|Part of a series on the|
| Canon law of the|
The Catholic organisation Opus Dei is made up of several different types of membership:
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.
Opus Dei, formally known as the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, is an institution of the Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. The majority of its membership are lay people; the remainder are secular priests under the governance of a prelate elected by specific members and appointed by the Pope. Opus Dei is Latin for "Work of God"; hence the organization is often referred to by members and supporters as the Work.
Opus Dei is made up of several different types of faithful. According to the Statutes of Opus Dei,the distinction derives from the degree to which they make themselves available for the official activities of the Prelature and for giving formation according to the spirit of Opus Dei.
Supernumeraries, the largest type, currently account for about 70% of the total membership.The term "supernumerary" is a civil designation for an additional member of a society, for example professors, judges, actors, etc.
Typically, the supernumeraries of the Opus Dei prelature are married men and women who have secular careers and lead traditional family lives. Supernumeraries devote a portion of their day to prayer, in addition to attending regular meetings and taking part in activities such as retreats. Due to their career and family obligations, supernumeraries are not as available to the organization as the other types of members, but they typically contribute financially to Opus Dei, and they lend other types of assistance as their circumstances permit. Unlike other types of members, supernumeraries are not required to be celibate.
Numeraries, the second largest type of members of Opus Dei, comprise about 20% of total membership.Numeraries are celibate members who give themselves in "full availability" (plena disponibilitas) for the official undertakings of the Prelature. This includes full availability for giving doctrinal and ascetical formation to other members, for staffing the internal government of Opus Dei if asked by the regional directors, and for moving to other countries to start or help with apostolic activities if asked by the Prelate. Because they are making themselves fully available to do whatever needs to be done for the undertakings of the Prelature, numeraries are expected to live in special centers run by Opus Dei, and the question of which particular center a numerary will live in depends upon the regional needs. "Numerary" is a general term for persons who form part of the permanent staff of an organization. Therefore, in order to maintain a family atmosphere in the centers (rather than an institutional one), it is considered very important for numeraries to participate in daily meals and "get-togethers" in which they converse and share news. Both men and women may become numeraries in the Opus Dei prelature, although the centers are gender-segregated, with only minimal contact between male and female numeraries. Numeraries generally have jobs outside of Opus Dei, although some are asked to work internally full-time and many modify the way that they go about pursuing their professional goals in order to be available for the Prelature. According to Opus Dei's 1982 statutes, potential numeraries ordinarily "ought to have a civil academic degree or professional equivalent, or be able, at least, to obtain one after the admission"
Numerary assistants are a type of numerary that exists in the Women's Branch of Opus Dei. Their full availability for the Prelature is lived out as full availability for doing a specific type of work, namely looking after the domestic needs of the conference centers and the residential centers of Opus Dei.Hence they live in special centers run by Opus Dei and do not have jobs outside the centers.
Associates are faithful of Opus Dei who make themselves fully available to God and to others in apostolic celibacy, and stably take on at least one (sometimes more) apostolic assignment(s) from the Prelature in giving doctrinal and ascetical formation and/or coordinating activities.They differ from numeraries in not making themselves "fully" available to staff the official undertakings of the Prelature, instead giving themselves in additional social realities, such as through their profession or to their own families. Because of this difference in availability for the official activities of Opus Dei, unlike numeraries the associates do not live in Opus Dei centers but maintain their own abodes. Some of their family life (emotional and social support) comes from the centers of Opus Dei, some from other associates of Opus Dei, and some from their personal families and friends; the precise ratio of this distribution depends upon the circumstances of the individual associate.
The priests of Opus Dei comprise about 2% of the membership.They always hail from among the male numeraries and associates and have typically lived as lay members for several years before their ordination. At their ordination, they are incardinated into the Personal Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, meaning the prelate of Opus Dei becomes their bishop. Priests of Opus Dei observe the same disciplines as numerary and associate members, including living in Opus Dei centers.
The Priestly Society of the Holy Cross is an integral part of Opus Dei, not a separate entity simply associated with Opus Dei. Part of the society is made up of the clergy of the Opus Dei prelature—members of the priesthood who fall under the jurisdiction of the Opus Dei prelature are automatically members of the Priestly Society. Other members in the society are traditional diocesan priests--- clergy who remain under the jurisdiction of their diocesan bishop. Technically speaking, such diocesan priests have not "joined" Opus Dei membership, although they have joined a society that is closely affiliated with Opus Dei.
