Personal ordinariate

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A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" [1] [2] or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", [3] is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 [4] [5] [6] [7] and its complementary norms. [8] The ordinariates were established in order to enable "groups of Anglicans" [9] to join the Catholic Church while preserving elements of their liturgical and spiritual patrimony. They are juridically equivalent to a diocese, "a particular church in which and from which exists the one and unique Catholic Church", [10] but may be erected in the same territory as other dioceses "by reason of the rite of the faithful or some similar reason". [11]

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

An apostolic constitution is the most solemn form of legislation issued by the Pope. The use of the term constitution comes from Latin constitutio, which referred to any important law issued by the Roman emperor, and is retained in church documents because of the inheritance that the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church received from Roman law.

Diocese Christian district or see under the supervision of a bishop

The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis (διοίκησις) meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. Sometimes it is also called bishopric.

Three primarily Anglophone ordinariates were established between 2011 and 2012:

Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham in England and Wales is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church immediately subject to the Holy See within the territory of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, of which its ordinary is a member, and encompassing Scotland also. It was established on 15 January 2011 for groups of former Anglicans in England and Wales in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of Pope Benedict XVI.

Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter

The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter is a personal ordinariate of the Catholic Church—a jurisdiction within the Church, the equivalent of a diocese, for priests and laypeople from an Anglican background, that enables them to retain elements of their Anglican patrimony after entering the Catholic Church. Its territory extends over the United States and Canada. Former Methodists and former members of denominations such as the United Church of Canada are also included, as they are considered members of "ecclesial communion[s]" of "Anglican heritage".

Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church primarily within the territory of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference for groups of Anglicans who desire full communion with the Catholic Church in Australia and Asia. As a personal ordinariate it is immediately subject to the Holy See in Rome. The motto of the ordinariate is Mea Gloria Fides.

Name

"Personal ordinariate" is the term used for each of the three existing ordinariates in the decree that established them: the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, [12] the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter [13] and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross. It is also the collective name given to all three in the official yearbook of the Holy See [14] and is a name the ordinariates themselves use. [15] [16] [17]

"Ordinariates for former Anglicans" is a term sometimes used by the ordinariates themselves, [18] [19] by news sources (but not official documents) of the Holy See [20] and episcopal conferences. [21] This terminology, however, does not mean that an ordinariate's membership exclusively comprises former Anglicans. The head of the North American ordinariate has said that "ordinariates for former Anglicans must be a bridge to Christian unity and a force for true ecumenism" and the members must "build and rebuild our relationships with confreres who have stayed behind in the Anglican Church". [22]

"Anglican ordinariates" is often used by newspapers, such as the Church of England Newspaper [23] and the Canadian Catholic Register . [24] It is also often used by communities belonging to the ordinariates. [25] [26] [27] [28] The name does not imply that the members of an ordinariate are still Anglicans. While those who have been Anglicans "bring with them, into the full communion of the Catholic Church in all its diversity and richness of liturgical rites and traditions, aspects of their own Anglican patrimony and culture which are consonant with the Catholic Faith", they are "Catholics of the Latin Rite, within the full communion of the Catholic Church ... no longer part of any other communion". [29]

The Church of England Newspaper is an independent Anglican weekly newspaper. Based in London, it is published in the United Kingdom on Fridays.

The Catholic Register is a Canadian weekly newspaper published by the Archdiocese of Toronto. Founded in 1893, it is the oldest English-language Catholic publication in Canada. Based in Toronto, Ontario, and circulated nationally, it is published weekly in tabloid format, with 47 issues per year.

History

Background

The apostolic constitution was a response by the Holy See to requests coming from Continuing Anglican churches, particularly the Traditional Anglican Communion; and from Anglo-Catholic sections of the Anglican Communion, such as those involved with Forward in Faith, [30] and, within the Catholic Church, from the Anglican Use parishes which have existed since the early 1980s when, at the request of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Pope John Paul II granted the Pastoral Provision allowing the creation, within the territorial Latin Church dioceses of the United States, of parishes in which the liturgy would be celebrated in an approved form of the Anglican tradition and with a married clergy composed of former Anglican priests who were ordained in the Catholic Church on joining it. Many of these Anglican Use Catholics had left the Episcopal Church because of women's ordination especially to the episcopate, revisions of the liturgy, and changes in its moral teaching. These changes evidenced also in the consecration of a partnered homosexual man as a bishop and the blessing of same-sex couples have provoked serious tensions within the composite Anglican world, as Cardinal Walter Kasper said in 2009, leading to the requests to which the apostolic constitution was a response. [31] The discussions that led to the granting of the 1980 pastoral provision raised some of the ideas that came to fruition in the decision of 2009. One was the setting up of a structure for former Anglicans similar to the military ordinariate, an idea that was not then acted on because of the small number of Anglicans involved at that time. [32]

Holy See Episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, Italy

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the first century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholics around the world. As a sovereign entity, the Holy See is headquartered in, operates from, and exercises "exclusive dominion" over the independent Vatican City State enclave in Rome, Italy, of which the pope is sovereign. It is organized into polities of the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.

