Justin Welby

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Justin Welby
Lord Archbishop of Canterbury
Primate of All England
Archbishop of Canterbury (32195477582) (cropped).jpg
Welby in 2017
Church Church of England
Province Canterbury
Diocese Canterbury
(delegated to the Bishop of Dover)
Elected4 February 2013
Installed21 March 2013
Predecessor Rowan Williams
Other posts Bishop of Durham (2011–2013)
Personal details
Birth nameJustin Portal Welby
Born (1956-01-06) 6 January 1956 (age 63)
London, England, United Kingdom
NationalityBritish
Denomination Church of England
Residence Lambeth Palace, London
The Old Palace, Canterbury
SpouseCaroline (née Eaton)
Children6 [1]
Alma mater
Coat of arms Coat of arms of Justin Welby, 105th Archbishop of Canterbury.svg
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Spiritual
Assumed office
26 February 2013
Ordination history
History
Diaconal ordination
Ordained by Simon Barrington-Ward
Date28 June 1992
Place Coventry Cathedral
Priestly ordination
Ordained bySimon Barrington-Ward
Date27 June 1993
PlaceCoventry Cathedral
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated by John Sentamu
Date28 October 2011
PlaceYork Minster

Justin Portal Welby (born 6 January 1956) [2] is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England. He has served in that role since 2013. Welby was the vicar of Southam, Warwickshire, [3] and most recently was the Bishop of Durham, serving for just over a year. [4] As Archbishop of Canterbury, he is the Primate of All England and the head Primus inter pares of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

Archbishop of Canterbury Senior bishop of the Church of England

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.

Church of England Anglican state church of England

The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

A vicar is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior. Linguistically, vicar is cognate with the English prefix "vice", similarly meaning "deputy". The title appears in a number of Christian ecclesiastical contexts, but also as an administrative title, or title modifier, in the Roman Empire. In addition, in the Holy Roman Empire a local representative of the emperor, perhaps an archduke, might be styled "vicar".

Contents

Welby was educated at the University of Cambridge where he read History and Law. Later in life, he received an ordination at St John's College, Durham. After several parochial appointments, he became the Dean of Liverpool in 2007 and the Bishop of Durham in 2011.

University of Cambridge university in Cambridge, United Kingdom

The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The academic standards, history, influence and wealth of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

St Johns College, Durham constituent college of the University of Durham, UK

St John's College is a college of the University of Durham, United Kingdom. It is one of only two "recognised colleges" of the university, the other being St Chad's. This means that it is financially and constitutionally independent of the university and has a greater degree of administrative independence than the other, "maintained", colleges. However, to maintain its status as a recognised college, the university council must approve the appointment of its principal and be notified of changes to its constitution.

Dean of Liverpool head of the chapter of Liverpool Cathedral

The Dean of Liverpool is based in Liverpool and is head of the chapter of Liverpool Cathedral.

Welby's theology is reported as representing the evangelical tradition within Anglicanism. [5] Having worked in business before his ordination, some of his publications explore the relationship between finance and religion and, as a member of the House of Lords, he sits on the panel of the 2012 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards.

Evangelical Anglicanism

Evangelical Anglicanism or evangelical Episcopalianism is a tradition or church party within Anglicanism that shares affinity with broader evangelicalism. Evangelical Anglicans share with other evangelicals the attributes of "conversionism, activism, biblicism and crucicentrism" identified by historian David Bebbington as central to evangelical identity. The emergence of evangelical churchmanship can be traced back to the First Great Awakening in America and the Evangelical Revival in Britain in the 18th century. In the 20th century, prominent figures have included John Stott and J. I. Packer.

House of Lords upper house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers and domestically usually referred to simply as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted by appointment or else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.

Early life and education

Justin Portal Welby was born in London, England, on 6 January 1956, [2] almost nine months after the marriage of his mother Jane Gillian Portal (born 1929) to Gavin Bramhall James Welby (1910–1977). [7] Jane had served as a personal secretary to Sir Winston Churchill from December 1949 until her marriage to Gavin Welby in April 1955, very soon after she had a short relationship with the private secretary to Churchill, Sir Anthony Montague Browne (1923–2013). [8]

Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during most of World War II

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for the last of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

Anthony Montague Browne British civil servant

Sir Anthony Arthur Duncan Montague Browne was a British diplomat who was private secretary to Sir Winston Churchill for the last ten years of the latter's life.

