred to, respectively, as the episcopate, the presbyterate and the diaconate. [48] The bishop is the only minister of this sacrament. Ordination as a bishop confers the fullness of the sacrament, making the bishop a successor to the Apostles, a member of the College of Bishops, and giving him the threefold office to teach, sanctify, and govern the People of God. Ordination as a priest configures the priest as Christ the Head of the Church, the one essential High Priest, and conferring on him the power, as the bishops' assistant, to celebrate the sacraments and other liturgical acts, especially the Eucharist. Ordination as a deacon configures the man in the service of the bishop, especially in the Church's exercise of Christian charity towards the poor, and preaching of the word of God.

Men who discern a vocation to the priesthood are required by canon law (canon 1032 of the Code of Canon Law) to undertake a seminary program that includes, as well as graduate level philosophical and theological studies, a formation program that includes spiritual direction, retreats, apostolate experience, Latin training, etc. The course of studies in preparation for ordination as a "permanent" deacon is decided by the regional episcopal conference.

Matrimony

Matrimony, from Rogier Van der Weyden's altarpiece Weyden Matrimony.jpg
Matrimony, from Rogier Van der Weyden's altarpiece

Matrimony, or Marriage, is another sacrament that consecrates for a particular mission in building up the Church, and that provides grace for accomplishing that mission. This sacrament, seen as a sign of the love uniting Christ and the Church, establishes between the spouses a permanent and exclusive bond, sealed by God. Accordingly, a marriage between baptized people, validly entered into and consummated, cannot be dissolved. The sacrament confers on them the grace they need for attaining holiness in their married life and for responsible acceptance and upbringing of their children. As a condition for validity, the sacrament is celebrated in the presence of the local Ordinary or Parish Priest or of a cleric delegated by them (or in certain limited circumstances a lay person delegated by the diocesan Bishop with the approval of the Episcopal Conference and the permission of the Holy See) and at least two other witnesses, [49] though in the theological tradition of the Latin Church the ministers of the sacrament uniquely are the couple themselves. For a valid marriage, a man and a woman must express their conscious and free consent to a definitive self-giving to the other, excluding none of the essential properties and aims of marriage. If one of the two is a non-Catholic Christian, their marriage is licit only if the permission of the competent authority of the Catholic Church is obtained. If one of the two is not a Christian (i.e. has not been baptized), the competent authority's dispensation is necessary for validity.

Validity and liceity

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As stated above, the effect of the sacraments comes ex opere operato (by the very fact of being administered). Since it is Christ who works through them, their effectiveness does not depend on the worthiness of the minister. The belief that the validity of the sacrament is dependent upon the holiness of the administrator was rejected in the Donatist crisis.

However, an apparent administration of a sacrament is invalid, if the person acting as minister does not have the necessary power (as if a deacon were to celebrate Mass). They are also invalid if the required "matter" or "form" is lacking. The matter is the perceptible material object, such as water in baptism or wheaten bread and grape wine for the Eucharist, or the visible action. The form is the verbal statement that specifies the signification of the matter, such as, (in the Western Church), "N., I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost". Furthermore, if the minister positively excludes some essential aspect of the sacrament, the sacrament is invalid. This last condition lies behind the 1896 judgement of the Holy See denying the validity of Anglican Orders.

A sacrament may be administered validly, but illicitly, if a condition imposed by canon law is not observed. Obvious cases are administration of a sacrament by a priest under a penalty of excommunication or suspension, or an episcopal ordination without the Pontifical mandate (except in certain circumstances outlined in Canon Law).

Impediments

Canon law specifies impediments to reception of the sacraments of orders and marriage. Those concerning the first of these two sacraments only concern liceity, but "a diriment impediment renders a person incapable of validly contracting a marriage" (canon 1073).

In the Latin Church, only the Holy See can authentically declare when divine law prohibits or invalidates a marriage, and only the Holy See has the right to establish for those who are baptised other impediments to marriage (canon 1075). But individual Eastern Catholic Churches, after having fulfilled certain requirements that include consulting (but not necessarily obtaining approval from) the Holy See, may establish impediments. [50]

If an impediment is imposed by merely ecclesiastical law, rather than being a matter of divine law, the Church may grant a dispensation from the impediment.

Conditions for validity of marriage such as sufficient use of reason (canon 1095) and freedom from coercion (canon 1103), and the requirement that, normally, a marriage be contracted in the presence of the local Ordinary or parish priest or of the priest or deacon delegated by either of them, and in the presence of two witnesses (canon 1108), are not classified in the Code of Canon Law as impediments, but have much the same effect.