Traditional Anglican Communion

The Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC) is an international communion of churches in the continuing Anglican movement independent of the Anglican Communion and the Archbishop of Canterbury. The TAC upholds the theological doctrines of the Affirmation of St. Louis. Each of the respective jurisdictions utilizes a traditional Book of Common Prayer deemed free of theological deviation. Most parishioners of these churches would be described as being traditional Prayer Book Anglicans in their theology and liturgical practice. Some Anglo-Catholic parishes use the Anglican Missal in their liturgies. The TAC is governed by a College of Bishops from across the Communion and headed by an elected Primate.

Anglican Communion International association of churches

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England.

In October 2007 the Traditional Anglican Communion presented to the Holy See a petition for full union in corporate form (i.e., as a body, not merely as individuals) with the Roman Catholic Church. [33] This worldwide grouping, under a single primate, of churches of Anglican tradition but outside of communion with the see of Canterbury, was founded in 1991. It was formed over a number of issues, including liturgical revisions, the ordination of women and open homosexuals as priests, the sanctioning of homosexuality and the importance of tradition.

On 5 July 2008, Cardinal Levada responded to the formal request for "full, corporate and sacramental union" with the Roman Catholic Church [34] giving written assurance that the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith was giving serious attention to the prospect of "corporate unity" raised in that request. [35] The request thus became a basis for the decision, announced by Cardinal Levada on 20 October 2009, to issue the apostolic constitution. [36]

Announcement and enactment

The decision to institute personal ordinariates for Anglicans who join the Catholic Church was announced on 20 October 2009 by Cardinal William Levada at a press conference in Rome [37] [38] and by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, and the Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols, at a simultaneous press conference in London. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]

The apostolic constitution enacting the introduction of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans was released on 9 November 2009, together with supplementary norms for the ordinariates, allowing former Anglicans to enter full communion with the Catholic Church while preserving elements of the distinctive Anglican spiritual and liturgical patrimony. Provision was made for ordination as Catholic priests of married former Anglican clergy, but for historical and ecumenical reasons married men could not be ordained as bishops. The ordinary, who will usually be appointed from among former Anglican clergy, can therefore be either a priest or a bishop. Seminarians in the ordinariate were to be prepared alongside other Catholic seminarians, though the ordinariate might establish a house of formation to address the particular needs of formation in the Anglican patrimony. [43] [44] [45]

In December 2009, Cardinal Levada responded to each of the bishops of the Traditional Anglican Communion who signed the October 2007 petition for corporate union with the Catholic Church, stating that the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith had completed its long and detailed study with the aim of making available a suitable and viable model of organic unity for their group "and other such groups". The Traditional Anglican Communion then undertook discussions with those other groups and with representatives of the Catholic episcopal conferences and planned to give a formal response after a meeting of their bishops in Eastertide 2010. [46]

Acceptance by some Anglican groups

A number of Anglican groups soon petitioned the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for acceptance into ordinariates.

Purpose

The structure of an ordinariate enables Anglicans to enter into full communion with the Pope while preserving some degree of corporate identity and autonomy from the geographical dioceses for other Catholics of the Latin Church (also known as the "Latin Rite") and maintaining distinctive elements of their Anglican "theological, spiritual and liturgical patrimony". [54] The ordinariates integrate these groups in such ways as "to maintain the liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions of the Anglican Communion within the Catholic Church, as a precious gift nourishing the faith of the members of the Ordinariate and as a treasure to be shared", [29] [55] [56] is part of "the Latin Rite, within the full communion of the Catholic Church and professes all that church's doctrine on faith and morals." [29] [30] [57]

The personal ordinariates were originally envisaged for former Anglican communities and clergy seeking to become Catholic, enabling them to retain many aspects of their Anglican liturgy and traditions. [58] Accordingly, the ordinariates identify as Anglican culturally, but as Catholic theologically and ecclesiologically. Membership in the ordinariates, however, is not restricted exclusively to former Anglicans.

Anglican patrimony

In a letter in September 2013, Archbishop Vincent Nichols, President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, explained that, through the canonical structure of the ordinariate, "Anglicans who wish to enter the full communion of the Catholic Church, bringing with them some of the traditions and beauty of the Anglican heritage in which they were nurtured, may do so." [59] [60]

The rites of the ordinariates are characterised by revisions of Anglican rites approved by the Holy See for their use. While the Roman Rite is also permitted for the ordinariates, their official Divine Worship missal was adapted from the Book of Divine Worship that parishes of the United States' Pastoral Provision were already using before the ordinariates were instituted. [61]

Cardinal Sarah has praised the liturgy of the ordinariate: "Certainly, cultures and other Christians bring gifts with them into the Church - the liturgy of the Ordinariates of Anglicans now in full communion with the Catholic Church is a beautiful example of this." [62]

Some elements of the Anglican patrimony included within the charism of the Ordinariates include: [63]

Prospective members

Anglicans

Through the ordinariates, "Anglicans who wish to enter the full communion of the Catholic Church, bringing with them some of the traditions and beauty of the Anglican heritage in which they were nurtured, may do so." [64] However, Anglicans who join the Catholic Church are not obliged to become members of an ordinariate and can choose to belong to the Latin diocese of residence. [6] [29] In either form they are received by individual profession of faith. The rite of reception would normally also include the sacraments of Confirmation and Eucharist. [65]

Anglicans who join the local Latin dioceses, either before [66] or after [67] the erection of an ordinariate, are permitted to join an ordinariate. Monsignor Jeffrey Steenson is an example of someone who first became a member of a Latin diocese before later being a member of an ordinariate.