Gavin Welby, born Bernard Gavin Weiler in Ruislip, West London, [9] [10] [11] was the son of Bernard Weiler, a German-Jewish immigrant and importer of luxury items who changed the family name to Welby shortly after the First World War broke out. [10] [12] [13] [14] Welby describes his early childhood as "messy": Gavin and Jane Welby were both alcoholics. They divorced in 1959, when he was three years old, [15] and he was placed in Gavin Welby's custody. In 1960 Gavin Welby was engaged to the actress Vanessa Redgrave, who called the engagement off after her mother Lady Redgrave wrote to Vanessa's father, Sir Michael Redgrave, that Gavin Welby was "a real horror ... a pretty rotten piece of work". [16] Gavin Welby died in 1977 of alcohol-related causes. [15]

Ruislip An area of the London Borough of Hillingdon, England, UK

Ruislip is a town in Greater London, England, forming part of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Ruislip lies 13.8 miles (22.2 km) west-north-west of Charing Cross, London.

Vanessa Redgrave British actress

Vanessa Redgrave is an English actress of stage, screen, and television, and a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, and received the 2010 BAFTA Fellowship.

Rachel Kempson British actress

Rachel, Lady Redgrave, known primarily by her birth name Rachel Kempson, was an English actress. She married Sir Michael Redgrave, and was the matriarch of the famous acting dynasty.

Welby's mother stopped drinking in 1968, and in 1975 married Charles Williams, a business executive and first-class cricketer who was made a life peer in 1985. Williams was the nephew of Elizabeth Laura Gurney, a member of the Gurney family of Norwich who were prominent Quakers and social reformers. Welby describes his stepfather as being supportive of him.

Charles Williams, Baron Williams of Elvel British politician and cricketer

Charles Cuthbert Powell Williams, Baron Williams of Elvel, is a retired business executive and a Labour peer. In his 20s he played first-class cricket while at university and for several seasons afterwards. He is the stepfather of Justin Welby, the Archbishop of Canterbury.

First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to be worthy of the status by virtue of the standard of the competing teams. Matches must allow for the teams to play two innings each although, in practice, a team might play only one innings or none at all.

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.

Paternity testing in 2016 showed that Welby's biological father was not Gavin Welby but Sir Anthony Montague Browne. [7] Welby said he was not disturbed by this discovery but did admit that it had come as "a complete surprise", adding: "I know that I find who I am in Jesus Christ, not in genetics, and my identity in him never changes." [17]

Welby's maternal family

Welby's mother Jane Portal was the daughter of Iris Butler (1905–2002), a journalist and historian whose brother R. A. "Rab" Butler, Lord Butler of Saffron Walden, was a Conservative politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary. Their father was Sir Montagu Butler, Governor of the Central Provinces of British India and Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Sir Montagu Butler was the grandson of George Butler, headmaster of Harrow School and Dean of Peterborough; the nephew of educator George Butler (husband of social reformer Josephine Butler) and Henry Montagu Butler, headmaster of Harrow School, Dean of Gloucester and Master of Trinity College, Cambridge; and the grand-nephew of John Colenso, the first Bishop of Natal.

Jane Portal's father was Gervas Portal, a half-brother of the World War II Chief of the Air Staff, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford. [18] Gervas Portal's mother Rose Leslie Portal née Napier was the granddaughter of General Sir William Napier and his wife Caroline Amelia Fox. General Napier and his brothers, Generals Sir Charles James Napier and Sir George Thomas Napier (respectively Commanders-in-Chief of the British Armies in India and in the Cape Colony), were sons of George Napier (a sixth-generation descendant, via the Lords Napier, of John Napier, the inventor of logarithms) and his second wife Lady Sarah Lennox. Caroline Amelia Fox was the daughter of General Henry Edward Fox, younger brother of prominent Whig politician Charles James Fox; they were the sons of politician Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland and his wife Lady Caroline Lennox. Lady Caroline Lennox and Lady Sarah Lennox were two of the five famous Lennox sisters, daughters of the 2nd Duke of Richmond, son of the 1st Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of King Charles II and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. [19]

Education

Trinity College, Cambridge Cmglee Cambridge Trinity College Great Court.jpg
Trinity College, Cambridge

Welby was educated at St Peter's School, Seaford; Eton College; and Trinity College, Cambridge, where his great-uncle, Lord Butler of Saffron Walden, was then master. He graduated in 1978 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and law; as per tradition he was later promoted to a Master of Arts by seniority. [20]

