|Archbishop of Canterbury|
|Church||Church of England|
|Appointed||31 May 1961|
|Other posts||Primate of All England|
|Ordination||23 September 1928 (deacon) |
22 September 1929 (priest)
by Albert David
|Consecration||29 September 1952 (bishop) |
by Cyril Garbett
|Birth name||Arthur Michael Ramsey|
|Born||14 November 1904|
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
|Died||23 April 1988 83) (aged|
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
|Parents||Arthur Stanley Ramsey & Agnes Wilson|
|Previous post|| Bishop of Durham (1952-1956)|
Archbishop of York (1956-1961)
Arthur Michael Ramsey, Baron Ramsey of Canterbury,(14 November 1904 – 23 April 1988) was an English Anglican bishop and life peer. He served as the 100th Archbishop of Canterbury. He was appointed on 31 May 1961 and held the office until 1974, having previously been appointed Bishop of Durham in 1952 and the Archbishop of York in 1956.
He was known as a theologian, educator, and advocate of Christian unity.
Ramsey was born in Cambridge, England in 1904. His parents were Arthur Stanley Ramsey (1867–1954) and Mary Agnes Ramsey née Wilson (1875–1927); his father was a Congregationalist and mathematician and his mother was a socialist and suffragette.He was educated at Sandroyd School, Wiltshire, King's College School, Cambridge, Repton School (where the headmaster was a future Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Francis Fisher) and Magdalene College, Cambridge, where his father was president of the college. At university he was president of the Cambridge Union Society and his support for the Liberal Party won him praise from H. H. Asquith.
Ramsey's elder brother, Frank P. Ramsey (1903–1930), was a mathematician and philosopher (of atheist convictions).He was something of a prodigy who, when only 19, translated Wittgenstein's Tractatus into English.
During his time in Cambridge, Ramsey came under the influence of the Anglo-Catholic dean of Corpus Christi College, Edwyn Clement Hoskyns. On the advice of Eric Milner-White he trained at Cuddesdon, where he became friends with Austin Farrer and was introduced to Orthodox Christian ideas by Derwas Chitty.He graduated in 1927 with a First-class degree in Theology.
Ramsey was ordained in 1928 and became a curate in Liverpool, where he was influenced by Charles Raven.
After this he became a lecturer to ordination candidates at the Bishop's Hostel in Lincoln. During this time he published a book, The Gospel and the Catholic Church (1936). He then ministered at St Botolph's Church, Boston and at St Bene't's Church, Cambridge, before being offered a canonry at Durham Cathedral and the Van Mildert Chair of Divinity in the Department of Theology at Durham University. After this, in 1950, he became the Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge, but left to become a bishop after only a short time in office.
Ramsey married Joan A. C. Hamilton (1910–1995) at Durham in the early summer of 1942.
In 1952, he was appointed Bishop of Durham. He was consecrated a bishop by Cyril Garbett, Archbishop of York, at York Minster on Michaelmas (29 September) that year(by which his election to the See of Durham must have already been confirmed). In 1956 he became Archbishop of York and, in 1961, Archbishop of Canterbury. During his time as archbishop he travelled widely and saw the creation of the General Synod. Retirement ages for clergy were cut from 75 to 70.
In a lecture on Ramsey, John Macquarrie asked, “what kind of theologian was he?” and answered that “he was thoroughly Anglican.” Macquarrie explained that Ramsey's theology is (1) “based on the scriptures”, (2) the church's “tradition”, and (3) “reason and conscience”. Ramsey held to the Anglo-Catholic tradition, but he appreciated other points of view. This was especially true after he became a bishop who ministered to diverse Anglicans.
As an Anglo-Catholic with a nonconformist background, Ramsey had a broad religious outlook. He had a particular regard for the Eastern Orthodox concept of "glory", and his favourite book he had written was his 1949 work The Transfiguration.
Ramsey's first reaction to J. A. T. Robinson's Honest to God (1963) was hostile.However, he soon published a short response entitled Image Old and New, in which he engaged seriously with Robinson's ideas.
Conscious always of the atheism which his short-lived brother Frank had espoused, he maintained a lifelong respect for honest unbelief, and considered that such unbelief would not automatically be a barrier to salvation.Acting on his respect for beliefs other than his, Ramsey made a barefoot visit to the grave of Mahatma Gandhi.