Non-Anglicans

Ordinariate membership as an entry to full communion with the Catholic Church is not limited solely to members of churches in the Anglican Communion. The founding document of personal ordinariates stated that their members would either be people "originally belonging to the Anglican Communion and now in full communion with the Catholic Church" (former Anglicans) or those "who receive the Sacraments of Initiation within the jurisdiction of the Ordinariate". [68] (The sacraments of initiation are baptism, confirmation, and eucharist. [69] ) Moreover, the personal ordinariates have extended the meaning of the word "Anglican" in this context to include members of any "Protestant Church linked to the Church of England, such as the Lutheran or Methodist Church" in Great Britain [70] or to anyone who has ever been an "Anglican, Episcopalian, Methodist, or AME" in the United States. [67] Therefore, many individuals who have never formally been part of a church in the Anglican Communion may become Catholic through an ordinariate, just as they might through any diocesan parish.

The complementary norms issued at the same time added that "those who have received all of the Sacraments of Initiation outside the Ordinariate are not ordinarily eligible for membership", but indicated that by exception "members of a family belonging to the Ordinariate" can become members also. [65] Such people, not belonging to either of the other two categories of members, are thus a third class.

The same three categories of members are listed in the decree of erection of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter: "It includes those faithful, of every category and state of life, who, originally having belonged to the Anglican Communion, are now in full communion with the Catholic Church, or who have received the sacraments of initiation within the jurisdiction of the Ordinariate itself, or who are received into it because they are part of a family belonging to the Ordinariate." [71]

A 2013 modification of the norms governing personal ordinariates made it clear that membership of an ordinariate is open to those who are Catholics by baptism but have not received both of the other two sacraments of initiation, if evangelising by an ordinariate brings them back to the faith and practice of the Catholic Church. [72] [73] Although they lack an Anglican background, they acquire membership of an ordinariate by receiving within it some of the sacraments of initiation. Other Catholics cannot "for purely subjective motives or personal preference" be enrolled in an ordinariate. [74] [75] However, all Catholics may regularly attend and receive communion at ordinariate services, as they can in any Latin or Eastern Catholic parish. [76]

If membership by reception of the sacraments of initiation within an ordinariate is open not only to the Catholics mentioned in the 2013 amendment but to others also who have no Anglican background - something on which no express statement has been issued - anyone who has not yet received all three sacraments of initiation may join. This includes non-Christians, those who, in the view of the Catholic Church, do not have valid baptism [77] (such as Mormons), [78] and those who, again in the view of the Catholic Church, have valid baptism but not valid confirmation or Eucharist. [79] Protestants in general are seen as lacking valid confirmation, but the Eastern churches and some Western ones, such as some Old Catholic churches and the Polish National Catholic Church, are recognized as having valid sacraments. [79]

Latin Rite priests can receive Orthodox Christians, who then belong not to the Latin Church but to the respective Eastern Catholic particular church. To be ascribed to the Latin Church (e.g. if the person intended to join the ordinariate), or to an Eastern Catholic church sui iuris other than the one of the same rite as the non-Catholic Eastern church from which the Christian arrives, permission of the Apostolic See may be necessary, although it may also occur with the permission of the respective Eastern and Latin ordinaries who have jurisdiction. [80] Priests of a personal ordinariate are not excluded from this authority: "Anyone who is not already a Catholic can be received into the Catholic Church through the Ordinariate." [81]

Regional development

Great Britain

Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham.svg
Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham

In October 2010, the parish council of St Peter's in Folkestone voted to enter the Roman Catholic Church. About half the parish, including their priest, were received into the by then established ordinariate on 9 March 2011. [82] [83]

On 8 November 2010, three serving and two retired bishops of the Church of England announced their intention to join the Roman Catholic Church. The serving bishops were provincial episcopal visitors Andrew Burnham of Ebbsfleet, Keith Newton of Richborough, along with suffragan John Broadhurst of Fulham, all of whom declared their intention to resign from the offices they held with effect from 31 December 2010. [84] The retired bishops were Edwin Barnes, formerly of Richborough, and David Silk, formerly of Ballarat in Australia and an honorary assistant bishop in the Diocese of Exeter.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, announced that he had with regret accepted the resignations of Bishops Burnham and Newton. Alan Hopes, an auxiliary bishop in the Westminster Diocese, gave assurance of a warm welcome from the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales for those who wished to be part of an ordinariate. [85] In a pastoral letter concerning his resignation as Bishop of Richborough, Newton stressed that he had done so not for "negative reasons about problems in the Church of England but for positive reasons in response to our Lord's prayer the night before he died, [that] 'they may all be one'". [86] [ better source needed ] Ruth Gledhill, religious affairs correspondent of The Times , said that the announcement could prompt "hundreds, possibly thousands" of lay ministers to follow the bishops' example. She added: "It's quite significant as it means the ordinariate – that quite a few people have been saying might not get off the ground – could be a force to be reckoned with." [85]