In a 12 July 2013 interview with The Daily Telegraph , Welby related his conversion experience when he was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge. He said that, while he was at Eton, he had "vaguely assumed there was a God. But I didn't believe. I wasn't interested at all." But during the evening of 12 October 1975 in Cambridge, praying with a Christian friend, Welby said that he suddenly felt “a clear sense of something changing, the presence of something that had not been there before in my life. He said to his friend, “Please don’t tell anyone about this.” Welby said that he was desperately embarrassed that this had happened to him. He has since credited his time at Cambridge as being a major moment of self-realisation in his life. [21] At the age of 19 he began speaking in tongues. [22]

Business career

Welby worked for eleven years in the oil industry, five of them for the French oil company Elf Aquitaine based in Paris. In 1984 he became treasurer of the oil exploration group Enterprise Oil plc in London, where he was mainly concerned with West African and North Sea oil projects. He retired from his executive position in 1989 and said that he sensed a calling from God to be ordained. [23]

During his oil industry career, Welby became a congregation member at the evangelical Anglican church of Holy Trinity in Brompton, London. [1]

In July 2013, following the report of the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards Commission, Welby explained that senior bank executives avoided being given information about difficult issues to allow them to "plead ignorance". [24] He also said he would possibly have behaved in the same way and warned against punishing by naming and shaming individual bankers which he compared to the behaviour of a lynch mob. [24]

Ministry

Welby was at first rejected for ordination by John Hughes, the Bishop of Kensington, who told him: "There is no place for you in the Church of England." [25] Welby was subsequently accepted for ordination, with the support of the Vicar of Holy Trinity Brompton, Sandy Millar. Throughout his ministry Welby has been linked to the charismatic evangelical wing of the Church of England associated with Holy Trinity Brompton, and in a 2019 interview said that "In my own prayer life, and as part of my daily discipline, I pray in tongues every day". [26] [27]

From 1989 to 1992, Welby studied theology and trained for the priesthood at Cranmer Hall and St John's College, Durham, where he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree and a Diploma in Ministry (DipMin) in 1992. [28] He was ordained a deacon at Petertide (on 28 June) 1992 [29] and a priest the next Petertide (27 June 1993), both times by Simon Barrington-Ward, Bishop of Coventry, at Coventry Cathedral. [30] He then became a curate at Chilvers Coton and St Mary the Virgin, Astley (Nuneaton) from 1992 to 1995. He then became rector of St James' Church, Southam, and later vicar of St Michael and All Angels, Ufton, Diocese of Coventry, from 1995 to 2002. [31]

In 2002, Welby was appointed a canon residentiary of Coventry Cathedral and the co-director for international ministry at the International Centre for Reconciliation. In 2005, he was appointed sub-dean and Canon for Reconciliation Ministry.

Welby was appointed Dean of Liverpool in December 2007 and was installed there on 8 December 2007. [32]

Welby has written widely on ethics and on finance, featuring in books such as Managing the Church?: Order and Organisation in a Secular Age and Explorations in Financial Ethics. Welby's dissertation, an exploration into whether companies can sin, marks his point that the structure of a system can "make it easier to make the right choice or the wrong choice." [33] His dissertation led to the publication of a booklet entitled Can Companies Sin?: "Whether", "How" and "Who" in Company Accountability, which was published by Grove Books in 1992. He has said that the Benedictine and Franciscan orders in the Anglican churches, along with Catholic social teaching, have influenced his spiritual formation. [34]

Interviewed by the BBC in 2011, Welby said that to be appointed Bishop of Durham was both challenging and a huge privilege: "I was astonished to be offered the role. It is a passionate desire to see a church that is vigorously full of spiritual life, serving Jesus Christ and serving those around it." [35] His election was confirmed (i.e. he legally became the Bishop of Durham) at York Minster on 29 September 2011 and he left Liverpool Cathedral on 2 October. He was consecrated as a bishop at York Minster on 28 October 2011 [36] and was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in Durham Cathedral on 26 November 2011. He was introduced to the House of Lords on 12 January 2012, [37] [38] where he sits on the Lords Spiritual bench. [39] He gave his maiden speech on 16 May 2012. [40] He was asked to join the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards in 2012.

