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Independent Catholicism is a movement of clergy and laity who self-identify as Catholic (and sometimes independent Catholic or Old Catholic) and form "micro-churches claiming apostolic succession and valid sacraments", 86 in spite of not being affiliated to the historic Catholic churches such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Old Catholic Churches. :6-7 It is difficult to determine the number of jurisdictions, communities, clergy and members who make up independent Catholicism, particularly since the movement "is growing and changing in every moment"; :5 many such communities have been short-lived, they have often changed name, re-formed, or have had multiple names to begin with, and many, especially from pre-internet days, have left no available written trace. :7:
Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices. Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman, clergywoman, and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman and clergyperson, while cleric and clerk in holy orders both have a long history but are rarely used.
In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy, usually including any non-ordained members of religious institutes, e.g. a nun or lay brother.
The Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches (UU) is a federation of Old Catholic churches, nationally organised from 1870 schisms which rejected Roman Catholic doctrines of the First Vatican Council; its member churches are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. The 1889 Declaration of Utrecht is one of three founding documents together called the Convention of Utrecht. The UU is in full communion with the Anglican Communion through the 1931 Bonn Agreement; and, with the Philippine Independent Church, the Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church, and the Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Church through a 1965 extension of the Bonn Agreement. As of 2016, the UU includes six member churches: the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (OKKN), the Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany, the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, the Old Catholic Church of Austria, the Old Catholic Church of the Czech Republic, and the Polish Catholic Church in Poland.
Some appear to choose independent Catholicism as an alternative way to live and express their Catholic faith outside the Roman Catholic Church (with whose structures, beliefs and practices independent Catholicism often closely aligns) while rejecting some traditional Catholic teachings. 197-199:
Independent Catholicism may be considered part of a larger independent sacramental movement, in which clergy and laity of various faith traditions –including the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion and various non-Catholic Christian churches–have separated themselves from the institutions with which they previously identified. Within the independent sacramental movement, various independent churches have sprung from the Eastern Orthodox Church, but the members of these independent Orthodox groups most often self-identify as independent Orthodox and not as independent Catholic.
The Independent Sacramental Movement (ISM) refers to a loose collection of individuals and Christian groups who are not part of the historic sacramental Christian denominations and yet continue to practise the historic sacramental rites independently. Many such groups originated from schisms of these larger denominations, and they claim to have preserved the historical episcopate or apostolic succession, though such claims are frequently disputed or rejected outright by the historic churches of Rome, Constantinople, the Union of Utrecht, and Canterbury.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 260 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England.
Beginning in 1724, Dominique Marie Varlet (1678-1742), the Catholic Bishop of Babylon, consecrated four successive men as Archbishop of Utrecht without papal approval. The cathedral chapter of Utrecht, which elected these men, had previously obtained an opinion from Zeger Bernhard van Espen (1646-1728) and two other doctors of canon law at the University of Louvain, which said that the chapter had the right, in special circumstances, to elect its own archbishop and have him consecrated without the consent of the pope, and that, in the case of necessity, one bishop alone might validly consecrate another. Nineteen doctors of the theological faculties at Paris, Nantes, Rheims and Padua approved of this opinion. This caused a theological controversy and schism within the Roman Church, which now possessed bishops who were validly consecrated without the permission of the pope. This schism marked the birth of the movement that would later be known as the Old Catholic Church (a term coined in 1853 for the Catholics of Utrecht), and it marked the beginning of an era in the Western Church, in which validly-consecrated bishops enjoyed apostolic succession but were not subject to the structures and strictures of the Catholic Church.
Dominique-Marie Varlet was a French, Roman Catholic missionary priest who later served as vicar general of the Diocese of Quebec. Later, as the Roman Catholic Bishop of Babylon, he caused a schism within the Roman Catholic Church by consecrating four successive men as Archbishop of Utrecht.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
Babylon was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The name-giving capital city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon was originally a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BCE.