On 19 November 2010, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales announced that work was proceeding with a view to establishing an ordinariate in January 2011. It also said that the five Anglican bishops would receive ordination to the Catholic diaconate and priesthood at about the same time and would then assist in the reception of other Anglicans probably in Holy Week, followed during Eastertide by diaconal ordinations and priestly ordination around Pentecost of those former Anglican clergy whose requests for ordination would have been accepted by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. [87] [88]

On 1 January 2011, Broadhurst, Burnham and Newton, their wives (except Burnham's wife, who is Jewish) and three former Anglican nuns of a convent at Walsingham were received into the Catholic Church. [89] [ better source needed ] The three men were ordained to the Catholic diaconate on 13 January and to the priesthood on 15 January.

The first personal ordinariate for former Anglicans, the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, was established on 15 January 2011, [90] with Keith Newton appointed as the first ordinary. [91] [ better source needed ] At Easter 2011, about 900 laity and about 60 former Anglican clergy (many retired from active ministry) joined the Catholic Church as members of the ordinariate. [92]

In 2014, Monsignor Keith Newton, the ordinary, admitted that the ordinariate had not grown as much as was hoped. It had not yet aroused broad interest among Anglican clergy, who had not welcomed it. To revive interest among Anglican upholders of traditional Christian doctrine, the ordinariate's members, he suggested, should "communicate our message more fully and with more vigour and enthusiasm". [93]

United States and Canada

Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter Personal Ordinariate of the Seat of Saint Peter.svg
Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter

On 1 January 2012, the ordinariate for the United States was established with the name of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter. Jeffrey N. Steenson, a former bishop of the Episcopal Church, was named as its first ordinary. [94] In December 2012, the ordinariate was given extended jurisdiction over Canada through the newly established Canadian Deanery of St John the Baptist. Lee Kenyon, the first Anglican ordinariate priest ordained for service in Canada, was appointed as the first dean.

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith appointed Cardinal Donald Wuerl, the Archbishop of Washington, as its delegate for the implementation of an ordinariate in the United States. Wuerl also led a liaison committee of three bishops of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops for implementation of the ordinariate.

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith also appointed Thomas Collins, Archbishop of Toronto, as its delegate for implementation of an ordinariate in Canada. Collins also led a liaison committee of bishops of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops.

In November 2010, the Parish of Our Lady of the Atonement [95] in San Antonio, Texas, the first Anglican Use parish under the Pastoral Provision, hosted a seminar called "Becoming One" to build relationships and to disseminate information about the possibility of establishing a personal ordinariate in the United States. It was well attended by interested parties from the United States and Canada. In March 2011 a similar conference was held in Mississauga, Ontario, for those interested from across Canada. Christopher Phillips, one of the guest speakers at the conference, celebrated the first Anglican Use Mass in Canadian history at St Joseph's Streetsville for the Feast of the Annunciation.

A pastoral letter dated 30 November 2010 from John Hepworth, primate of the Traditional Anglican Communion, stated that announcements similar to those for England and Wales and for Australia were expected to be issued soon concerning Canada and the United States. He also stated that Robert Mercer, a retired bishop resident in England who had been the Anglican Bishop of Matabeleland and then a bishop in the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada (a Continuing Anglican church), intended to join the ordinariate for England and Wales. [96]

However, most of the "continuing" Anglican Church in America (TAC) drew back from joining the ordinariate. Of the Anglican Church in America parishes, St. Barnabas Church of Omaha, Nebraska accepted the offer of the Holy See and became part of the ordinariate. Only three parishes from the Episcopal Church (Anglican Communion)[ which? ] were interested, and two[ which? ] of these were embroiled in multimillion-dollar lawsuits over their church property. [97]

In May 2011, preparations for members of the Traditional Anglican Communion in Canada to join an ordinariate were put on hold in view of reports about intended announcements by Collins that those intending to join the ordinariate would have to close their Traditional Anglican parishes and attend a Catholic parish for four to six months and that the dossiers submitted by the clergy concerned showed that their training was inadequate, requiring them to attend a Catholic seminary for an unspecified time. Archbishop denied the reports. [98]

In early June 2011, in advance of the report that Wuerl was due to present to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops on interest shown in joining an ordinariate, a 100-member Episcopal parish in Bladensburg, Maryland was reported to have become the first in the United States to ask to be received into the Catholic Church while keeping aspects of its Anglican traditions. [99] Other accounts give Mount Calvary Church in Baltimore as the first, and the Bladensburg church as the second. [100] [101]