Archbishop of Canterbury

Welby and Paul Kim, Primate of the Province of Korea, at Seoul Cathedral in 2013 Justin Welby and Kim Geun-Sang at Seoul Cathedral.JPG
Welby and Paul Kim, Primate of the Province of Korea, at Seoul Cathedral in 2013

Welby emerged as a candidate to be the next Archbishop of Canterbury; on 6 November 2012, the bookmakers Betvictor, Ladbrokes and William Hill suspended betting on his being appointed. [41] On 9 November 2012, Welby's appointment to the position was announced. In January 2013, Welby said that he initially thought it was "a joke" and "perfectly absurd" for him to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, because he had only been a bishop for a short time. [42] His confirmation of election ceremony to the See of Canterbury took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 4 February 2013 (by this, he legally became Archbishop of Canterbury); [3] on the following day it was announced that Welby would be appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, as all archbishops are; [43] the order for his appointment was made on 12 February [44] and he swore the oath on 13 March. [45]

Welby was enthroned as the Archbishop of Canterbury at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013, [46] which in the calendar [47] of the Anglican churches is an observance of Thomas Cranmer.

Welby's schedule included an official visit to the Vatican on 14 June 2013, with visits to senior Curial officials, including Cardinal Kurt Koch, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, an official audience with Pope Francis and prayer at the tombs of Saint Peter and Pope John Paul II. [48]

Religion

In a 12 July 2013 interview with The Daily Telegraph , Welby addressed questions about his religion. His answers included the following: [21]

  • Asked whether he can speak "in tongues", Welby answered, "Oh yes, it’s just a routine part of spiritual discipline — you choose to speak and you speak a language that you don’t know. It just comes."
  • Asked whether it is necessary "for a true Christian to have had a personal conversion experience", Welby answered, "Absolutely not. There is an incredible range of ways in which the Spirit works. It doesn’t matter how you get there. It really does quite matter where you are."
  • Asked about "his strange and lonely youth", Welby said that "at the time, it felt horrible. Now it feels hugely valuable. God doesn’t waste stuff." The interviewer asked Welby whether his family history had "wounded" him. After "a very long" pause, Welby answered, "I assume that I am, but I also assume that the grace of God is extraordinarily powerful in the healing of one’s wounds."
  • Asked whether he knows Jesus, Welby answered, "Yes. I do. He's both someone one knows and someone one scarcely knows at all, an utterly intimate friend and yet with indescribable majesty."
  • Regarding his religious practices, Welby called himself "a spiritual magpie". The interviewer commented about Welby, "as well as speaking in tongues, he adores the sacrament of the Eucharist. He also says the morning and evening office, Book of Common Prayer version, in the chapel of the palace, every day. For Welby, 'the routine of regular prayer is immensely important in overcoming the ups and downs of human moods.' For his spiritual discipline, Welby uses Catholic models – the contemplation and stability of Benedictines and the rigorous self-examination of Ignatius of Loyola. He also has a spiritual director, the Roman Catholic priest Nicolas Buttet.
  • The interviewer said that the church "is good at talking, but not at actually doing things to improve the social order." Welby retorted, "Rubbish! It is one of the most powerful forces of social cohesion. Did you know that each month all the Churches – roughly half of the numbers being Anglican – contribute 23 million hours of voluntary work, outside what they do in church? And it's growing. There are now between 1,200 and 2,000 food banks in which the Church is involved. Ten years ago, there were none. There are vicars living in every impoverished area in the country. This springs out of genuine spirituality. We're not just Rotary with a pointy roof." [21]

Welby apologised unreservedly after allegations that barrister and evangelical Christian John Smyth beat boys in the late 1970s, mainly pupils at Winchester College, until their wounds bled and left permanent scars. Smyth then headed the Christian charity, the Iwerne Trust. These allegations were suppressed for decades, although Smyth was asked to leave the UK. [49]

Views

Islam

In July 2014, Welby acknowledged that there was a problem with young Muslim youths travelling to the Syrian Civil War and elsewhere to wage jihad but the numbers were "extraordinarily small", and so he scoffed at concerns over the potential for trouble as "hysterical... I think we’re in danger of slipping into a very fearful culture". [50] In 2015, he offered his support for British air strikes against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in Syria. [51] Welby believes that the problem of Islamic extremism is far deeper than combating Islamic jihadists such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda; and that the Gulf monarchies and Saudi Arabia need to be challenged as their "own promotion of a particular brand of Islamic theology has provided a source from which ISIL have drawn a false legitimization." [51] In November 2016 in an interview with the Daily Telegraph , Welby stated that claiming that the actions of ISIS are "nothing to do with Islam" was damaging efforts to combat extremism. Welby stipulated that it was essential to understand the religious motivation behind extremism in order to understand it and also criticized the argument that claims that "Christian militia in the Central African Republic are nothing to do with Christianity." [52]

Refugees

Welby disagrees with restrictions on child refugees being admitted to the UK. Welby fears children are now vulnerable to exploitation and even death. [53] Welby stated:

Our country has a great history of welcoming those in need, particularly the most vulnerable, such as unaccompanied children. Refugees, like all people, are treasured human beings made in the image of God who deserve safety, freedom and the opportunity to flourish. We must resist and turn back the worrying trends we are seeing around the world, towards seeing the movement of desperate people as more of a threat to identity and security than an opportunity to do our duty. We cannot withdraw from our long and proud history of helping the most vulnerable.