Although he disagreed with a lot of Karl Barth's thinking, his relations with him were warm.
Following observations of a religious mission at Cambridge, he had an early dislike of evangelists and mass rallies, which he feared relied too much on emotion. This led him to be critical of Billy Graham, although the two later became friends and Ramsey even took to the stage at a Graham rally in Rio de Janeiro.One of his later books, The Charismatic Christ (1973), engaged with the charismatic movement.
Ramsey believed there was no decisive theological argument against women priests, although he was not entirely comfortable with this development. The first women priests in the Anglican Communion were ordained during his time as Archbishop of Canterbury.In retirement he received communion from a woman priest in the United States.
Ramsey was active in the ecumenical movement, and while Archbishop of Canterbury in 1966 he met Pope Paul VI in Rome, where the Pope presented him with the episcopal (bishop's) ring he had worn as Archbishop of Milan.The two prelates issued “The Common Declaration by Pope Paul VI and the Archbishop of Canterbury Dr Michael Ramsey”. In it they said that their meeting “marks a new stage in the development of fraternal relations, based upon Christian charity, and of sincere efforts to remove the causes of conflict and to re-establish unity.”
Ramsey preached at the Roman Catholic St Patrick's Cathedral in New York City in 1972. It was the first time that a leader of the Anglican Communion had done so.However, while fostering ties with the Roman Catholic Church, Ramsey criticised the Pope's 1968 encyclical Humanae Vitae against birth control.
These warm relations with Rome caused Ramsey to be dogged by protests by fundamentalist Protestants, particularly Ian Paisley.
Ramsey encouraged efforts to promote closer relations between Anglicans and Orthodox.He enjoyed friendship with the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras, and Alexius, Patriarch of Moscow.
As Archbishop of Canterbury, Ramsey served as president of the World Council of Churches (1961–68).However, he opposed the granting of aid money by the World Council of Churches to guerrilla groups.
Ramsey's willingness to talk to officially sanctioned churches in the Eastern Bloc led to criticisms from Richard Wurmbrand.
He also supported efforts to unite the Church of England with the Methodist Church and was disappointed when the plans fell through.
Before entering the clergy, Michael Ramsey had participated in the Liberal Party. In 1925, Ramsey traveled with the debate club and spoke at multiple venues in the United States. Upon his return, he heard a Liberal Party leader, Lord Hugh Cecil remark that the Church was the place to go for those who wanted to help people, and Ramsey heard that as his vocation from God. He had sympathies with liberal politics for the rest of his life and admired H. H. Asquith.He became close friends with party leader Jeremy Thorpe. Ramsey and his wife Joan were godparents of Thorpe's son Rupert, whom Ramsey baptized in 1969, and Ramsey officiated at Thorpe's second marriage to Marion Stein. Both Ramsey and Thorpe had lost family members to car collisions: Ramsey's mother in 1927 and Thorpe's first wife Caroline in 1970.
Ramsey disliked the power of the government over the church. "Establishment has never been one of my enthusiasms," he said, and "he was not at ease with the royal family."He supported the decriminalisation of homosexuality in the 1960s, which brought him enemies in the House of Lords.
In 1965, "he outraged right-wingers when he declared that under certain circumstances, there would be Christian justice in using British troops to overthrow the white-minority regime [of Ian Smith] in Rhodesia."This was responded to by a government member saying: "This is a fine time to sing 'Onward Christian soldiers, shoot your kith and kin.'". He also called the Vietnam War a "futility". Regarding Africa, Ramsey opposed curbs on immigration to the UK of Kenyan Asians, which he saw as a betrayal by Britain of a promise. He was against apartheid, and he left an account of a very frosty encounter with John Vorster. In 1970, Ramsey attacked apartheid, saying that it was "being increased by more ruthless actions” and describing it as an "abuse of power at the expense of others". He was also a critic of the Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
After retiring as Archbishop of Canterbury on 15 November 1974he was created a life peer, as Baron Ramsey of Canterbury, of Canterbury in Kent, enabling him to remain in the House of Lords where he had previously sat as one of the Lords Spiritual.
Although retired, Ramsey remained active, "a fact reflected in his writing of four books and numerous additional undertakings".