In his report to the bishops' conference, Wuerl stated that the Holy See had indicated its wish to establish an ordinariate in the United States before the end of 2011. [102] At the next meeting of the Bishops Conference, on 15 November, he announced that, with the approval of Pope Benedict XVI, 1 January 2012 would be the date of establishment of the new ordinariate for former Anglicans in the United States. [103] He said that of 67 petitions by United States Anglican clergy for ordination as Catholic priests 35 had already received the nihil obstat of the Holy See and would be examined locally for possible acceptance. He also said that two Anglican communities had already entered into full communion with the Catholic Church, one in the Diocese of Fort Worth, the other in the Archdiocese of Washington.

The ordinariate dedicated its chancery building 1 February 2015, behind and adjacent to its principal church, the Church of Our Lady of Walsingham in Houston, Texas, at which time it also celebrated the publication of the new Divine Worship missal for use in its public worship. [104] [105]

On 24 November 2015, the Holy See announced that Fr. Steven J. Lopes would be the first bishop of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter. [106] [107] [108] In assuming that responsibility, he succeeded Monsignor Jeffrey N. Steenson, a former Episcopal bishop appointed by Pope Benedict XVI to the position of "ordinary" in 2012. [107] The appointment of Lopes marked the first time a Roman Catholic bishop had been appointed to any of the world's three ordinariates erected for former Anglicans. [107] On 2 February 2016, Lopes was consecrated a bishop in Houston and took up his appointment as prelate of the ordinariate. [108]

Australia and Japan

Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross CoatOfArmsOrdinariateOfOurLadyOfSouthernCross.jpg
Arms of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross

At the end of November 2010, Peter Elliott, an auxiliary bishop in Melbourne, Australia, [109] said that the Australian bishops intended to follow the example of England and Wales so that an initially "very small" ordinariate could be established in that country, with specific churches designated for its use, by Pentecost 2011. A former Anglican layman, Elliott is designated as the delegate of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and a liaison to the Australian Catholic Bishops' Conference. He expected that, once established, the proposed Australian ordinariate would attract "a much larger number of people". [110] An Australian ordinariate implementation committee was formed in mid-December 2010.

A national Australian ordinariate festival was held in February 2011 at Coomera in Queensland. [111] The conference was hosted by Elliott and Archbishop John Hepworth of the Anglican Catholic Church in Australia.

People from the Catholic Church attended, as well as members of the Anglican Church of Australia, the Anglican Catholic Church in Australia, the Church of Torres Strait and the Ukrainian Catholic Church, as well as some Anglican religious who wish to be part of the ordinariate. The implementation committee had its inaugural meeting after the conference.

The consensus of the festival was that unity can be achieved while also preserving the distinctive Anglican heritage of the churches. [112] Elliott said that membership in the ordinariate by interested persons is sought by a formal application in writing. All clergy transferring to the ordinariate will require a Catholic priest as sponsor and ordination within the Catholic Church.

In a radio discussion on 20 February 2011, Hepworth said that some 800 people of his own church, the Anglican Catholic Church in Australia, were committed to joining an ordinariate and that he believed, once implemented, it would grow strongly. The possibility of the Church of Torres Strait (some 9,000 people) joining was also discussed on the radio program. [113]

A conference and synod of the Church of Torres Strait, held from 3 to 5 June 2011, decided unanimously to accept the idea of the church becoming a Catholic ordinariate and set a target date of the First Sunday in Advent in 2011 for its implementation after first finding out how many of its membership wish to join the ordinariate. [114]

In his address to an ordinariate information day in Melbourne on 11 June 2011, Elliott said that the Australian ordinariate was expected to be established in 2012. He also confirmed that the petition of the Church of Torres Strait had been sent to Rome. [115]

However Hepworth, a former Catholic priest who has been married twice, could not be an ordained bishop of the proposed ordinariate. [116] A statement issued by the TAC's College of Bishops following a meeting in Johannesburg in March 2012 stated that the body had voted to remain Anglican, despite Hepworth's efforts.

As announced by the Australian Catholic Bishops' Conference on 11 May 2012, [117] the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith established the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross on 15 June 2012. The 72-year-old Harry Entwistle, who had been the Western Regional bishop (based in Perth, Western Australia) of the Anglican Catholic Church in Australia was appointed the first ordinary and was ordained a priest in the Catholic Church on the same day. [118]

Since its inception, the ordinariate has grown to include twelve Australian congregations in Queensland, Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, and New South Wales. [119] In February 2015, a congregation of the Traditional Anglican Church of Japan was received as the Ordinariate Community of St. Augustine of Canterbury, the first ordinariate community in Asia. [120] Another community in Hiroshima has since joined. [121]