Conditional conferral

Three of the sacraments may not be repeated: Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders: their effect is permanent. This teaching has been expressed by the images of, in the West, an indelible character or mark and of, in the East, a seal (CCC 698). However, if there is doubt about the validity of the administration of one or more of these sacraments, a conditional form of conferral may be used, such as: "If you are not already baptized, I baptize you …" [51]

In the recent past, it was common practice in the Catholic Church to baptize conditionally almost every convert from Protestantism because of a perceived difficulty in judging about the validity in any concrete instance. In the case of the major Protestant denominations, agreements involving assurances about the manner in which they administer baptism has ended this practice, which sometimes continues for other groups of Protestant tradition. The Catholic Church has always recognized the validity of baptism in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[ citation needed ] but it has explicitly denied the validity of the baptism conferred in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [52] It does not recognize a baptismal ceremony in which the names of the three divine persons (or hypostases) of the TrinityFather, Son and Holy Spirit—are replaced by descriptors such as Creator, Redeemer and Sanctifier, or Creator, Liberator, and Sustainer, and requires that the conditional form should not be used when baptizing those who have received this kind of baptism. [53]

See also

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Last rites

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Penance repentance of sins

Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It also plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which it is a rite, as well as among other Protestants. The word penance derives from Old French and Latin paenitentia, both of which derive from the same root meaning repentance, the desire to be forgiven. Penance and repentance, similar in their derivation and original sense, have come to symbolize conflicting views of the essence of repentance, arising from the controversy as to the respective merits of "faith" and "good works". Word derivations occur in many languages.

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Sacraments of initiation three rites that introduce a person into the Christian Church

The sacraments of initiation are the three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and Eucharist. As such, they are distinguished from the Sacraments of healing (Anointing of the sick and Sacrament of Penance and from the Sacraments of Service.

Catholicity is a concept pertaining to beliefs and practices widely accepted across numerous Christian denominations, most notably those that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church, as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church."

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Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity. Converts to Christianity typically make a vow of repentance from past sins, accept Jesus as their Savior and vow to follow his teachings as found in the New Testament.

Anglican sacraments

In keeping with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the Catholic tradition and a church of the Reformation. With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic tradition is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification and forgiveness as expressed in the church's liturgy.

Confirmation in the Catholic Church Catholic sacrament

Confirmation or Chrismation is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church. It is also one of the three sacraments of initiation into the Catholic Church, the other two being Baptism and Holy Communion.

Holy orders in the Catholic Church Sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church

The sacrament of holy orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. In the phrase "holy orders", the word "holy" simply means "set apart for some purpose." The word "order" designates an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordination means legal incorporation into an order. In context, therefore, a group with a hierarchical structure that is set apart for ministry in the Church.

Anointing of the Sick in the Catholic Church one of the sacraments in the Catholic Church

Anointing of the Sick is a sacrament of the Catholic Church that is administered to a Catholic "who, having reached the age of reason, begins to be in danger due to sickness or old age", except in the case of those who "persevere obstinately in manifest grave sin". Proximate danger of death, the occasion for the administration of Viaticum, is not required, but only the onset of a medical condition of serious illness or injury or simply old age: "It is not a sacrament for those only who are at the point of death. Hence, as soon as anyone of the faithful begins to be in danger of death from sickness or old age, the fitting time for him to receive this sacrament has certainly already arrived."

Confirmation (Lutheran Church) Lutheran church ceremony

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Lutheran sacraments

The Lutheran sacraments are "sacred acts of divine institution". Lutherans believe that, whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God along with the divine words of institution, God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component. They teach that God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament forgiveness of sins and eternal salvation. They teach that God also works in the recipients to get them to accept these blessings and to increase the assurance of their possession.

This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.

Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults process for conversion of adolescents and adults to Catholic Church

The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA), or Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum (OICA) is a process developed by the Catholic Church for prospective converts to Catholicism who are above the age of infant baptism. Candidates are gradually introduced to aspects of Catholic beliefs and practices. The basic process applies to adults and older children, with younger children initiated through an adapted version sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC).

Canon 844 is a Catholic Church canon law contained within the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which defines the licit administration and reception of certain sacraments of the Catholic Church in normative and in particular exceptional circumstances, known in canonical theory as communicatio in sacris.