Welby hoped the government would reconsider its decision to stop letting child refugees in. He was dismayed that only 350 children were brought in despite about 3,000 being expected. [54]

Ordination of women as bishops

Welby has been a strong supporter of Anglican consecration of women as bishops. [55] In November 2013, Welby stated he aimed to ordain women as bishops while allowing space for those who disagree. [56] In February 2014, Welby called on Anglicans to avoid fear, prejudice and suspicion and to grasp "cultural change in the life of the church":

Let's bring this down to some basics. We have agreed that we will ordain women as Bishops. At the same time we have agreed that while doing that we want all parts of the church to flourish. If we are to challenge fear we have to find a cultural change in the life of the church, in the way our groups and parties work, sufficient to build love and trust. That will mean different ways of working at every level of the church in practice in the way our meetings are structured, presented and lived out and in every form of appointment. It will, dare I say, mean a lot of careful training and development in our working methods, because the challenge for all institutions today, and us above all, is not merely the making of policy but how we then make things happen. [57]

Welby would like discipline applied over appointments to prevent opponents of women as bishops feeling alienated. Welby says he hopes to avoid a zero-sum game where people feel gain for one side inevitably means loss for the other, he sees need for caution, co-operation and unity. [58] Slightly revised legislation to allow women to be ordained bishops in the Church of England was agreed in July 2014 and became law in November 2014. [59]

Fuel suppliers

Welby feels rises in energy prices in the UK appear "inexplicable". [60] He also feels that energy companies have a responsibility towards customers and should take account of this rather than only maximising their own opportunities.

The impact on people, particularly on low incomes, is going to be really severe in this [rising energy prices], and the companies have to justify fully what they are doing. (...) They have control because they sell something everyone has to buy. We have no choice about buying it with that amount of power comes huge responsibility to serve society. [61] [62]

Welby is concerned about Fuel poverty which he feels is serious as energy costs have risen while incomes remain static or decline.

Poverty

Referring to poverty in the UK in March 2013, Welby criticised UK government changes which cap benefits below inflation.

As a civilised society, we have a duty to support those among us who are vulnerable and in need. When times are hard, that duty should be felt more than ever, not disappear or diminish. It is essential that we have a welfare system that responds to need and recognises the rising costs of food, fuel and housing. The current benefits system does that, by ensuring that the support struggling families receive rises with inflation. These changes will mean it is children and families who will pay the price for high inflation, rather than the government. [63]

In a speech at Christmas 2013 Welby said, "Even in a recovering economy, Christians, the servants of a vulnerable and poor saviour, need to act to serve and love the poor; they need also to challenge the causes of poverty." [64] [65] [66] In a speech at Easter 2013 Welby said, "In this country, even as the economy improves there is weeping in broken families, in people ashamed to seek help from food banks, or frightened by debt. Asylum seekers weep with loneliness and missing far away families." [67]

Referring to poverty in the UK and generally Welby said that "we should all share concern for the poor and the marginalised, should work to build communities where people act responsibly towards one another, whether we are rich or poor we all have the same dignity. William Beveridge, R. H. Tawney and William Temple played a significant part in establishing the post-war welfare state in the United Kingdom and were committed Christians. We do not have the luxury of saying, 'Something must be done' without doing anything ourselves."