Nature of the ordinariates

The Anglican ordinariates are intended to integrate groups of Anglicans into the life of the Catholic Church in such a way as "to maintain the liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions of the Anglican Communion within the Catholic Church, as a precious gift nourishing the faith of the members of the Ordinariate and as a treasure to be shared". [29] [55] [56] An ordinariate is part of "the Latin Rite, within the full communion of the Catholic Church and professes all that church's doctrine on faith and morals." [29] [30] [57]

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith establishes, in consultation with the episcopal conference concerned, personal ordinariates for former Anglicans within the episcopal conference's area. There may be more than one personal ordinariate, delimited geographically or otherwise, within the territory of the same episcopal conference. Each ordinariate, composed of lay faithful, clergy, and members of religious institutes originally belonging to the Anglican Communion and now in full communion with the Catholic Church, is juridically comparable to a diocese. The ordinary of each ordinariate, who may be either a bishop or a priest, chosen on the basis of a terna of names presented by the governing council of the ordinariate, [122] is canonically equivalent to a diocesan bishop and an ex officio member of the respective episcopal conference., [123]

An ordinariate shall have a governing council composed of at least six priests [83] and chaired by the ordinary, that exercise the combined functions of the Presbyteral Council and the College of Consultors of a diocese. [124] Each ordinariate is also to have a finance council [125] and a pastoral council to perform the same functions as the respective bodies in a diocese. [126] An ordinariate also may establish its own tribunal to process marriage and other cases, though the local diocesan tribunals retain jurisdiction if the ordinariate does not set up a tribunal of its own. [127]

The ordinary cannot be a bishop if married or with dependent children. [128] In that case, while not having episcopal holy orders, in particular the power to ordain to the diaconate, priesthood and episcopacy, he has the powers and privileges of other prelates who are canonically equivalent to diocesan bishops, such as territorial prelates. It is he who by issuing dimissorial letters admits candidates to holy orders, having first obtained the consent of the governing council. [129] As an ordinary, he may personally install such candidates in the preliminary ministries of lectorate and acolytate. Like other equivalents of diocesan bishops, he is a full member of the episcopal conference and may use certain episcopal symbols, such as mitre, crosier, ring, pectoral cross, zucchetto, choir dress with purple cassock.

After having heard the opinion of the local diocesan bishop, the ordinary may, with the consent of the governing council and of the Holy See, erect "deaneries", each supervised by a "delegate", that encompass multiple parishes of the ordinariate. [129] The ordinary may also establish and suppress parishes and houses of formation and approve programs of formation with the consent of the governing council. [129]

Like diocesan bishops, the ordinary must make an ad limina apostolorum visit to Rome every five years. During this visit, the ordinary presents a report on the status of his ordinariate to the Pope through the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and in consultation with the Congregation for Bishops and the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. [45] [130]

On 9 April 2019, the Congregation for the Doctine of the Faith promulgated an update to the complementary norms governing personal ordinariates. The new norms were approved on 19 March 2019. [131]

Divine Worship or Ordinariate Use liturgy

The ordinariates use Anglican ritual and have full faculties to celebrate the Eucharist and the other sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical functions in accordance with the liturgical books proper to Anglican tradition, in revisions approved by the Holy See, so as to maintain the Anglican liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions. This faculty does not exclude liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite. [132]

The Complementary Norms clearly envision considerable pastoral collaboration between the clergy of parishes of personal ordinariates and the clergy of the dioceses within which they would be located. [133] The Complementary Norms also specifically grant faculties to the pastor of a geographical parish that has a parish of a personal ordinariate within its boundary to supply liturgical and pastoral services consistent with the needs of the congregation of a parish of an ordinariate that does not have a parochial vicar assigned in the event of the death, incapacity, or unexpected absence of its pastor. [134]

Initially, ordinariate liturgies followed the Anglican Use of the Book of Divine Worship of the parishes of the Pastoral Provision, incorporating "the sacral language of the Book of Common Prayer... and many elements of the English Missal." [22] In Advent 2013, however, all three Anglican ordinariates adopted a newly revised Order of Mass, approved by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation for Divine Worship, which "decided on the generic title 'Divine Worship' for the entire liturgical provision for the Personal Ordinariates, though the term 'Ordinariate Use' may still be used as shorthand." [135]

Anglican religious institutes

The apostolic constitution provides a juridical framework within which an Anglican religious community may join the Catholic Church as a group: "Institutes of Consecrated Life originating in the Anglican Communion and entering into full communion with the Catholic Church may also be placed under his (the ordinary's) jurisdiction by mutual consent." [136] The ordinary may also erect new societies of apostolic life and institutes of consecrated life with the permission of the Holy See.