He went to live first at Cuddesdon, where he did not settle particularly well, then for a number of years in Durham, where he was regularly seen in the cathedral and talking to students. But the hills were rather steep for him and he and Lady Ramsey accepted the offer of a flat at Bishopthorpe in York by his successor John Habgood. They stayed there just over a year, moving finally to St John's Home, attached to the All Saints' Sisters in Cowley, Oxford, where he died in April 1988.
During his retirement, he also spent several terms at Nashotah House, an Anglo-Catholic seminary of the Episcopal Church in Wisconsin where he was much beloved by students. A first-floor flat was designated "Lambeth West" for his personal use. A stained-glass window in the Chapel, bears his image and the same inscription as is on the memorial near his grave.The window (placed in the chapel by the class of 1976 who were among his first students at Nashotah) also includes a miniature image of the Bishop and his wife Joan. Ramsey Hall at Nashotah House was named in his honor, and is a residence for students and families. The Board of Directors of Nashotah House also presents, from time to time, the Michael Ramsey award for distinguished mission or ecumenical service in the Anglican Communion.
Ramsey's funeral was held in Canterbury Cathedral on 3 May. He was cremated and his ashes buried in the cloister garden at the cathedral, not far from the grave of William Temple. His wife's ashes were also buried there. On the memorial stone are inscribed words from St Irenaeus: "The Glory of God is the living man; And the life of man is the vision of God." A side chapel at Canterbury Cathedral was subsequently dedicated to Ramsey's memory, situated next to a similar memorial chapel to Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher.Ramsey had no children. Lady Ramsey died on 17 February 1995 and was buried alongside her husband.
During his life, “Ramsey was a Life Peer and received innumerable honors. He was an honorary fellow of Magdalene College and Selwyn College, Cambridge, and of Merton College, Keble College, and St Cross College, Oxford. He was honorary master of the bench, Inner Temple (1962); trustee of the British Museum (1963–1969); and honorary Fellow of the British Academy (1983). He held honorary degrees from Durham, Leeds, Edinburgh, Cambridge, Hull, Manchester, London, Oxford, Kent, and Keele and from a number of overseas universities.”
Regarding Ramsey's long-term legacy, Dr Sam Brewitt-Taylor, a historian at Lincoln College, University of Oxford,holds that “there is much more historical and theoretical work to be done before Ramsey’s legacy can be properly ascertained.”
Ramsey's name has been given to Ramsey House, a residence of St Chad's College, University of Durham. He was a Fellow and Governor of the college (resident for a period) and he regularly worshipped and presided at the college's daily Eucharist. A building is also named after him at Canterbury Christ Church University. A house at Tenison's School is named in his honour. He also gave his name to the former Archbishop Michael Ramsey Technology College (from September 2007 St Michael and All Angels Church of England Academy) in Farmers' Road, Camberwell, South East London.
An annual Michael Ramsey Lecture on an appropriate theological topic is delivered at Little St Mary's, Cambridge in early November.
In October 2009 it was reported by Maev Kennedy that two divers had found a number of gold and silver items in the River Wear in Durham which were subsequently discovered to have come from Ramsey's personal collection, including items presented to him from dignitaries around the world while he was Archbishop of Canterbury. It is unclear how they came to be in the river. The divers were licensed by the dean and chapter of the cathedral as the owners of the land around the stretch of the river where the items were found. The current legal ownership of the items is yet to be determined. The cathedral was planning an exhibition relating to Ramsey's life in 2010 and a new stained glass window dedicated to himby artist Tom Denny.
The two amateur divers, brothers Gary and Trevor Bankhead, found a total of 32 religious artefacts in the River Wear in Durham during a full underwater survey of the area around Prebends Bridge. The underwater survey commenced in April 2007 and took two and half years to complete. The finds were individually handed over to the resident archaeologist from Durham Cathedral to formally record where and when they were found.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth, is a Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet. He was the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, a position he held from December 2002 to December 2012. Previously the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales, Williams was the first Archbishop of Canterbury in modern times not to be appointed from within the Church of England.
Frederick Donald Coggan, Baron Coggan, was the 101st Archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980. As Archbishop of Canterbury, he "revived morale within the Church of England, opened a dialogue with Rome and supported women's ordination". He had previously been successively the Bishop of Bradford and the Archbishop of York.