The Cooperators of Opus Dei are those who, though not considered members by Opus Dei, collaborate in some way with Opus Dei—usually through praying, charitable contributions, or by providing some other assistance. Cooperators are not required to be celibate or to adhere to any other special requirements. Indeed, cooperators are not even required to be Christian.
Cooperators may attend the educational and training activities provided by the Opus Dei. Many cooperators are relatives, friends, colleagues and neighbors of the members of Opus Dei.[ citation needed ] Religious communities as a whole can also become cooperators of Opus Dei. There are currently several hundred of these communities who pray for Opus Dei daily. [ citation needed ]
To become a member of Opus Dei one has to receive a divine calling or a vocation, a calling which requires practising the modes of the Opus Dei prelature. For this the directors of Opus Dei will have to discern if someone does have the vocation, before allowing him to be incorporated into the prelature.
Incorporation into Opus Dei is done through a written contractual bond between the person who has the vocation and the prelature.
There are some key procedures that be followed for someone to become a member of Opus Dei:
Admission is granted after a minimum of six months.
After an additional period of at least one year since the moment of his admission, the person can be temporarily incorporated into the prelature (oblation) through a formal declaration of a contractual nature, which is renewable annually.
After a minimum of five more years, the incorporation can become definitive. This step is called Fidelity, that ties to perpetuity to the member of the Opus Dei. If the member wishes to leave the prelature, he needs a dispensation which the Prelate alone can grant.
If anyone, before incorporation as a Numerary or Associate is seen to lack suitability for that, he may be retained as a Supernumerary, as long as he has the requisite conditions.
On the part of the prelature: The prelature is committed to provide the member with formation in the Catholic Christian faith and in the spirit of the Work, as well as the necessary pastoral care from the priests of the prelature.
On the part of the person to be incorporated: incorporation means the commitment to remain under the jurisdiction of the prelate in all that concerns the aim of the prelature: sanctity and apostolate in the middle of the world. He is also to observe the norms by which the prelature is governed, and to fulfill the other obligations of its faithful.
In summary, all the faithful of the prelature commit themselves to seeking sanctity and to carrying out apostolate according to the spirit of Opus Dei. This involves, principally, growing in spiritual life through prayer, sacrifice, and receiving the sacraments; using the opportunities that the prelature provides for acquiring a deep knowledge of the doctrine of the Church and the spirit of Opus Dei; and taking part in the task of spreading the Word carried out by the prelature, according to the circumstances and situations of each person.
At the end of the term of the contract with the prelature the bond with the prelature of Opus Dei ceases. It can also end earlier, if the member requests for it in agreement with the directors of the Opus Dei. If permission for departure is given it is considered a "lawful departure" ("exitus legitimus" according to the currently applicable Latin version of Opus Statutes).
When someone leaves the prelature lawfully, there is a cessation or ending of mutual rights and duties. Opus Dei does not give back any goods or money received during membership.
- 29."During temporary incorporation or when the definitive [incorporation] has already been made, for anyone to voluntarily leave the Praelature, he needs a dispensation which the Prelate alone can grant, after hearing from his own Council and Regional Commission".
- 30."The faithful, either temporarily or finally incorporated into the Prelature, cannot be dismissed except for serious causes which, if it is a question of final incorporation, always ought to proceed from the fault of the faithful person, himself".
- "Bad health is not a reason for dismissal unless it has certainly been established that it was deceitfully concealed or dissembled before temporary incorporation".
- 34."The person, who for whatever reason says farewell to the Prelature or is dismissed by it, can demand no recompense from it for services rendered to it, nor on account of what, whether by [his] industry or exercise of his own profession, or by any title or manner might have been paid him".
In other words, no departing member of Opus Dei may receive any compensation of any sort for the contributions that they may have made to Opus Dei during their time in the organisation, this applies to all categories of membership.
When, however, someone leaves the prelature unlawfully (i.e. without the permission of the Prelate) he or she commits mortal sin. [ citation needed ]
Nevertheless, the Congregation for Bishops states: "The laity incorporated in the Prelature Opus Dei continue to be faithful of the dioceses in which they have their domicile or quasidomicile and are, therefore, under the jurisdiction of the diocesan bishop in what the law lays down for all the ordinary faithful".
Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest who founded Opus Dei, an organization of laypeople and priests dedicated to the teaching that everyone is called to holiness by God and that ordinary life can result in sanctity. He was canonized during 2002 by Pope John Paul II, who declared Saint Josemaría should be "counted among the great witnesses of Christianity."
