|Part of a series on the|
| Canon law of the|
A canonical visitation is the act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view to maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses. A person delegated to carry out such a visitation is called a visitor. When, in exceptional circumstances, the Holy See delegates an apostolic visitor (or visitors) "to evaluate an ecclesiastical institute such as a seminary, diocese, or religious institute ... to assist the institute in question to improve the way in which it carries out its function in the life of the Church," this is known as an apostolic visitation.
The practice was reaffirmed in the Catholic Church by the Council of Trent (1545 to 1563) in these words:
Patriarchs, primates, metropolitans and bishops shall not fail to visit their respective dioceses either personally, or if they be lawfully hindered, by their Vicar-general or visitor; if they shall not be able on account of its extent, to make the visitation of the whole [diocese] annually, they shall visit at least the greater part thereof, so that the whole shall be completed [with]in two years, either by themselves or by their visitors.
Of the purpose of visitation the Council says:
But the principal object of all the visitations shall be to lead to sound and orthodox doctrine, by banishing heresies; to maintain good morals, and to correct such as are evil; to animate the people, by exhortations and admonitions, to religion, peacefulness, and innocence; and to establish such other things as to the prudence of the visitors shall seem for the profit of the faithful, according as time, place and opportunity shall allow.
The right of visitation belongs to all prelates who have ordinary jurisdiction over persons in the external forum. The pope through his delegates may institute a visitation throughout the world, patriarchs, primates, metropolitans, bishops, a vicar apostolic and a vicar capitular or administrator of a vacant diocese, all in their respective territories, religious superiors within their own jurisdiction. A prelate nullius enjoys this right in conjunction with the neighbouring bishop, whose precepts in case of disagreement will prevail. Visitation does not, however, fall within the province of a vicar-general unless he be specially commissioned by the bishop. A metropolitan is not permitted to visit the dioceses of his suffragan bishops save for reasons approved in a provincial synod, and then only after the visitation of his own diocese has been completed.
The canonical visitation of a diocese is incumbent on the bishop personally unless lawfully hindered. A bishop may visit the various parts of his diocese as often as he chooses. According to the Council of Trent he must do so every year if possible, or at least every two years. A decree by the Sacred Congregation of the Consistory was A remotissima, of 31 December 1909. The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore required a bishop to visit every part of his diocese at least once every three years, not only that he may administer the sacrament of Confirmation, but likewise that he may know his people.
Regulars in matters pertaining to the cure of souls and divine worship are subject to episcopal visitation and correction. As delegate of the Apostolic See, a bishop may also visit exempt places, but may punish delinquents therein only when the regular superior, being duly notified, fails to do so. Religious communities of nuns are visited by the bishop either by virtue of his own right or as delegate of the Holy See.
Religious superiors also visit canonically institutions and persons subject to them, each observing the constitution and customs of his own order. The efforts of female religious superiors in visiting their houses are directed chiefly to promoting zeal and discipline; their authority is confined to correcting minor breaches of rule, since they are devoid of canonical jurisdiction. Difficulties beyond their power to settle are reported to the bishop or other lawful superior.
The visitation comprises persons, places, and things. It is an examination into the conduct of persons, viz. clergy, nuns, and laity; into the condition of churches, cemeteries, seminaries, convents, hospitals, asylums, etc., with their furnishing and appurtenances, into the administration of church property, finances, records, state of religion: briefly, it is a complete investigation of the spiritual and temporal affairs of the diocese. The visitor hears complaints, investigates crimes, sees whether pastors and others properly discharge their duties, and inquires into the private conduct or morals of clergy and laity.
The episcopal visitation should be a paternal investigation of diocesan matters. Formal trials and judicial penalties consequently will not be common: from such, should they be made use of, a suspensive appeal may be taken. Otherwise an appeal from decrees promulgated in visitation will beget merely a devolutive effect. The laws made should be enforced, and an authentic account of the entire visitation should be preserved in the diocesan archives as an official record, as well as to enable the bishop in his visit ad limina to render to the Holy See an accurate report of conditions in his diocese. This report to the pope is to be signed not only by the bishop, but likewise by one of the associate visitors. A bishop or other visitor, content with hospitality, will accept no offering for the visitation.