Geoffrey Francis Fisher, Baron Fisher of Lambeth, was an English Anglican priest, and 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, serving from 1945 to 1961.
Nashotah House is an American theological seminary in Nashotah, Wisconsin, in the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism. The seminary opened in 1842 and received its official charter in 1847. The institution is independent and generally regarded as one of the more theologically conservative seminaries in the Episcopal Church. It is also officially recognized by the Anglican Church in North America. Its campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017.
John Geoffrey Inge is a bishop in the Church of England. He is currently the Bishop of Worcester in the Diocese of Worcester. From 2003 to 2007, he was Bishop of Huntingdon, a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Ely.
St John's College, Nottingham, founded as the London College of Divinity, was an Anglican and interdenominational theological college situated in Bramcote, Nottingham, England. The college stood in the open evangelical tradition and stated that its mission is "to inspire creative Christian learning marked by evangelical conviction, theological excellence and Spirit-filled life, that all who train with us might be equipped for mission in a world of change".
Michael Geoffrey St Aubyn Jackson is a Church of Ireland Anglican bishop. Since 2011, he has served as the Archbishop of Dublin and Bishop of Glendalough in the Church of Ireland. He is also the co-chairman of the Porvoo Communion of Anglican and Lutheran churches.
Stephen George Platten, FSA is a retired Anglican bishop. He was the last diocesan Bishop of Wakefield in the Church of England. He was consecrated in this role on 19 July 2003 and immediately prior to that was Dean of Norwich from 1995. He was installed at Wakefield Cathedral on 19 July 2003.
Westcott House is an Anglican theological college based on Jesus Lane in the centre of the university city of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. Its main activity is training people for ordained ministry in the Church of England and other Anglican churches. Westcott House is a founding member of the Cambridge Theological Federation. The college is considered by many to be Liberal Catholic in its tradition, but it accepts ordinands from a range of traditions in the Church of England.
The Van Mildert Professor of Divinity is one of the oldest chairs at Durham University. The chair is named in honour of Bishop William Van Mildert, one of the founders of the university. The holder of the Van Mildert chair, which is jointly funded by the university and Durham Cathedral, is also a residentiary canon at the cathedral and member of its Chapter, thus one of the requirements of post holder is to be an Anglican priest or a minister in another church in communion with Church of England.
Frank Weston (1871–1924) was the Anglican Bishop of Zanzibar from 1907 until his death 16 years later.
Kenneth John Woollcombe was an Anglican academic who was Bishop of Oxford in the middle part of his career, from 1971 to 1978.
Michael Francis Perham was a British Anglican bishop. From 2004 to 2014, he served as the Bishop of Gloucester in the Church of England.
Stephen David Conway SCP is a British Anglican bishop. Since December 2010, he has been the Bishop of Ely. From 2006 to 2010, he was the Bishop of Ramsbury, an area bishop and then suffragan bishop of the Diocese of Salisbury.
Charles Harold Wilfred de Soysa MA (1907-1971) was the first Ceylonese Anglican Bishop of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Allan Becher Webb was the second Anglican Bishop of Bloemfontein, afterward Bishop of Grahamstown and, later, Dean of Salisbury.
Josiah Atkins Idowu-Fearon is a Nigerian Anglican bishop. Since 2015, he has been Secretary General of the Anglican Consultative Council. He was previously the Bishop of Kaduna diocese and the Archbishop of the Province of Kaduna in the Church of Nigeria.
Samuel Martin Bailey Wells is an English priest of the Church of England. Since 2012, he has been the vicar of St Martin-in-the-Fields in central London, and Visiting Professor of Christian Ethics at King’s College London. In 2018, he was installed as Honorary Canon Theologian of Guildford Cathedral.
Arthur Macdonald "Donald" Allchin, published as A. M. Allchin, was a British Anglican priest and theologian. He was librarian of Pusey House, Oxford, from 1960 to 1969, a residentiary canon of Canterbury Cathedral from 1973 to 1987, and programme director of the St Theosevia Centre for Christian Spirituality in Oxford from 1987 to 1996.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Michael Ramsey .|
Charles E. Raven
| Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge |
|Church of England titles|
| Bishop of Durham |
| Archbishop of York |
| Archbishop of Canterbury |