Welby has said that justice of the powerful is not justice at all and judges should decide issues based on truth and the common good rather than class and money. [68] Welby quoted Nelson Mandela that "dealing with poverty was a matter of justice rather than charity." Welby felt that speaking out about poverty, fuel bills, financial insecurity affecting families and credit unions is part of the Christian duty to love one's neighbour. [69] [70]

Welby hopes that people will resolve to help deal with poverty in their own neighbourhoods. In a BBC television broadcast he said, "I want to suggest this year that each of us makes a resolution to try and change the world a bit where we are." [71]

Welby maintains that insecurity of income is also a problem for many people. Many people cannot save or plan for, for example a holiday because they do not know how much money will be coming in from week to week. Welby said:

You don't know from one week to the next what you'll be earning. And so for people trying to budget, people trying to just save a bit so that, I don't know, once a month they could have fish and chips with their kids or go to the cinema or go down to the beach on a nice hot summer, they can't plan. It comes back to justice and the common good. [72]

Welby also said, “

Certainly there are parts of the country where there’s huge deprivation. We see communities caught in a poverty trap. Now, the economy has improved very much in many places but there’s a significant group of people who just seem trapped and the system doesn’t help them. [73]

Inequality

Welby is concerned about inequality in the UK, he said, “Our economic model is broken. Britain stands at a watershed moment where we need to make fundamental choices about the sort of economy we need. We are failing those who will grow up into a world where the gap between the richest and poorest parts of the country is significant and destabilising.” [74]

Social injustice

Welby maintains social injustice is widespread and intrenched in British society. Welby said the gig economy is just one of many injustices. Welby maintains the weakest people get the least secure pensions and the strongest get the most secure pensions. Welby said:

In these areas, and in employment rights, and in many others, we see that where inequality and profound injustice seem entrenched, insurmountable, it leads to instability in our society: divisions between peoples and vulnerability to the populism that stirs hatred between different ethnicities and religious groups, the rise of ancient demons of racism, antisemitism, Islamophobia and xenophobia. [75]

Universal Credit

Welby maintains Universal Credit is harming poor people and its rollout should be stopped. Welby said:

It [Universal Credit] was supposed to make it simpler and more efficient. It has not done that. It has left too many people worse off, putting them at risk of hunger, debt, rent arrears and food banks. When universal credit comes into a local area, the number of people going to food banks goes up. What is clear is if they cannot get it right, they need to stop rolling it out. [75]

Taxation

Welby maintains that tax avoidance is wrong and that many wealthy companies do not pay as much tax as they should. Welby said, “It is clear that a company that has a turnover of several billion and yet pays only a few million in tax, something isn’t quite working there. It is to do with transfer pricing, there are all kinds of explanations, but people who earn money from a society should pay tax in that society for the common good, for economic justice.” [76] Welby said:

What is clear is that tax should be a fundamental part of being a citizen, and that those who have the most should pay the most. And that no company, through being multinational, being global, can evade the responsibilities of paying its proper amount of tax, based on the revenues it earns in this country. So yes, some people will need to pay more. I'm not going to point at individuals, but certainly we see people and companies that seem not to pay what sounds like a reasonable amount of tax. [72]

Welby also said:

Not paying taxes speaks of the absence of commitment to our shared humanity, to solidarity and justice. If you earn money from a community, you should pay your share of tax to that community. I was in business, and I know that, within limits, it’s right and proper for people to arrange their tax affairs, and for companies to do so. But when vast companies like Amazon, and other online traders – the new industries – can get away with paying almost nothing in tax, there is something wrong with the tax system. They don’t pay a real living wage, so the taxpayer must support their workers with benefits, and having leached off the taxpayer once, they don’t pay for our defence, for security, for stability, for justice, for health, for equality, for education. Then they complain of an undertrained workforce, from the education they have not paid for, and pay almost nothing for apprenticeships. Those are only a fraction of the costs of aggressive tax management. [75]

General election

In the run up to the 2017 United Kingdom general election Justin Welby and Archbishop of York, John Sentamu campaigned over the need to address poverty, education, housing and health. The archbishops stressed the importance of "education for all, of urgent and serious solutions to our housing challenges, the importance of creating communities as well as buildings, and a confident and flourishing health service that gives support to all – especially the vulnerable – not least at the beginning and end of life." [77]

Brexit and austerity

Welby fears Brexit is dividing UK society and the United Kingdom government austerity programme is harming vulnerable people. Welby wrote:

Brexit has divided the country and now we need a new narrative. One that is rooted in all that is best in our history – solidarity, courage, aspiration, resilience and care for each other. There is a danger that there is a schism in our society into which the most vulnerable are falling. Austerity is crushing the weak, the sick and many others. [78]

High-interest lending

In July 2013, Welby spoke out against the payday lending sites and met with Errol Damelin, chief executive of Wonga. Welby pledged that the Church of England would support credit unions as society needs to "provide an alternative" to the "very, very costly forms of finance" that payday lending services represent. He noted that he did not want to make legal payday lending illegal as this would leave people with no alternative to using criminal loan sharks. [79]