Married former Anglican clergy and rules on celibacy

The Catholic Church does not recognise the validity of Anglican ordination (see Apostolicae curae ), so all who were ordained in the Anglican Communion must receive ordination in the Catholic Church to continue their ministry. The Apostolic Constitution reaffirms in principle the discipline of clerical celibacy for clergy of the Latin Church, but allows ordination of married former Anglican clergy to the orders of deacon and priest in the service of an ordinariate: "Those who ministered as Anglican deacons, priests, or bishops, [...] may be accepted by the Ordinary as candidates for Holy Orders in the Catholic Church". [137] "In consideration of Anglican ecclesial tradition and practice, the Ordinary may present to the Holy Father [the Pope] a request for the admission of married men to the presbyterate in the Ordinariate". [138] This request is granted on a case-by-case basis, [139] not as a matter of course but by exception: "The norms established in the Encyclical Letter of Pope Paul VI Sacerdotalis coelibatus , n. 42 and in the Statement In June are to be observed." [140]

On the basis of objective criteria determined by the ordinary in consultation with the episcopal conference and approved by the Holy See, the ordinary may petition the Pope, on a case-by-case basis, to admit married men to the priesthood as a derogation of canon 277 §1 [141] of the Code of Canon Law, but the general rule is that the ordinariate will admit only celibate men. [142] No married man may be ordained a bishop.

Provisions for former Anglican bishops

Ordination of married men to the episcopacy is excluded in the Catholic tradition, but the apostolic constitution's complementary norms include provisions which take into account the position of married former Anglican bishops.

Overall, these provisions provide considerable flexibility to preserve both the dignity of office and the opportunity for comparable pastoral leadership of former Anglican bishops who are not eligible for episcopal ordination in the Catholic Church. Note that a former Anglican "diocese" with a married bishop could in fact remain intact as an "ordinariate" with its former bishop, ordained as a priest but granted permission to wear episcopal insignia, serving as its "ordinary".

Similar institutions

The personal ordinariates that the apostolic constitution envisages are similar to military ordinariates for the pastoral care of members of armed forces in that membership is on a personal rather than a territorial basis; but they differ in many aspects, as can be seen by a comparison of Anglicanorum coetibus with the apostolic constitution Spirituali militum cura of 21 April 1986 by which Pope John Paul II restructured the military ordinariates, which were previously called military vicariates. [149] For instance, the military ordinariates must be headed by a bishop and lack structures such as the "governing council" of the ordinariates for former Anglicans. [5] [37] [150]

The personal ordinariates for former Anglicans differ also from personal prelatures (the only one existing now being Opus Dei) [151] , which, according to canon law, "are composed of deacons and priests of the secular clergy" [152] , to whose apostolic works lay people can dedicate themselves by way of agreements made with the prelature. [152] with no mention of members of religious institutes. [153] A major difference between a "personal ordinariate" and a "personal prelature" is that ordinariates (both personal and military) may erect parishes and those who inscribe themselves in the apposite register effectively become transients in their geographic diocese (no accumulative membership). [154]

Membership of a personal ordinariate for former Anglicans extends to "lay faithful, clerics and members of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, originally belonging to the Anglican Communion and now in full communion with the Catholic Church, or those who receive the Sacraments of Initiation within the jurisdiction of the Ordinariate". [155]

Much more similar are the eight ordinariates for the faithful of eastern rite, which are listed in the Annuario Pontificio together with the seventeen apostolic exarchates, [156] immediately before the ordinariates for former Anglicans. [157] Of the ordinariates for the faithful of eastern rite, four (in Argentina, Brazil, France and Poland) are generically for all Eastern Catholics who lack an ordinary of their own rite with jurisdiction for the particular country and who are therefore entrusted to the care of a Latin archbishop in the country. The one in Austria is for Catholics belonging to any of the fourteen particular Churches that use the Byzantine Rite. The other three (Eastern Europe, Greece and Romania) are for members of the Armenian Catholic Church. Such ordinariates have been in existence for a century, having been introduced by the apostolic letter Officium supremi Apostolatus of 15 July 1912.

Comparisons with the Eastern Catholic churches

While the personal ordinariates preserve a certain corporate identity of Anglicans received into the Catholic Church, they are canonically within the Latin Church and share the same theological emphasis and in this way differ from the Eastern Catholic churches, which are autonomous particular churches. [30]

The Latin Church, as a rule, restricts ordination to the priesthood to celibate men – and also to the diaconate except when, by decision of the episcopal conference, married men "of more mature age" (at least 35 years old) may be ordained to the diaconate. [158] In this also the ordinariates for former Anglicans differ from those Eastern Catholic churches in which priesthood and diaconate are open to married men as well as to celibates. The Holy See may grant exceptions for the ordinariates to the general rule on a case by case basis for married former Anglican clergy but not for married laymen.

Prospect of personal ordinariates for Lutherans

On 30 October 2012, Cardinal Kurt Koch, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, said in an interview that if Lutherans express a wish for an arrangement similar to the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans, the Catholic Church will have to reflect on it, but that the initiative must come from Lutherans. [159] [160] Archbishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, commented on 11 January 2013 that, while the situation of Lutherans is different from that of Anglicans, the Holy See might consider an ordinariate for those among them who might wish to become members of the Catholic Church while retaining "the legitimate traditions they have developed". [161] The Lutheran World Federation General Secretary, Martin Junge, expressed concern at the idea, saying that it would create further difficulties in ecumenical dialogue and discourage the commitment of Lutherans to celebrate in 2017 the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation "in a spirit of ecumenical understanding and cooperation". [162] Ordinariates have also been suggested for other communities in the Catholic Church, such as Hebrew Catholics.