References

  1. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1211
  2. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1113
  3. J. Waterworth (1848). "The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent" (PDF). Documenta Catholica Omnia. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  4. The Seventh Session of the Council of Trent. London: Dolman: Hanover Historical Texts Project. 1848. pp. 53–67. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  5. Catechism of the Catholic Church 97 "Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture make up a single sacred deposit of the Word of God" (DV 10) in which, as in a mirror, the pilgrim Church contemplates God, the source of all her riches.
  6. Catechism of the Catholic Church 73 God has revealed himself fully by sending his own Son, in whom he has established his covenant for ever. The Son is his Father's definitive Word; so there will be no further Revelation after him.
  7. Catechism of the Catholic Church 88 ...dogmas, that is,...truths contained in divine Revelation or also...truths having a necessary connection with these.
  8. Catechism of the Catholic Church 1210 Christ instituted the sacraments of the new law. There are seven: Baptism, Confirmation (or Chrismation), the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony.
  9. Catechism of the Catholic Church 1070 In the New Testament the word "liturgy" refers not only to the celebration of divine worship but also to the proclamation of the Gospel and to active charity.
  10. Catechism of the Catholic Church 1205 "In the liturgy, above all that of the sacraments, there is an immutable part, a part that is divinely instituted and of which the Church is the guardian, and parts that can be changed, which the Church has the power and on occasion also the duty to adapt to the cultures of recently evangelized peoples."
  11. A New Response of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on the Validity of Baptism Trinitarian faith calls for careful precision in language. If the substitution of the names of the divine Persons in the baptismal formula by other names that are proper to each of them (Parent, Child and Issue from both) had given rise to such serious doubt among theologians that Thomas Aquinas considered it invalid, then there is all the more reason to hold that what is conferred with the formulas considered in the questions presented to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is not true Baptism.
  12. Catechism of the Catholic Church 1385 Anyone conscious of a grave sin must receive the sacrament of Reconciliation before coming to communion.
  13. Catechism of the Catholic Church 2357 Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that "homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered." They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.
  14. Catechism of the Catholic Church 1577 The Lord Jesus chose men (viri)... The Church recognizes herself to be bound by this choice made by the Lord himself. For this reason the ordination of women is not possible.
  15. CCC 1128
  16. CCC 1115
  17. CCC 1210
  18. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1131
  19. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 774–776
  20. "Lumen Gentium: chapter 7, section 48, paragraph 2" . Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  21. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1117
  22. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1210
  23. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1129
  24. Council of Trent, Seventh Session, canon IV
  25. New Catholic Dictionary Archived 24 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  26. Sacrosanctum Concilium , 59, quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1123
  27. sacraments of Christian initiation Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 251
  28. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212
  29. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1239–1240
  30. Charles Coppens, S.J., The Catholic Religion
  31. Catholic Encyclopedia: Baptism
  32. Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 251
  33. Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 266
  34. Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 267
  35. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1303
  36. 1 2 Liam G. Walsh, Sacraments of Initiation (Liturgy Training Publications 2011 ISBN   978-1-59525035-3), pp. 153–154
  37. John Flader, "The age for Confirmation" in Question Time (Taylor Trade 2010 ISBN   978-1-58979594-5), pp. 86–87
  38. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212
  39. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1322
  40. Code of Canon Law, canon 900 §1
  41. While in the English language, the word "priest" usually means someone received into the second of the three holy orders (also called the presbyterate) but not into the highest, that of bishop, the Latin text underlying this statement uses the Latin term sacerdos, which comprises both bishops and, in the common English sense, priests. To refer exclusively to priests in the more common English sense, Latin uses the word presbyter. See Dennis Chester Smolarski, The General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 1969–2002: A Commentary (Liturgical Press 2003 ISBN   9780814629369), p. 24.
  42. 1 2 M. Martin, OSV (7 August 2015). "Restored order for sacraments a growing trend". OSV.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018. Denver, Honolulu are latest to move the Sacrament of Confirmation ahead of first Communion
  43. R. Ferrone (27 June 2017). "Another U.S. Diocese Adopts the 'Restored Order'". commonwealthmagazine.org. Retrieved 7 May 2018. Structuring Programs for Eucharistic Participation Instead of Confirmation
  44. N. LaPoint (21 May 2015). "A brief catechism on the 'restored order'". Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  45. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1423–1424
  46. canon 983 of the Code of Canon Law
  47. canon 1388
  48. US Conference of Catholic Bishops. Compendium: Catechism of the Catholic Church. USCCB Publishing. p. 93. ISBN   978-1-57455-720-6.
  49. canons 1108 and 1112 of the Code of Canon Law
  50. Canon 792, Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
  51. Code of Canon Law, canon 869; cf. New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law By John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J., pp. 1057–1059.
  52. "Response of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". Vatican.va. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  53. "Response of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". Vatican.va. 1 February 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2010.

Bibliography

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