Payday lenders lead to people being assured, through impressively slick marketing campaigns and targeted advertisements, that the process of taking out a loan is quick, simple and safe. However, once the loan has been taken out, it is difficult to get out of the cycle. With the rates offered, simply paying off the interest becomes a struggle. [80]

Shortly after this well-publicised intervention in the public debate, it emerged that the Church of England's pension fund had invested money in Accel Partners, a venture capital firm that had invested in Wonga. This led to accusations of hypocrisy and Welby noted that the investment was "very embarrassing" for the church. [81] Welby and the Church's Ethical Investment Advisory Group were unaware of their investment in Wonga.

Welby also said that the Ethical Investment Advisory Group ought to reconsider rules which allow investment in companies that make up to 25% of their income from gambling, alcohol or high-interest lending. [79]

Food banks

Welby is concerned about increasing need for food banks which would have been "unthinkable" a decade ago. He called the plight of hungry poor people shocking because he did not expect that in the UK, [82] saying that it was "a very sad fact that they’re there, but also it's a great opportunity for the Church to demonstrate the love of Christ." [83]

Welby disagrees strongly with Lord Freud, currently[ when? ] Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, because Welby believes the UK government cuts to benefits have caused or contributed to the surge in food banks. Welby cites Church of England investigation showing social services referred 35% of Durham residents who use food banks when benefits they were entitled to were not paid. Welby stated:

Maybe he [Lord Freud] has different figures but those were certainly the figures we kept in the churches… We are very strict about our statistics and we don’t just hand out food – you have to be referred. [84]

Before Christmas 2013, Welby urged people to give 10% of what they spend at Christmas to food banks. [85]

Modern slavery

Welby condemns modern slavery as a crime against humanity. [86] He joined with Pope Francis and leaders of other faiths, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish and Muslim, in a joint declaration they would work together aiming to end modern slavery by 2020. Forced labour and prostitution, human trafficking and organ trade were specifically mentioned but all relationships that do not respect human equality, freedom and dignity were condemned. [87]

Persecution of Christians

Welby is concerned that Christians are persecuted in some parts of the world, notably in the Middle East, and fears that some risk their lives going to church. [65] Welby also noted that Christians and other religious minorities were made to suffer terribly and were killed in Iraq, which violates article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Welby noted that Christians and other minorities face persecution for their faith in many areas worldwide, he cited Syria, South Sudan, and the Central African Republic among others. Welby urged the United Kingdom to open doors to refugees. [88]

Sexuality and same-sex marriage

In March 2013, Welby stated that "My understanding of sexual ethics has been that, regardless of whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong." [89] [90] He reiterated this belief again later in 2013, further noting that "To abandon the ideal simply because it’s difficult to achieve is ridiculous." [91]

Welby does not unequivocally affirm the Church of England's historic opposition to same-sex marriage. [92] At his first press conference he spoke out strongly against homophobia and stated that he is "always averse to the language of exclusion, when what we are called to is to love in the same way as Jesus Christ loves us." He also said "I know I need to listen very attentively to the LGBT [ lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ] communities, and examine my own thinking prayerfully and carefully." [93] Prior to his enthronement he stated that he did not have doubts about the church's policy in opposing same-sex marriages but remained "challenged as to how we respond to it". "You see gay relationships that are just stunning in the quality of the relationship", he said, adding that he had "particular friends where I recognise that and am deeply challenged by it". [94]

Welby sees problems with special services of blessing for same-sex couples, saying in 2014 "There is great fear among some, here and round the world, that that will lead to the betrayal of our traditions, to the denial of the authority of scripture, to apostasy, not to use too strong a word and there is also a great fear that our decisions will lead us to the rejection of LGBT people, to irrelevance in a changing society, to behaviour that many see akin to racism. Both those fears are alive and well in this room today [a General Synod meeting in London]. We have to find a way forward that is one of holiness and obedience to the call of God and enables us to fulfil our purposes. This cannot be done through fear. How we go forward matters deeply, as does where we arrive". [95]

Welby has shown some openness to accepting same sex marriage. In an interview with Stephen Noll in May 2018, Archbishop Welby was asked if same sex activity was sinful, and declined to give a clear answer, saying "I don’t do blanket condemnation and I haven’t got a good answer to the question. I’ll be really honest about that. I know I haven’t got a good answer to the question. Inherently, within myself, the things that seem to me to be absolutely central are around faithfulness, stability of relationships and loving relationships." When asked if a loving stable relationship could be between two people of the same sex, Welby responded saying "I know it could be.".

Iwerne camps and John Smyth QC abuse

Welby's early grounding in Christian doctrine was rooted in the ‘Bash Camp’ network founded by Eric Nash. [96] Welby became a dormitory officer at the camps held in the Dorset village of Iwerne Minster. [97] The chairman of the Iwerne Trust (now operating as Titus Trust) in the late 1970s was John Smyth QC, a prominent evangelical and lawyer who had acted regularly for Mary Whitehouse. From 1978–81, Smyth allegedly carried out a series of brutal beatings on boys and undergraduates, recorded in a report written by Canon Mark Ruston in February 1982. [98]

John Smyth was described by Welby in 2017 as “charming” and “delightful” [99] and they swapped Christmas cards for some years in the 1990s. In 1978 Welby left the UK to work in Paris, and Welby stated that "I had no contact with them at all". It later materialised that Welby had attended the camp in this period and had continued to receive the camp newsletter. [100] Andrew Atherstone in the biography, Risk Taker and Reconciler, describes Welby as having been “involved in the camps as an undergraduate … businessman and theological college student in the 1980s and early 1990s.” [101]

In 2012 a victim of Smyth reported the abuse to the Church of England and Welby was informed in 2013. The Archbishop maintained that this was the first he had heard of the abuse by his old friend. [102] The New York Times on 14 October 2017 quoted a senior Church of England figure as saying that “all senior members of the trust, including officers like Archbishop Welby, had been made aware of the allegations against Mr Smyth, even those who had been abroad”. Questions have remained among Smyth victims as to when Welby first knew, and some have labelled the Archbishop an “observer,” a term denoting a person who knew about abuse but who did not report appropriately. [103] The Archbishop has said that he was not part of the inner circle of Smyth's friends and is on the record as saying that survivors must come first, not the Church's own interests. [104]

Personal life

Welby is married to Caroline (née Eaton) and they have had six children. In 1983, their seven-month-old daughter, Johanna, died in a car crash in France. [1] Referring to the tragedy, Welby explained, "It was a very dark time for my wife Caroline and myself, but in a strange way it actually brought us closer to God." [105] Welby established a special day for bereaved parents at Coventry Cathedral where there is now an annual service commemorating the lives of children who have died. [106]

His daughter Katharine has had mental health issues, while another daughter Ellie has learning disabilities. [107]

Welby acknowledges his privileged education and upbringing and has been praised for sending his own children to local state schools. [108]

Welby revealed in 2013 that he spent much of his childhood learning the theorbo, a plucked string instrument. Upon his appointment as Archbishop of Canterbury, Welby stated that he most missed being able to take part in amateur baroque orchestra performances. He still plays in private and has previously put on and performed at a number of theorbo recitals at Durham Cathedral whilst still Bishop of Durham. [109]

Welby is a French speaker and Francophile, having lived and worked in France. [106] An announcement about his appointment as Bishop of Durham listed his hobbies as "most things French and sailing". [106] [110]

Styles

  • Master Justin Welby (1956–1974)
  • Mr. Justin Welby (1974–1992)
  • The Reverend Justin Welby (1992–2002)
  • The Reverend Canon Justin Welby (2002–2007)
  • The Very Reverend Justin Welby (2007–2011)
  • The Right Reverend Justin Welby (personal: 2011–2013)
  • His Lordship The Right Reverend The Lord Bishop of Durham (office: 2011–2013)
  • The Most Reverend Justin Welby (personal: 4 – 12 February 2013) [44]
  • The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Justin Welby (personal: 12 February 2013 – present)
  • His Grace The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Justin Welby, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England (2013 – present)

Arms

Coat of arms of Justin Welby
Coat of arms of Justin Welby, 105th Archbishop of Canterbury.svg
Crest
(not applicable to prelates)
Escutcheon
Sable a Fess between three Fleurs-de-lys Argent
Motto
Per ignem per gladium (Latin for "By fire by sword")

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Church of England titles
Preceded by
Rupert Hoare
Dean of Liverpool
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Pete Wilcox
Preceded by
N. T. Wright
Bishop of Durham
2011–2013
Succeeded by
Paul Butler
Preceded by
Rowan Williams
Archbishop of Canterbury
2013–present
Incumbent
Order of precedence in England and Wales
Preceded by
Prince Michael of Kent
Gentlemen
as Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
Robert Buckland
as Lord Chancellor