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means 'carry before', 'be set above or over' or 'prefer'; hence, a prelate is one set over others.
Personal prelature is a canonical structure of the Catholic Church which comprises a prelate, clergy and laity who undertake specific pastoral activities. The first personal prelature is Opus Dei. Personal prelatures, similar to dioceses and military ordinariates, are under the governance of the Vatican's Congregation for Bishops. These three types of ecclesiastical structures are composed of lay people served by their own secular clergy and prelate. Unlike dioceses which cover territories, personal prelatures—like military ordinariates—take charge of persons as regards some objectives regardless of where they live.
An ordinary is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws.
Javier Echevarría Rodríguez was a Spanish bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. Until his death, he was the head of the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei. He held doctorates in both civil and canon law.
Opus Dei and politics is a discussion on Opus Dei's view on politics, its role in politics and its members involvement in politics. There were accusations that the Catholic personal prelature of Opus Dei has had links with far-right governments worldwide, including Franco's and Hitler's regimes. Recent studies meanwhile have done much to counter these claims, especially the work of John L. Allen, Jr. who spent a year studying the organization. He says that Escrivá was staunchly nonpolitical, and that Opus Dei's cardinal principle is that "it can never take political positions corporately. It would compromise the notion of secularity—that political thinking is something for lay people to do, not for a church organization to do. Therefore, on questions that don't deal with faith and morals, there's great pluralism."
Opus Dei: A Historical Timeline shows the historical development of Opus Dei.
Opus Dei and Catholic Church Leaders discusses the comments and observations of Popes, Cardinals and other leaders of the Catholic Church as regards the Personal Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei.
Opus Dei in society refers to the social mission, general social strategy, social activities, work, relationship with politics and other aspects of Opus Dei.
The Priestly Society of the Holy Cross is an association of Catholic diocesan priests which is integrally united to the Prelature of Opus Dei.
Opus Dei is a personal prelature within the Roman Catholic Church that has been the subject of numerous controversies.
William H. Stetson was a Roman Catholic priest of the Prelature of Opus Dei ordained in 1962. He was an honorary prelate of the Pope with the title of Reverend Monsignor. He lived in Los Angeles, California.
Fernando Ocáriz Braña is a Roman Catholic priest who serves as the current Prelate of Opus Dei. Monsignor Ocáriz is the fourth person to head Opus Dei since its founding in 1928. He is widely published in philosophy and has been a consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith since 1986.
A corporate work is an official organization or function of Opus Dei, a part of the Roman Catholic Church. Because Opus Dei is a personal prelature, its corporate works are almost always independent of the territorial dioceses which they operate in, in contrast to almost all other operations of the Catholic Church, which have to report to their diocesan bishop.
Precedence signifies the right to enjoy a prerogative of honor before other persons; for example, to have the most distinguished place in a procession, a ceremony, or an assembly, to have the right to express an opinion, cast a vote, or append a signature before others, to perform the most honorable offices.
Miles Jesu is a Catholic institute of consecrated life founded on January 12, 1964 in Phoenix, Arizona, whose membership comprises lay people and clerics who take religious vows and in addition, since it is structured as an ecclesial family of consecrated life, it also has people in other states of life as members. Miles Jesu is thus a new form of consecrated life in the Church which has been approved by the Holy See in accordance with canon 605 of the Code of Canon Law, which reserves to the Holy See approval of forms of consecrated life other than the traditional forms.
Women form 57% of the membership of the Opus Dei prelature. The role of women in Opus Dei has sometimes been a source of criticism for the organization.
Dora del Hoyo Alonso was one of the first women members of Opus Dei. A domestic worker by profession, Dora was the first to join the Prelature of Opus Dei as an assistant numerary meaning that she dedicated herself professionally to caring for people and looking after the material needs of Opus Dei centers. From 1946 until her death, she lived in Rome, Italy where she collaborated first with Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, Opus Dei's founder, and later on with his successors Álvaro del Portillo and Bishop Javier Echevarría, in the domestic management of the first Opus Dei center there, later the movement's headquarters. Her process of canonization was opened in Rome on June 18, 2012 by Echevarría, at the request of many who knew and worked with her. Her mortal remains lie close to the tomb of Escriva, in the crypt of Our Lady of Peace Church in Rome.