The sharing of apostolic succession in the west outside the Catholic Church was largely confined to the Church of Utrecht for over a century. After the (First) Vatican Council in 1870, many Austro-Hungarian, German and Swiss Catholics rejected assertions of universal jurisdiction of the pope and the declaration of papal infallibility, and their bishops, inspired by earlier acts in Utrecht, decided to leave the Roman Catholic Church to form their own churches, independent of Rome. Now independent of the pope, these bishops were sometimes referred to as autocephalous (or self-governing) bishops or episcopi vaganti (wandering bishops). These validly-consecrated bishops enjoyed apostolic succession, and they continued to share valid lines of apostolic succession with the priests and deacons they ordained. In 1889, they formally united as part of the Utrecht Union of Churches (UU).
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops. This series was seen originally as that of the bishops of a particular see founded by one or more of the apostles. According to historian Justo L. González, apostolic succession is generally understood today as meaning a series of bishops, regardless of see, each consecrated by other bishops, themselves consecrated similarly in a succession going back to the apostles. According to the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, "apostolic succession" means more than a mere transmission of powers. It is succession in a Church which witnesses to the apostolic faith, in communion with the other Churches, witnesses of the same apostolic faith. The "see (cathedra) plays an important role in inserting the bishop into the heart of ecclesial apostolicity", but, once ordained, the bishop becomes in his Church the guarantor of apostolicity and becomes a successor of the apostles.
The First Vatican Council was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864. This, the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held three centuries after the Council of Trent, opened on 8 December 1869 and adjourned on 20 October 1870. Unlike the five earlier general councils held in Rome, which met in the Lateran Basilica and are known as Lateran councils, it met in the Vatican Basilica, hence its name. Its best-known decision is its definition of papal infallibility.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.
In 1908, the movement that would become independent Catholicism left continental Europe when Arnold Harris Mathew (1852-1919), a former Catholic priest, was consecrated in Great Britain by Archbishop Gerardus Gul (1847-1920) of the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands. Mathew believed that Old Catholicism might provide a home for disaffected Anglican clergy who reacted to Pope Leo XIII's declaration that Anglican orders were null and void, and Gul incorrectly believed that Mathew had a significant following in the United Kingdom. Two years later, in 1910, Mathew consecrated two priests to the episcopate, without clear reasons and without consulting the Archbishop of Utrecht, and, in response to the ensuing protest, declared his autonomy from the Old Catholic Church. 19-20 From a historical perspective, one of Mathew's most important consecrations was of Frederick Samuel Willoughby, who in turn consecrated James Wedgwood, the co-founder in 1918 of the Liberal Catholic Church, an esoteric community closely aligned with the Theosophical Society and allowing complete freedom of belief.Mathew later consecrated several other bishops who spread through England and North America. Plummer writes: "Here we begin to see the small, endlessly multiplying groups, with a high percentage of the membership in holy orders, which came to characterize the independent movement." :
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred to ambiguously as the European continent – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and by Europeans, simply the Continent.
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.
Gerardus Gul (1847-1920) served as the seventeenth Archbishop of Utrecht from 1892 to 1920. He is known for his role in assisting the persons who would later found the Polish National Catholic Church in the United States, as well as for consecrating Arnold Harris Mathew, the founder and first bishop of the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain.
Joseph René Vilatte (1854-1929), 29an Old Catholic priest ordained by Bishop Eduard Herzog (1841-1924) of the Old Catholic Church in Switzerland, is credited with being the first person to bring to North America the movement that would result in independent Catholicism. In 1892, Vilatte traveled to India, where he was consecrated Mar Timotheos by Mar Julius I (1836-1923) of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. During the following 28 years, Vilatte consecrated "a number of men who are the episcopal ancestors of an enormous variety of descendants" in North America. :
The last century has seen a number of clergy and laity move into the independent Catholic movement, from the Roman Catholic Church.
Perhaps the largest departure from the Catholic Church was the Czechoslovak Hussite Church (CHC), which organized on January 8, 1920, when several thousand priests and laypeople formed an independent church in response to their deep concerns over the Catholic Church's opposition to modernism.The church's first patriarch was Karel Farský (1880-1927), a modernist and former Catholic priest. The first bishops of the CHC were consecrated by priests through the laying on of hands. In 1931, Louis-Charles Winnaert (1880-1937), who was consecrated by Liberal Catholic bishop James Wedgwood (1883-1951), consecrated two CHC bishops, Gustav Procházka (1872-1942) and Rostislav Stejskal (1894-1946), thus sharing apostolic succession with the CHC. The CHC ordained its first woman priest in 1947, and it consecrated its first woman bishop in 1999. According to the 2011 Czech Republic census, 39,276 people at that time self-identified as members of the CHC.
Carlos Duarte Costa (1888-1961) was a Catholic bishop in Brazil for twenty years before distancing himself, and being excommunicated, from the Roman Church over his opposition to its position on clerical celibacy, divorce, vernacular liturgy, and his suspicions of the Catholic Church's fascist sympathies during World War II.In 1945, Duarte Costa founded the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, and validly ordaine numerous bishops and priest in the apostolic succession. He is known as "St. Charles of Brazil" by the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, which had grown to 560,781 members by 2010.
From 1975 until his death in 1984, exiled Roman Catholic Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục (1897-1984) of Huế, Vietnam, an older brother of Ngo Dinh Diem, the first president of South Vietnam, consecrated a number of bishops, first for the Palmarian Catholic Church, then for the sedevacantists of the Tridentine Latin Rite Catholic Church.In 1999, pop star Sinéad O'Connor was ordained a priest by Bishop Michael Cox (b. 1945) of the Irish Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church, whose lines of apostolic succession came through Archbishop Ngô Đình Thục.
Emmanuel Milingo (b. 1930) served as Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lusaka, Zambia from 1969 to 1983. As such, he enjoyed valid lines of apostolic succession from the Roman Catholic Church, and, after departing from the Roman Church in 1983 over the issues of faith healing and clerical celibacy, he formed Married Priests Now! and consecrated four married priests as bishops: George Stallings of Imani Temple African-American Catholic Congregation, Peter Paul Brennan of the Old Catholic Confederation, Archbishop Patrick Trujillo of the Old Catholic Church in America, and Archbishop Joseph Gouthro of the Catholic Apostolic Church International. Since 2006, Milingo has performed at least four other consecrations. In 2013, Milingo, who still considers himself Catholic, retired from active ministry in the Ecumenical Catholic Apostolic Church of Peace.
Upon encountering independent Catholicism for the first time, the questions of many individuals "are often historical: 'Where did this come from? Who ordained you? Did you invent this?'" 13 Many independent Catholics respond by emphasizing their tie to the larger Christian tradition of which they form part, the heritage they have received from larger, historic, mainstream churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, and their continuity of faith and ministry with those churches. :15 Like Christians of the early Church, many see their efforts as "the seeds of a new kind of ministry that can adapt itself to the time and place of its exercise, the needs of the moment, and the people who are actually present in that particular place at that particular time. And yet is it so new? Is it not perhaps the very way that St. Paul set about spreading the Gospel and building the Church?":
Many independent Catholic communities look to the past, seeking to create communities according to models provided by the New Testament (e.g., home-based fellowships led by volunteer clergy 77) and restoring various practices of the primitive Church, including the creation of an inclusive community and the honoring of the place of women and other marginalized persons within those communities. Many also find benchmarks for their current work in the annals of Christian history (e.g., the living of religious life, the sharing of various spiritual traditions, or the celebration of the Tridentine liturgy).:
There have been situations of clergy claiming to be "independent Catholic" practicing scams against unwary persons. They use a victim's Catholic faith to assert they are legitimate priests who can counsel and perform sacraments. The Roman Catholic and Old Catholic churches frequently find themselves in a position of having to warn parishioners of these scams.
Virtually all members of the independent Catholic movement possess "a deep commitment to the catholic (in the broadest possible sense) sacramental tradition" 91and worship according to a prescribed liturgy, usually derived from a mainstream Christian rite (like the Roman rite). Plummer suggests that "the most critical factor for independent sacramental identity is the single-minded focus on sacramental activity...[and that] very few independent communities offer coffee hour, Sunday School, and the array of other social programs which have come to characterize many mainstream churches." :
Like the liturgies of early Christian community, the liturgies of independent Catholic communities often vary widely, with each cleric or community making "its own choices of emphasis in terms of doctrine, liturgy, and other matters."In practice, independent Catholic polity is often essentially congregational.
For the most part, independent Catholic communities possess a sacramental and eucharistic spirituality, often mirroring the sacramental life and theology of the Catholic Church. Most possess a mediatory priesthood and an historic episcopate 1, which are often the only constants amid diversity that ranges from extreme traditionalism to radical experimentation. Julie Byrne comments: "Independents vary widely, ranging from right to left in the political spectrum. On the right traditionalist churches practice versions of Catholicism more conservative than Rome. These include the Society of St. Pius X, founded by Marcel Lefebvre, as well as the Mount St. Michael's community in Spokane, Washington, and actor Mel Gibson's church in Malibu, California, which made headlines when he directed the movie, The Passion of the Christ in 2004. On the left stand groups such as the Church of Antioch, the Ecumenical Catholic Communion, and the White-Robed Monks of St. Benedict.":
While the western Church and its theology have remained constant, despite changing clergy, independent Catholicism often possesses another model in which "the priesthood remains constant, while the church it serves and the theology it teaches are often in a state of flux. While some western Christians may see this state of affairs as a distortion, it is nonetheless the centerpiece of the independent sacramental inheritance from the west."
Plummer says: "Independent sacramental Christians have given a unique primacy to the priesthood, carrying the 'priesthood of all believers' to an extent never before envisioned. In many such churches, most or all of the members are ordained, with ordination functioning more like [the sacrament of confirmation], rather than a professional credential. For better or worse, there is great freedom to create new church structures, new forms for the sacraments, and new theologies, or at least a new synthesis of inherited elements."
Many independent Catholic communities are small, are led by an unpaid clergy, and lack a stable schedule or location. 1 & 3 Larger independent Catholic communities have often resulted from schism within the Catholic Church or are often led by clergy who were formed by and formerly ministered to the Catholic Church; these communities often resemble mainstream churches with a larger population of laity and a small number of paid clergy. :112 In independent Catholicism, freelance ministries meeting the needs of a small number of persons are far more common than large parishes. :113:
While many Independent Catholic clergy and communities affirm the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed, with or without the filioque and with varying interpretations, they espouse a variety of doctrines and beliefs, ranging from neo-gnostic and theosophical beliefs allowing for "freedom in the interpretation of scriptures, creeds, and liturgies," 101 to extremely traditional orthodox Catholic positions. Plummer says: "The nature of the movement makes it virtually impossible for there to ever be a unified theology" among independent Catholics. :102or the belief in no creed at all, :
Within the movement of independent Catholicism, views vary widely on such issues as the ordination of women, homosexuality, divorce, issues of conscience, and other issues that are also controversial in other mainstream Catholic and Christian churches. Drawing from the ecumenical Christian tradition and other religious traditions, a growing number of independent Catholic clergy and communities espouse a certain universalism, believing that God's loving embrace and forgiveness might be extended to all. 70–71 Sometimes reaching beyond the bounds of the Christian tradition, some independent Catholic clergy and communities feel greater liberty to incorporate into their lives and their worship a wide ranges of elements from other spiritual and religious traditions. :85 Independent Catholic communities, often being quite small, tend to be internally fairly homogeneous on these and other issues, which means that divisions more often exist between different independent Catholic communities, rather than within specific independent Catholic communities.:
Plummer suggests the following categories for independent Catholic communities: clergy who primarily celebrate alone, traditionalists with conservative theological commitments, churches maintaining traditional liturgy but with a different social or theological vision (e.g., full inclusion), groups with a particular focus on women's issues (e.g., the ordination of women) or the recovery of the Divine Feminine in worship, groups seeking liberal, non-dogmatic approaches to being church with little, if any, standards of dogmatic beliefs, and fellowships with an esoteric spirituality. 40:
Hundreds of websites are devoted to independent Catholic jurisdictions and communities, many of which have little evident presence or ministry outside the internet. Additionally, many independent Catholic clergy have no web presence at all. 4:
Independent Catholic clergy do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church. Rather, the bishops of the independent Catholic movement are autocephalous or self-governing. At present, there is no single unifying structure for the many clergy and laity who make up independent Catholicism, and no reliable, centralized record-keeping. 7 independent Catholic communities are often small and extremely fluid. Various directories of independent Catholic clergy have been attempted through the years, much of the information is provided by subjects, often with little verification, :10 and most such directories contain hardly more than the quickly-outdated contact information of individual clerics, with little information on jurisdictions, communities, apostolic succession, and forms of worship. :9:
The notion of apostolic succession (i.e., the ability of a bishop to trace spiritual ancestry through a purportedly unbroken line of bishops back to the original faith established by Jesus of Nazareth and his apostles) has played an important role in the history of the western Church since the Donatist controversy in the fourth and fifth centuries AD. The traditional Catholic position holds that a validly consecrated bishop shares apostolic succession with the bishops he consecrates and the priests and deacons he ordains regardless of any heresy or schism he may have committed.Some theologians argue that this view is mechanical and reductionist, and that episcopal consecration is for service within a specific Christian community; in this view, consecration or ordination of an individual with no reference to a community is without effect. Independent Catholic clergy reject this view, arguing that bishops are consecrated and priests and deacons ordained for the service of others, whether of a defined community or jurisdiction, or of a more broadly defined group. Independent Catholics tend to share the view that, "whatever else we may disagree about, we all believe earnestly in apostolic succession!"
Many in the independent Catholic movement who say they possess valid lines of apostolic succession received them from lines derived from Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, Roman Catholic Archbishop Pierre Martin Ngo Dihn Thuc or Roman Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo, who are seen within the movement as having validly, even if illicitly, consecrated and ordained individuals outside the Catholic Church.
While making no explicit statement about the validity or invalidity of consecrations and ordinations carried out in the independent Catholic movement, the Roman Catholic Church suspended Roman Catholic Archbishop Pierre Martin Ngo Dihn Thuc, who had purportedly ipso facto excommunicated himself by consecrating other bishops and ordaining priests whom the Roman church will not recognize.
Because the claim of apostolic succession has traditionally been viewed as a primary determinant of the validity of the Church's sacraments, some independent Catholic clergy, particularly in the early days of the movement, underwent more than one ordination or consecration, to ensure the possession of valid lines of apostolic succession. According to liturgical theology, these lines of apostolic succession are shared by bishops with the persons consecrated or ordained by them, and, due to the indelible nature of the sacrament of Holy Orders, once ordained or consecrated, a person can never be ordained or consecrated again; nor can the orders be taken away. Subsequent ordinations and consecrations are considered "conditional" and are without effect unless the recipient has previously received no valid ordination or consecration.
These conditional consecrations and ordinations complicate conversations on the historical origins of the independent Catholic movement and its communities. Plummer writes: "Many independent bishops have been consecrated multiple times, in an effort to ensure sacramental validity and consolidate claims to the historic episcopate. Such consecrations, in which literally dozens of 'lineages' can be transmitted from one bishop to another, only increase the difficulty of accurately describing the ancestry of any given group." 127He says that this "crossbreeding of ecclesiastical lineage" has reached such a point that most independent Catholic clergy share most or all of their heritage in common, even if this shared heritage has not contributed in any way toward jurisdictional unity. :
Independent Catholicism comprises a wide variety of clergy, many of whom are "primarily ritually focused"and possess "a particularly strong attachment to the liturgical aspect of being Christian."
Many independent Catholic clergy and their communities are "those who have felt themselves excluded from the mainstream liturgical churches due to gender, sexuality, race, culture, style of worship...or theology." 66 Plummer says that within the independent sacramental movement, which includes independent Catholicism, "ordination is often open to a much larger percentage of the membership than in mainstream churches. Thus, those who want to become priests can generally do so. In the case of women and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons, there is a redemptive reversal in which those who were denied a public role in the church's sacramental life have assumed the previously forbidden place at the altar. Persons from ethnic or cultural minority groups who have been denied leadership positions, or who feel that their culture has been stifled, can work to more fully integrate their cultural identity and their faith....Thus, we have those who have been excluded from the church's sacramental life, for whatever reasons, taking ownership of the liturgical traditions, and creatively innovating to form new communities." :66–68. Many independent Catholics see this spirit of inclusiveness as being in line with St. Paul's vision of an inclusive community and with Jesus' reconciliation of all on the cross, with the subsequent rending of the Temple veil, thus granting access by all to the Holy of Holies. As a result, an increasing number of independent Catholics find it difficult to justify how a church following in the footsteps of Jesus might justify withholding the sacrament of Holy Orders from women and sexual minorities, and the sacrament of Marriage from same-sex spouses.:
Outside of mainstream churches, Plummer says, such clergy "have often been accused of 'playing church.' Perhaps there is a grain of truth in that barb, as there is a touch of a playful attitude, when all these unlikely folks process into the church's sanctuary."
Independent Catholic clergy have been described as "often very attached to their individual views of theology, liturgy, and other matters...and would rather belong to minuscule groups which more closely approximate their vision of Christianity." 2–3 Plummer shares: "Many independent clergy, perhaps a majority, at least theoretically subscribe to fairly standard Catholic/Orthodox/Anglican theology, with few distinctive beyond, for instance, the rejection of papal infallibility. Most spent many years within those mainstream jurisdictions...[and now as independent Catholic clergy] they have often expended great energy in appearing 'real,' and 'just like' the larger liturgical churches, with only one or two adjustments.":
Many independent Catholic clergy are "essentially alone in their priestly practice" 64 and exercise a primarily solitary vocation, with many of their family members and friends not even knowing of their clerical status. :2 In line with Jesus' command to pray to God in secret and with the monastic tradition of hermit priests (e.g., Catholic Carthusians) praying alone but in mystical union with the entire church and interceding for the entire world, much of their worship is performed in private. :92 Plummer suggests: "A growing number of clergy are comfortable with private celebration, when a community is not available, or if they have discerned that their vocation is largely a hidden one....Private celebration is often grounded in a deep conviction of the objective reality and efficacy of the sacraments. From such a perspective, even a mass said in one's living room unknown to any other soul, is still a radiant gift to the world, and a powerful prayer for those held in mind and heart. On a less exalted level, private masses for those without a community enforce one's priestly identity, which may be outwardly expressed in less obvious ways." :64–65 Practically speaking, Plummer says, "viable independent communities are not always easily created, and these clergy would deprive themselves of the benefits of communion, and of the joining of themselves to Christ in his sacrifice, if they waited for the presence of others in order to approach the altar." :114–115 When engaged in ministry with others, independent Catholic priests often see themselves as missionaries, freely sharing the grace of the Church's sacraments with those who may not regularly participate in a church community.:
Often volunteering their time in ministry, many independent Catholic bishops, priests and deacons are a "working clergy" who support themselves and their ministries with jobs outside their ministries. As such, many often struggle to integrate their secular jobs and "ordinary" lives with their vocations and ministries. 119:
While all religious traditions contain examples of unhealthy individuals and of clergy misconduct,critics often draw attention to the personalities and idiosyncrasies of independent Catholic clergy.
Similar to the Catholic Church, which possesses a rich tradition of varied religious orders, independent Catholicism also consists of a diversity of religious communities. Most often, these communities and their jurisdictions resemble their Catholic counterparts. 117 Some independent Catholic religious communities are founded by and are exclusively for the members of particular jurisdictions; others are open to all who wish to live and grow in the spirituality of the religious community. Many religious communities within the independent Catholic tradition are less structured than Catholic religious orders, with their members making certain vows (that may be interpreted differently than the traditional evangelical counsels), living a lifestyle in line with the spirituality of the tradition, and sharing the charism of their religious order with the world.:
Apart from those members of the clergy who were formed within the seminary system of the Catholic Church or of a similar mainstream church, very few independent Catholic clergy have received a formal theological education.Independent Catholic clergy "are not usually specialized professionals, but volunteers who hopefully know at least enough to celebrate the sacraments for themselves and those around them....Such radically different models of Christian priesthood raise questions of what sort of clergy training is needed, and offered within these communities." Plummer shares interviewee feedback suggesting that "the challenge of clergy training...was cited as the most important challenge facing the movement."
