Gerard (archbishop of York)

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  1. An anti-pope is a clergyman elected alongside an already elected pope, usually because of a contested election. The period from 1059 to 1179 was a period when there were numerous antipopes; in 75 of those 120 years there were at least two claimants to the papal throne. [8]
  2. Paschal II's letter to the Scottish bishops is the earliest known papal letter to Scotland. [22]
  3. Olaf had been in exile in England and is likely to have met Gerard there. [23]
  4. Priestly celibacy was not enforced with any rigour until the 12th century; most clergy of the 11th century would have been sons of priests. [30] Nor was it required that all cathedral clergy be ordained priests, they could have only taken vows for one of the lower orders of the clergy, such as the subdeaconate or deaconate. [31]
  5. This collection was made about 1200 at Rufford Abbey in Nottinghamshire. [38] and includes five poems by Gerard, all on folio 61 of the manuscript. [39]


  1. 1 2 3 Greenway "Archbishops" Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: Volume 6: York
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Burton "Gerard" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  3. Barlow William Rufus p. 409
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Barrow "Bishops" Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066–1300: Volume 8: Hereford
  5. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 83
  6. Douglas William the Conqueror p. 359
  7. Barlow William Rufus p. 96
  8. Southern Western Society and the Church p. 155
  9. Vaughn Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan pp. 186–189
  10. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 250
  11. Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 378
  12. Barlow William Rufus p. 420
  13. Cantor Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture pp. 135–136
  14. Green Henry I p. 43
  15. 1 2 Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 281
  16. Vaughn Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan p. 222 footnote 36
  17. Hollister Henry I pp. 135–136
  18. Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 43
  19. Vaughn Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan p. 239
  20. Barlow English Church 1066–1154 pp. 299–300
  21. Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 301
  22. Broun "Church of St. Andrews" Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland p. 113
  23. 1 2 Watt "Bishops of the Isles" Innes Review pp. 110–111
  24. 1 2 3 4 Cantor Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture pp. 238–249
  25. Green Henry I pp. 61–62
  26. Cantor Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture pp. 166–167
  27. Nicholl Thurstan p. 26
  28. Vaughn Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan pp. 334–336
  29. 1 2 Nicholl Thurstan pp. 43–44
  30. Hamilton Religion in the Medieval West p. 40
  31. Hamilton Religion in the Medieval West p. 34
  32. Nicholl Thurstan p. 114
  33. 1 2 Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 72
  34. Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 247
  35. 1 2 Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 259
  36. 1 2 Sharpe Handlist of Latin Writers pp. 137–138
  37. Staff "Full Description: Cotton Titus D.xxiv" Manuscripts Catalogue
  38. Mozley "Collection of Mediaeval Latin Verse" Medium Aevum p. 1
  39. Mozley "Collection of Mediaeval Latin Verse" Medium Aevum pp. 8–9

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Further reading

Archbishop of York
AppointedDecember 1100
Term ended21 May 1108
Predecessor Thomas of Bayeux
Successor Thomas II of York
Consecration8 June 1096
by  Anselm
Personal details
Died21 May 1108
Buried York Minster
ParentsOsbert and Anna
Previous post(s)
Lord Chancellor
In office
Political offices
Preceded by Lord Chancellor
Succeeded by
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Bishop of Hereford
Succeeded by
Preceded by Archbishop of York
Succeeded by