The Pontifical prescribes the ceremonies to be observed in a formal visitation of a parish. At the door of the church the bishop in cappa magna kisses the crucifix, receives holy water, and is incensed; then proceeding to the sanctuary he kneels till a prescribed prayer is sung. Ascending the altar the bishop gives his solemn episcopal blessing. A sermon follows in which the bishop refers to the purpose of the visitation. Later he imparts the indulgence that he is empowered to grant. Putting on a black cope and simple mitre, the bishop recites certain prayers for the deceased bishops of the diocese. The procession then proceeds to the cemetery if nearby, otherwise to some convenient place in the church where a catafalque shall have been erected: there prayers are offered for all the faithful departed. The ceremony is terminated on returning to the sanctuary by still another prayer for the dead. White vestments being substituted for black, the bishop examines the tabernacle and contents (blessing the people with the ciborium), altars, baptismal font, sacred oils, confessionals, relics, sacristy, records, cemetery, edifices, etc. as above. Finally the Pontifical contains other prayers to be said privately before the departure of the bishop and his assistants.
In 2000, the Holy See ordered an apostolic visitation of the media network EWTN, run by the Franciscan nun Mother Angelica. Archbishop Roberto González Nieves of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was sent to investigate. Nieves determined that there were three distinct problems: the actual ownership of the network, the monastery's right to give property to EWTN, and, since she had never been elected, the legitimacy of Mother Angelica's authority.
An apostolic visitation team visited more than 200 U.S. seminaries and formation houses in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate issues of sexual morality. They concluded that U.S. Catholic seminaries and houses of priestly formation are generally healthy, but recommended a stronger focus on moral theology, increased oversight of seminarians and greater involvement of diocesan bishops in the formation process.
In a bid to find out why numbers have decreased so drastically over the last 40 years, the Vatican Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life announced an apostolic visitation of US religious women's institutes.The study was complete in 2011.
In 2010 the Vatican ordered an apostolic visitation of the institutions of the Legionaries of Christ following disclosures of sexual impropriety by the order's late founder, Father Marcial Maciel Degollado.
On Monday, May 31, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI, in dealing with another large-scale child sex abuse scandal, ordered the formation of a panel of nine members (including two nuns, the current archbishops of Toronto, Ottawa, Boston, and New York, and the archbishop emeritus of Westminster) to investigate the Irish church hierarchy's handling of the sex abuse scandal there.
Archbishop George Lucas of Omaha, USA asked Professor Rev. James J. Conn to conduct a visitation of the Intercessors of the Lamb community during May 2010.
Marcel François Marie Joseph Lefebvre was a French Roman Catholic archbishop. In 1970, he founded the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX) as a small community of seminarians in the village of Écône, Switzerland, with the permission of Bishop François Charrière of Fribourg. In 1975, after a flare of tensions with the Holy See, Lefebvre was ordered to disband the society, but ignored the decision. In 1988, against the expressed prohibition of Pope John Paul II, he consecrated four bishops to continue his work with the SSPX. The Holy See immediately declared that he and the other bishops who had participated in the ceremony had incurred automatic excommunication under Catholic canon law, a status Lefebvre refused to acknowledge to his death three years later.
The Society of Saint Pius X is an international priestly fraternity founded in 1970 by Marcel Lefebvre, a traditionalist French Archbishop. Members are sometimes referred to as "Lefebvrites", named after the society's founder.
The Legion of Christ (LC) is a Roman Catholic religious institute established by Marcial Maciel and made up of priests and candidates for the priesthood. It forms part of the Regnum Christi Federation, founded by Maciel in 1959, which includes the Legionaries of Christ, the Society of Apostolic Life of the Consecrated Women of Regnum Christi, the Society of Apostolic Life of the Lay Consecrated Men of Regnum Christi, and other Catholics who associate individually.
Marcial Maciel Degollado was a Mexican Catholic priest who founded the Legion of Christ and the Regnum Christi movement. He was general director of the legion from 1941 to 2005. Throughout most of his career, he was respected within the Church as "the greatest fundraiser of the modern Roman Catholic church" and as a prolific recruiter of new seminarians. Late in his life, Maciel was revealed to have been a long time drug addict who sexually abused many boys and young men in his care. After his death, it came to light that he had also maintained sexual relationships with at least four women, one of whom was a minor at the time. He fathered as many as six children, two of whom he is alleged to have abused.
The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons. In the ecclesiological sense of the term, "hierarchy" strictly means the "holy ordering" of the Church, the Body of Christ, so to respect the diversity of gifts and ministries necessary for genuine unity.