See also

Related Research Articles

Personal prelature

Personal prelature is a canonical structure of the Catholic Church which comprises a prelate, clergy and laity who undertake specific pastoral activities. The first personal prelature is Opus Dei. Personal prelatures, similar to dioceses and military ordinariates, are under the governance of the Vatican's Congregation for Bishops. These three types of ecclesiastical structures are composed of lay people served by their own secular clergy and prelate. Unlike dioceses which cover territories, personal prelatures—like military ordinariates—take charge of persons as regards some objectives regardless of where they live.

Continuing Anglican movement

The Continuing Anglican movement, also known as the Anglican Continuum, encompasses a number of Christian churches with an Anglican identity and tradition but that are not part of the Anglican Communion. The largest of these are the Anglican Catholic Church, the Anglican Church in America, the Anglican Province of America, the Anglican Province of Christ the King, the Diocese of the Holy Cross, the Episcopal Missionary Church, and the United Episcopal Church of North America. These churches generally believe that traditional forms of Anglican faith and worship have been unacceptably revised or abandoned within some Anglican Communion churches in recent decades and, therefore, that they are "continuing" or preserving both Anglican lines of apostolic succession and historic Anglican belief and practice.

Anglican Use particular liturgical rite of the Roman Catholic Church

The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain the treasures of the Anglican tradition.

The Book of Divine Worship (BDW) was an adaptation of the American Book of Common Prayer (BCP) by the Roman Catholic Church. It was used primarily by former members of the Episcopal Church within Anglican Use parishes of the Pastoral Provision and the Personal Ordinariates. It has been replaced by a new book to be used worldwide, titled Divine Worship: The Missal.

The Pastoral Provision, in the context of the Catholic Church in the United States, is a set of practices and norms by which bishops are authorized to provide spiritual care for Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, by establishing parishes for them and ordaining priests from among them. The Pastoral Provision still provides a way for individuals to become priest in territorial dioceses, even though Anglicanorum Coetibus was declared which led to the establishment of Personal Ordinariates, another mechanism for former Anglicans to join the Catholic Church.

Anglican Catholic Church of Canada Anglican Church in Canada

The Anglican Catholic Church of Canada (ACCC) is a Continuing Anglican church that was founded in 1979 by traditional Anglicans who had separated from the Anglican Church of Canada (ACC). The ACCC has fifteen parishes and missions; with two bishops and 22 clergy.

Anglican Church in America

The Anglican Church in America (ACA) is a Continuing Anglican church body and the United States' branch of the Traditional Anglican Communion (TAC). The ACA is separate from the Episcopal Church and is not a member of the Anglican Communion. It comprises 5 dioceses and around 5,200 members.

Augustana Catholic Church church

The Augustana Catholic Church (ACC), formerly the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church (ALCC) and the Evangelical Community Church-Lutheran (ECCL), is an American church in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic tradition. The ACC says it is unique among Lutheran churches in that it is of both Lutheran and Anglo-Catholic heritage and has also been significantly influenced by the Roman Catholic Church. The church was founded in 1997 by former members of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Its headquarters are in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The ACC has long had a policy of seeking union with the Catholic Church and announced in 2011 that it would accept the conditions of Anglicanorum coetibus and join the personal ordinariates as they are established. Later developments on limitations of joining the ordinariate caused the ACC to hold their offer while they established intercommunion with groups such as the Old Roman Catholic Church of North America. The Church claims a membership in excess of 60,000 in 12 countries.

The Anglican Catholic Church in Australia (ACCA) is the regional jurisdiction of the Traditional Anglican Communion for most of Australia.

This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.

Cathedral of Our Lady of Walsingham (Houston) Church in Texas, United States

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Walsingham in Houston, Texas, is a Catholic church that serves as the Cathedral of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter.

<i>Divine Worship: The Missal</i> missal for Anglican Use Catholics

Divine Worship: The Missal (DW:™️) is the liturgical book containing the instructions and texts for the celebration of Mass by the former Anglicans within the Roman Catholic Church in the three personal ordinariates of Great Britain, United States and Canada, and Australia. The rite contained in this missal is a variant of the Roman Rite eucharistic liturgy. It was approved for use beginning on the first Sunday of Advent, November 29, 2015.

Carl Leonard Reid is a Canadian-born Australian Roman Catholic priest, who is Ordinary-designate of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross. He is a former bishop of the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada, a Continuing Anglican church within the Traditional Anglican Communion; he was received into the Catholic Church in 2012 and was ordained a priest of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter.

Peter Donald Wilkinson is a Canadian Roman Catholic priest. He was formerly a bishop in the Anglican Catholic Church of Canada, a Continuing Anglican church within the Traditional Anglican Communion. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 2012 and was ordained a Catholic priest and serves within the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter.

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