Resources for the formation and education of independent Catholic clergy and seminarians are sparse, many independent Catholic seminarians lack the financial and personal resources to be full-time seminarians, 122 Instead, many independent Catholic seminarians work full-time at secular jobs and do not have the leisure to pursue full-time studies. Independent Catholic clergy have established a number of seminaries, most featuring distance learning or mentoring programs that vary considerably in quality, but very few of which grant legitimate degrees possess meaningful accreditation or could lead to a paycheck or a reasonably well-assured career path. More common is the mentoring and training of candidates by bishops and priests who have few if any clear guidelines or expectations for ordinands and instead adjust training requirements to meet the needs of the ordinand's vocation. Plummer concludes: "Mentoring will likely continue to be the primary means of clergy training in the independent sacramental movement, due in part to the extremely flexible, anarchic nature of the movement, which works against the creation of formalized seminary programs." :125and many are not "willing to go to such lengths, and incur such debt [for a graduate degree], with no prospect of paid ministry." :
The grace of God in the sacrament of Holy Orders is often freely shared within independent Catholicism, thus leading to such characterizations as that of the young and ministerially-unprepared teenager whom poet Robert Kelly (b. 1935) says he once was: "A Unitarian I came into the world in Pride's Crossing, Massachusetts, and a Unitarian I shall leave it, notwithstanding my daily practice of certain Vedic sacrifices, my twenty-year long pursuit of ritual magic, the fact that I am technically a Muslim, and the more resplendent fact that I awoke from a teenage binge one day to find myself consecrated bishop of the Primitive Restored Old Catholic Church of North America." 106Plummer concludes: "It is very difficult to know what to do about such untrained clergy. Some provide themselves the training they did not receive from their bishop, and serve admirably well, perhaps better than some of their formally educated peers. Others are walking disasters, spiraling into psychological distortions that injure themselves and others, or ignoring their ordained status altogether." :
It has been pointed out that much of the writing (and liturgical books) concerning the independent Catholic movement are self-published at best, 3–4 and that they are often directed by independent Catholic clergy toward other independent Catholic clergy. :10 It has been suggested that sustained theological reflection might one day come forward from clergy and communities with greater theological formation or from larger, more stable communities that have survived into their second or third generation. In the meantime, "as independent clergy are most often volunteers with secular jobs, and little formal theological training, they lack both the time and the tools helpful to the development of a fully imagined theology.":
Academic literature on independent Catholicism has historically been relatively sparse and often not sympathetic to the movement. 6 However, this situation has changed in recent decades (since 1995 circa) with the work of several authors, producing a range of unbiased scholarly studies on independent Catholic topics for the first time.:
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, and the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament. The Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination.
Sedevacantism is the position, held by some traditionalist Catholics, that the present occupier of the Holy See is not truly pope due to the mainstream church's espousal of what they see as the heresy of modernism and that, for lack of a valid pope, the See has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958.
The name Liberal Catholic Church (LCC) is used by a number of separate Christian churches throughout the world which are open to esoteric beliefs and hold many ideas in common. Although the term Liberal Catholic might suggest otherwise, it does not refer to liberal groups within the Roman Catholic Church but to groups within the Independent Catholic movement, unrecognised by and not in communion with the Pope nor the rest of the Catholic Church.
Apostolicae curae is the title of a papal bull, issued in 1896 by Pope Leo XIII, declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void". The Archbishops of Canterbury and York of the Church of England responded to the papal charges with the encyclical Saepius officio in 1897.
The Charismatic Episcopal Church, more officially known as the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church (ICCEC), is an international Christian denomination established as an autocephalous communion in 1992. The ICCEC states that it is not a splinter group of any other denomination or communion, but is a convergence of the sacramental, evangelical, and charismatic traditions that it perceives in the church from the apostolic era until present times.
The Free Church of Antioch is one of several "Malabar Rite" Independent Catholic Churches which claims valid lines of apostolic succession in the historical episcopate which is not in union with the Catholic Pope in Rome or any Orthodox Patriarch. The Free Church of Antioch received several lines of this succession through its founder, the late Archbishop Warren Prall Watters (1890-1992). The Free Church of Antioch was established on October 4, 1992, in Santa Barbara, California, and was incorporated in that state through The Center For Esoteric Studies, of which Archbishop Watters was the Founder and Director.
In keeping with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity, Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as a church in the Catholic tradition and a church of the Reformation. With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic tradition is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace, sanctification and forgiveness as expressed in the church's liturgy.
The Catholic Apostolic Charismatic Church of "Jesus the King" is an independent international religious association of Catholic origin and character, with headquarters and legal recognition in Munich, Germany. It is known for its bishop, Rómulo Antonio Braschi, a former Roman Catholic priest, who performed the ordinations of the Danube Seven.
The sacrament of holy orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. In the phrase "holy orders", the word "holy" simply means "set apart for some purpose." The word "order" designates an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordination means legal incorporation into an order. In context, therefore, a group with a hierarchical structure that is set apart for ministry in the Church.
The International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church is an international Christian communion established as an Autocephalous Patriarchate in 1992 with over 1,000 churches worldwide.
The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the bishops and the deacons. Only men are allowed to receive holy orders, and the church does not allow any transgender people to do so. Church doctrine also sometimes refers to all baptised Catholics as the "common priesthood".
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of bishop to the apostles, who it is believed were endowed with a special charism by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Catholics believe this special charism has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the laying on of hands in the sacrament of holy orders.
The historic or historical episcopate comprises all episcopates, that is, it is the collective body of all the bishops of a church who are in valid apostolic succession. This succession is transmitted from each bishop to their successors by the rite of Holy Orders. It is sometimes subject of episcopal genealogy.
The Augustana Catholic Church (ACC), formerly the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church (ALCC) and the Evangelical Community Church-Lutheran (ECCL), is an American church in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic tradition. The ACC says it is unique among Lutheran churches in that it is of both Lutheran and Anglo-Catholic heritage and has also been significantly influenced by the Roman Catholic Church. The church was founded in 1997 by former members of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Its headquarters are in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The ACC has long had a policy of seeking union with the Catholic Church and announced in 2011 that it would accept the conditions of Anglicanorum coetibus and join the personal ordinariates as they are established. Later developments on limitations of joining the ordinariate caused the ACC to hold their offer while they established intercommunion with groups such as the Old Roman Catholic Church of North America. The Church claims a membership in excess of 60,000 in 12 countries.
The Ecumenical Catholic Communion (ECC) is an American independent Catholic church. Its members understand themselves as following the Catholic tradition without being in communion with the Bishop of Rome. The ECC is a confederation of independent communities based in the United States and Europe. The membership of the ECC is about 10,000, including seven bishops, and more than 50 communities across 20 states In 2009, the Ecumenical Anglican Church (EAC), an independent church joined the ECC. The ECC is a member of the National Council of Churches (NCC).
This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.
The Ecumenical Catholic Church (ECC) is a small Christian denomination, mainly oriented toward the LGBT community. It adheres to a conventional Catholic Trinitarian theology, professes the Nicene Creed, and considers Jesus to be the Son of God and redeemer of humanity, uniting Christians through Baptism and the Eucharist. Its liturgy is also similar to that of the Roman Catholic Church, but it is independent and not under the jurisdiction of the Vatican or the Roman Catholic hierarchy; it is thus considered to be one of the Independent Catholic Churches. It is also considered an offshoot of the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church. While the ECC shares core Christian beliefs with the Roman Catholic Church and many Protestant and Orthodox denominations, it is much more liberal on many social issues.