The Pontifical North American College is a Roman Catholic educational institution in Rome, Italy, that forms seminarians for priestly ministry in the dioceses of the United States and elsewhere, and that provides a residence for priests from the United States and elsewhere who are pursuing graduate studies or continuing formation programs in Rome. Oversight of the college is the responsibility of the Holy See's Congregation for the Clergy, which is delegated for most matters to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops acting through the college's episcopal board of governors.
In the Catholic Church, an apostolic visitor is a papal representative with a transient mission to perform a canonical visitation of relatively short duration. The visitor is deputed to investigate a special circumstance in a diocese or country, and to submit a report to the Holy See at the conclusion of the investigation.
The Major Archeparchy of Ernakulam–Angamaly is an archeparchy and the See of the Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. Mar Cardinal George Alencherry is the present Major Archbishop, and his vicar is Archbishop Mar Antony Kariyil CMI, who is responsible for the ordinary administration of the archeparchy. He reports to the major archbishop and the Holy Synod of the Syro Malabar Church. Mar Jacob Manathodath, Bishop of Palghat was the former apostolic administrator sede plena. Kothamangalam and Idukki are the two suffragan eparchies of the archeparchy. the archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly occupies a prominent position in the history of the Syro-Malabar church. It was established as a Vicariate by the Bull Quae Rei Sacrae of pope Leo on 28 July 1896 maar Alocious Pazheparambil was appointed as the first figure apostolic, who assumed charge on 5th November 1896. Under the able guidance of Mar Pazheparambi, the vicariate begin to flourish.city of Ernakulam was chosen to be the location for The Bishop's house which was completed and blessed on 24th April 1900.
The Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney was established on 18 January 2002 by Pope John Paul II for traditionalist Catholic clergy and laity within the Diocese of Campos in Brazil. It is the only personal apostolic administration in existence, and the only Catholic Church jurisdiction devoted exclusively to celebrating the pre-1965 form of the Roman Rite. Its current Apostolic Administrator is Bishop Fernando Arêas Rifan.
The Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (C.M.I.) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church, and is the largest clerical religious congregation of pontifical right in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.
The Scandinavian Bishops Conference is an episcopal conference of Roman Catholic bishops covering the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland. At present, it has 12 members who represent all five Catholic dioceses and all two territorial prelatures in the Nordic countries. It is unusual for bishops' conferences to be organised across several countries, but this reflects the fact that there are fewer than half a million Catholics in these countries. The Conference states as its tasks:
The Diocese of Saint Thomas of Mylapore, presently in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, was a suffragan Roman Rite Catholic diocese in the ecclesiastical province of the primatial See of Goa in India, under the Portuguese patronage. It was founded at 1606 and abandoned at 1952.
Agostino Vallini is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. He has been a cardinal since 2006. From 2008 to 2017 he served as Vicar General of Rome. He is also the Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.
Stephen John Kocisko was the first Metropolitan Archbishop of the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh, the American branch of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church
The Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR) is one of two associations of the leaders of congregations of Catholic women religious in the United States. LCWR includes over 1300 members, who are members of 302 religious congregations that include 33,431 women religious in the United States as of 2018. Founded in 1956, the conference describes its charter as assisting its members to "collaboratively carry out their service of leadership to further the mission of the Gospel in today's world." The canonically-approved organization collaborates in the Catholic church and in society to "influence systemic change, studying significant trends and issues within the church and society, utilizing our corporate voice in solidarity with people who experience any form of violence or oppression, and creating and offering resource materials on religious leadership skills." The conference serves as a resource both to its members and to the public who are seeking resources on leadership for religious life.
The canonical situation of the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX), a group founded in 1970 by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, is unresolved.
A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms. The ordinariates were established in order to enable "groups of Anglicans" to join the Catholic Church while preserving elements of their liturgical and spiritual patrimony. They are juridically equivalent to a diocese, "a particular church in which and from which exists the one and unique Catholic Church", but may be erected in the same territory as other dioceses "by reason of the rite of the faithful or some similar reason".
This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.
The Apostolic visitation to Ireland was announced on 20 March 2010 in the pastoral letter written by Pope Benedict XVI to Irish Catholics after the publication of the Ryan and Murphy Reports on Catholic Church sexual abuse of children in Ireland in 2009. The Visitation to the Dioceses was carried out in the four Metropolitan Sees during the first few months of 2011. In addition, Timothy Cardinal Dolan of New York was appointed to conduct visits to four seminaries to review their formation programs. Members of Religious institutes were appointed to visit various congregations. The Visitation was essentially pastoral.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations. In contrast, a vicar is also a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader.