Bishop of Hereford
|Residence||The Palace, Hereford|
|Cathedral||St Mary's and St Ethelbert's, Hereford|
The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.
The episcopal see is centred in the City of Hereford where the bishop's seat ( cathedra ) is in the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary and Saint Ethelbert. The diocese was founded for the minor sub-kingdom of the Magonsæte in 676. It now covers the whole of the county of Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes in Worcestershire, Powys and Monmouthshire. The arms of the see are gules, three leopard's faces reversed jessant-de-lys or, which were the personal arms of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe (d.1282).
Until 1534 the Diocese of Hereford was in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church and two of its bishops were canonised. During the English Reformation the bishops of England and Wales conformed to the independent Church of England under Henry VIII and Edward VI, but, under Mary I, they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the accession of Elizabeth I the diocese has again been part of the Church of England and Anglican Communion.
The current bishop is Richard Jackson.The bishop's residence is The Palace, Hereford.
Note: The chronology prior to 1056 is partly conjectural.
|Anglo-Saxon Bishops of Hereford|
|676||676 x 688||Putta||Formerly Bishop of Rochester (669–676). As the refounder of Hereford Cathedral, he was recorded as Bishop of Uuestor Elih, although may not have actually held the office of Bishop of Hereford, but was considered to have been such by c. 800.|
|688||705 x 710||Tyrhtel||Also recorded as Thyrtell or Tirhtullus.|
|710||727 x 731||Torhthere||Also recorded as Torchtere;Tortherus.|
|727 x 731||731 x 736||Walhstod||Also recorded as Walchstod; Walstodus; Wastoldus.Formerly Abbot of Glastonbury.|
|736||740||Cuthbert||Also recorded as Cuthbeorht. Abbot of Lyminge. Translated to Canterbury.|
|741||747 x 758||Podda|
|747 x 758||758 x 770||Acca||Also recorded as Ecca.|
|758 x 770||770 x 777||Headda||Also recorded as Ceadda.|
|777 x 778||781 x 786||Aldberht||Also recorded as Aaldberht; Albertus; Alberus; Ealdbeorht.|
|781 x 786||786 x 788||Esne||Also recorded as Esna.|
|786 x 788||793 x 798||Ceolmund||Also recorded as Celmundus; Celmund.|
|793 x 798||799 x 801||Utel||Also recorded as Utellus.|
|799 x 801||822 x 824||Wulfheard||Also recorded as Wulfhard; Wulfehard.|
|824||825 x 832||Beonna||Also recorded as Benna.|
|825 x 832||836 x 839||Eadwulf||Also recorded as Eadulf; Edulph.|
|836 x 839||857 x 866||Cuthwulf||Also recorded as Cuthwolf.|
|857 x 866||857 x 866||Mucel||Also recorded as Mucellus.|
|857 x 866||884 x 888||Deorlaf|
|888||888 x 890||Cynemund||Also recorded as Cunemund; Ceynemundus.|
|888 x 890||930 or 931||Edgar||Also recorded as Eadgar.|
|930 or 931||934 or 937 x 940||Tidhelm|
|934 or 937 x 940||934 or 937 x 940||Wulfhelm||Also recorded as Wulfehelm.|
|934 or 937 x 940||949 x 958 or 971||Ælfric|
|? x 971||1013 x ?||Athulf||Also recorded as Æthelwulf. Formerly a monk of Old Minster, Winchester.|
|1013 x 1016||1056||Æthelstan||Died in office on 10 February 1056.|
|March 1056||June 1056||Leofgar||Also recorded as Leovegard. Previously chaplain to Harold Godwinson. Consecrated in March 1056. Died in office on 16 June 1056. Canonised Saint Leovegard.|
|1056||1061||Ealdred||Also Bishop of Worcester (1044–1062) and Archbishop of York (1061–1069).|
|Bishops of Hereford from the Norman conquest to the Reformation|
|1061||1079||Walter||Also recorded as Walter of Lotharingia. Formerly chaplain to Queen Edith. Consecrated on 15 April 1061. Died in office.|
|1079||1095||Robert de Losinga||Also recorded as Robert of Lorraine; Robert the Lotharingian. Probably formerly a canon of Liège. Consecrated on 29 December 1079. Died in office on 26 June 1095.|
|1096||1100||Gerard||Previously Lord Chancellor of England (1085–92). Consecrated on 15 June 1096. Translated to York in April 1100.|
|1102||Roger (bishop-elect)||Formerly larderer to King Henry I. Invested with the bishopric on 29 September 1102, but within a week died without consecration.|
|1107||1115||Reynelm||Also recorded as Reinhelm; Reinelm. Formerly Chancellor to the Queen Matilda, wife of King Henry I. Invested with the bishopric, probably after Christmas 1102, but resigned it to the king before 29 March 1103. Consecrated on 11 August 1107. Died in office on 27 or 28 October 1115.|
|1115||1119||Geoffrey de Clive||Also recorded as Geoffrey de Clyve. Formerly chaplain to King Henry I. Consecrated on 26 December 1115. Died in office on 2 or 3 February 1119.|
|1121||1127||Richard de Capella||Formerly keeper of the king's seal under the Lord Chancellor. Elected on 7 January and consecrated on 16 January 1121. Died in office on 15 August 1127.|
|1131||1148||Robert de Bethune||Also recorded as Robert de Betun. Formerly Prior of Llanthony. Consecrated on 28 June 1131. Died in office on 16 April 1148.|
|1148||1163||Gilbert Foliot||Formerly Abbot of Gloucester (1139–48). Consecrated on 5 September 1148. Translated to London on 6 March 1163.|
|1163||1167||Robert of Melun||Formerly Prior of Llanthony. Consecrated on 22 December 1163. Died in office on 27 February 1167.|
|1174||1186||Robert Foliot||Formerly Archdeacon of Oxford (1151–74). Elected in late April 1173 and consecrated on 6 October 1174. Died in office on 9 May 1186.|
|1186||1198||William de Vere||Formerly a prebendary of St Paul's, London. Elected circa 25 May and consecrated on 10 August 1186. Died in office in 1198.|
|1200||1215||Giles de Braose||Also recorded as Giles de Bruse. Elected before 19 September and consecrated on 24 September 1200. Died in office before 18 November 1215.|
|1216||1219||Hugh de Mapenor||Also recorded as Hugh de Mapenore. Formerly Dean of Hereford (1207–16). Elected on 3 February, received possession of the temporalities on 9 December, and consecrated on 18 December 1216. Died in office on 16 April 1219.|
|1219||1234||Hugh Foliot||Formerly Archdeacon of Shropshire (1178–19). Elected in June, received possession of the temporalities on 2 July, and consecrated on 27 October 1219. Died in office on 7 August 1234.|
|1234||1239||Ralph de Maidstone||Also recorded as Ralph Maidstone. Formerly Dean of Hereford (1231–34). Elected sometime between 21 August and 30 September and consecrated on 12 November 1234. Resigned on 17 December 1239 and died on 27 January 1245.|
|1239||1240||Michael (bishop-elect)||Canon of Lichfield. Elected by the chapter of Hereford, but it was quashed in August 1240.|
|1240||1268||Peter of Aigueblanche||Also recorded as Peter de Egueblank, Peter de Egeblaunch; Peter of Savoy; Peter D'Aquablanca. Formerly Archdeacon of Shropshire (1240). Elected on 24 August, received possession of the temporalities on 6 September, and consecrated on 23 December 1240. Died in office on 27 November 1268.|
|1269||1275||John de Breton||Also recorded as John Breton. Elected circa 6 January, received possession of the temporalities on 20 April, and consecrated on 2 June 1269. Died in office on 12 May 1275.|
|1275||1282||Thomas de Cantilupe||Previously Lord Chancellor of England (1264–65). Elected on 14 June, received possession of the temporalities on 26 June, and consecrated on 8 September 1275. Died in office on 25 August 1282. Canonized Saint Thomas de Cantilupe by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320.|
|1283||1317||Richard Swinefield||Also recorded as Richard de Swinfield. Elected on 1 October 1282, received possession of the temporalities on 8 January 1283, and consecrated on 7 March 1283. Died in office on 15 March 1317.|
|1317||1327||Adam Orleton||Appointed on 15 May, consecrated on 22 May, and received possession of the temporalities on 24 July 1317. Also Lord Treasurer (1327). Translated to Worcester on 25 September 1327.|
|1327||1344||Thomas Charleton||Previously Lord Privy Seal (1316–20). Appointed on 25 September, consecrated on 18 October, and received possession of the temporalities on 21 December 1327. Also was Lord Treasurer (1328) and Lord Chancellor of Ireland (1337–38). Died in office on 11 January 1344.|
|1344||1360||John Trilleck||Elected on 22 February, received possession of the temporalities on 29 March, and consecrated on 29 August 1344. Died in office on 20 November 1360.|
|1361||1369||Lewis de Charleton||Also recorded as Lewis Charlton. Formerly a canon of Hereford and Chancellor of Oxford University. Appointed on 10 September, consecrated on 3 October, and received possession of the temporalities on 14 November 1361. Died in office on 23 May 1369.|
|1370||1375||William Courtenay||Formerly a prebendary of York. Appointed on 17 August 1369, consecrated on 17 March 1370, and received possession of the temporalities on 19 March 1370. Translated to London on 12 September 1375.|
|1375||1389||John Gilbert||Translated from Bangor. Appointed on 12 September and received possession of the temporalities on 4 December 1375. Translated to St David's on 5 May 1389.|
|1389||1404||Thomas Trevenant||Also recorded as Thomas Treffnant & Trefnant. Formerly a canon of St Asaph and Lincoln. Appointed on 5 May, consecrated on 20 June, and received possession of the temporalities on 16 October 1389. Died in office on 29 March 1404.|
|1404||1416||Robert Mascall||Also recorded as Robert Maschal. Formerly confessor to the King Henry IV. Appointed on 2 July, consecrated on 6 July, and received possession of the temporalities on 25 September 1404. Died in office on 22 December 1416.|
|1417||1420||Edmund Lacey||Also recorded as Edmund Lacy. Formerly a canon of Windsor. Elected sometime between 21 January and 17 February, consecrated on 18 April, and received possession of the temporalities on 1 May 1417. Translated to Exeter on 15 July 1420.|
|1420||1421||Thomas Polton||Formerly Dean of York (1416–20). Appointed on 15 July, consecrated on 21 July, and received possession of the temporalities on 9 November 1420. Translated to Chichester on 17 November 1421.|
|1421||1448||Thomas Spofford||Formerly Abbot of St Mary's, York (1405–21) and Bishop-elect of Rochester (1421). Appointed on 18 November 1421, consecrated on 24 May 1422, and received possession of the temporalities on 25 May 1422. Resigned before 4 December 1448.|
|1448||1450||Richard Beauchamp||Formerly Archdeacon of Suffolk (c.1441–48). Appointed on 4 December 1448, received possession of the temporalities on 31 January 1449, and consecrated on 9 February 1449. Translated to Salisbury on 14 August 1450.|
|1450||1453||Reginald Boulers||Formerly Abbot of Gloucester (1437–50). Appointed on 18 September, received possession of the temporalities on 23 December 1450, and consecrated on 14 February 1451. Translated to Coventry & Lichfield on 7 February 1453.|
|1453||1474||John Stanberry||Also recorded as John Stanbury. Translated from Bangor. Appointed on 7 February and received possession of the temporalities on 26 March 1453. Died in office on 11 May 1474.|
|1474||1492||Thomas Mylling||Also known as Thomas Milling. Formerly Abbot of Westminster (1469–74). Appointed on 22 June, received possession of the temporalities on 15 August, and consecrated on 21 August 1474. Died in office before 12 January 1492.|
|1492||1502||Edmund Audley||Also recorded as Edmund Touchet. Translated from Rochester. Appointed on 22 June and received possession of the temporalities on 26 December 1492. Translated to Salisbury on 10 January 1502.|
|1502||1504||Adriano Castellesi||Not resident; also recorded as Adrian de Castello; Adriano of Castelli; Hadrian de Castello. Formerly a prebendary of St Paul's, London. Appointed on 14 February 1502, consecrated before May 1502, and received possession of the temporalities on before 8 August 1502. Translated to Bath & Wells on 4 August 1504.|
|1504||1516||Richard Mayew||Also recorded as Richard Mayeu; Richard Mayo. Appointed on 9 August, consecrated on 27 October, and received possession of the temporalities on 1 November 1504. Also was Vice-Chancellor (1484–85) and Chancellor (1502–06) of the University of Oxford, and President of Magdalen College, Oxford (1480–1507). Died in office on 18 April 1516.|
|Bishops of Hereford during the Reformation|
|1516||1535||Charles Booth||Formerly a prebendary of Lincoln. Appointed by Pope Leo X on 21 July 1516, consecrated on 30 November 1516, and received possession of the temporalities on 19 February 1517. Died in office on 5 May 1535.|
|1535||1538||Edward Foxe||Also recorded as Edward Fox. Nominated by King Henry VIII on 20 August, elected on 25 August, and consecrated on 26 September 1535. Also was Provost of King's College, Cambridge (1528–38). Died in office on 8 May 1538.|
|1538||1539||Edmund Bonner (bishop-elect)||Formerly Archdeacon of Leicester (1535–38). Nominated by King Henry VIII on 5 October, elected on 26 October, and confirmed on 17 December 1538. Without being consecrated translated to London in 1539.|
|1539||1552||John Skypp||Also recorded as John Skippe or Skip. Nominated by King Henry VIII on 13 October, elected on 24 October, and consecrated on 23 November 1539. Also was Archdeacon of Dorset. Died in office on 30 March 1552.|
|1553||1554||John Harley||Formerly a prebendary of Worcester. Nominated by King Edward VI on 26 March and consecrated on 26 May 1553. Deprived on 15 March 1554 for being married, and died 1558.|
|1554||1557||Robert Parfew||Also recorded as Robert Purfoy; Robert Wharton. Translated from St Asaph. Nominated by Queen Mary I on 17 March, confirmed by Pope Julius III on 6 July, and received possession of the temporalities on 24 April 1554. Died in office on 22 September 1557.|
|1558||Thomas Reynolds (bishop-elect)||Warden of Merton College, Oxford (1545–59) and Dean of Exeter (1554–58). Nominated by Queen Mary I before 7 November 1558, but set aside by Queen Elizabeth I. Died unconsecrated in Marshalsea Prison circa 1560.|
|Post-Reformation Bishops of Hereford|
|1559||1585||John Scory||Previously Bishop of Chichester (1552–53). Elected on 15 July and confirmed on 20 December 1559. Died in office on 25 June 1585.|
|1585||1602||Herbert Westfaling||Formerly a canon of Windsor. Nominated on 17 November 1585 and consecrated on 30 January 1586. Died in office on 1 March 1602.|
|1603||1617||Robert Bennet||Also recorded as Robert Bennett. Formerly Dean of Windsor (1595–1602). Nominated on 7 January and consecrated on 20 February 1603. Died in office on 20 October 1617.|
|1617||1633||Francis Godwin||Translated from Llandaff. Nominated on 10 November and confirmed in November 1617. Died in office before 29 April 1633.|
|1633||William Juxon||Formerly Dean of Worcester (1627–33). Election confirmed late July 1633. Without being consecrated translated to London on 23 October 1633.|
|1634||Augustine Lindsell||Translated from Peterborough. Elected on 7 March and confirmed on 24 March 1634. Died in office on 6 November 1634.|
|1634||1635||Matthew Wren||Nominated on 23 November 1634 and consecrated on 8 March 1635. Translated to Norwich on 5 December 1635.|
|1635||1636||Theophilus Feild||Translated from St David's. Nominated on 7 December and confirmed on 23 December 1635. Died in office on 2 June 1636.|
|1636||1646||George Coke||Also recorded as George Cook. Translated from Bristol. Nominated on 13 June and confirmed on 2 July 1636. Deprived of the see when the English episcopy was abolished by Parliament on 9 October 1646. Died on 10 December 1646.|
|1646||1660||The see was abolished during the Commonwealth and the Protectorate.|
|1660||1661||Nicholas Monck||Nominated on 29 November 1660 and consecrated on 6 January 1661. Also Provost of Eton (1660–61). Died in office on 17 December 1661.|
|1662||1691||Herbert Croft||Formerly a canon of Windsor (1641–62) and Dean of Hereford (1644–61). Elected on 21 January and consecrated on 9 February 1662. Died in office on 18 May 1691.|
|1691||1701||Gilbert Ironside||Translated from Bristol. Nominated on 22 April and confirmed on 29 July 1691. Died in office on 27 August 1701.|
|1701||1712||Humphrey Humphreys||Translated from Bangor. Nominated on 1 October and confirmed on 2 December 1701. Died in office on 20 November 1712.|
|1713||1721||Philip Bisse||Translated from St David's. Nominated on 26 January and confirmed on 16 February 1713. Died in office on 6 September 1721.|
|1721||1723||Benjamin Hoadly||Translated from Bangor. Nominated on 21 September and confirmed on 7 November 1721. Translated to Salisbury on 29 October 1723.|
|1723||1746||Henry Egerton||Formerly a canon of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Nominated on 27 August 1723 and consecrated on 2 February 1724. Died in office on 1 April 1746.|
|1746||1787||Lord James Beauclerk||Formerly a canon of Windsor. Nominated on 8 April and consecrated on 11 May 1746. Died in office on 20 October 1787.|
|1787||1788||John Harley||Formerly Dean of Windsor (1778–87). Nominated on 29 October and consecrated on 9 December 1787. Died in office on 9 January 1788.|
|1788||1802||John Butler||Translated from Oxford. Nominated on 23 January and confirmed on 28 February 1788. Died in office on 10 December 1802.|
|1802||1808||Folliott Cornewall||Translated from Bristol. Nominated on 18 December 1802 and confirmed on 28 January 1803. Translated to Worcester on 13 July 1808.|
|1808||1815||John Luxmoore||Translated from Bristol. Nominated on 13 July and confirmed on 23 August 1808. Translated to St Asaph on 20 June 1815.|
|1815||1832||George Huntingford||Translated from Gloucester. Nominated on 21 June and confirmed on 5 July 1815. Died in office on 29 April 1832.|
|1832||1837||Edward Grey||Formerly Dean of Hereford (1831–32). Nominated on 4 May and consecrated on 20 May 1832. Died in office in mid-1837.|
|1837||1847||Thomas Musgrave||Nominated on 5 August and consecrated on 1 October 1837. Translated to York on 10 December 1847.|
|1847||1868||Renn Hampden||Formerly a canon of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Nominated on 11 December 1847, confirmed on 11 January 1848, and consecrated on 26 March 1848. Died in office on 23 April 1868.|
|1868||1894||James Atlay||Formerly Vicar of Leeds. Nominated on 21 May and consecrated on 24 June 1868. Died in office on 24 December 1894.|
|1895||1917||John Percival||Formerly Headmaster of Clifton College. Nominated on 20 February and consecrated on 25 March 1895. Resigned on 31 October 1917 and died on 3 December 1918.|
|1917||1920||Hensley Henson||Nominated on 20 December 1917 and consecrated on 2 February 1918. Translated to Durham on 27 July 1920.|
|1920||1930||Linton Smith||Translated from Warrington. Nominated on 29 July and confirmed on 5 October 1920. Translated to Rochester on 5 November 1930.|
|1930||1941||Charles Lisle Carr||Translated from Coventry. Nominated on 17 November 1930 and confirmed on 20 January 1931. Resigned on 30 September 1941 and died on 2 February 1942.|
|1941||1948||Richard Parsons||Translated from Southwark. Nominated on 1 October and confirmed on 12 November 1941. Died in office 26 December 1948.|
|1949||1961||Tom Longworth||Translated from Pontefract. Nominated on 25 March and confirmed on 21 April 1949. Resigned on 15 November 1961 and died on 15 October 1977.|
|1961||1973||Mark Hodson||Translated from Taunton. Nominated on 21 November and confirmed on 20 December 1961. Resigned on 25 November 1973 and died 23 January 1985.|
|1973||1990||John Eastaugh||Nominated on 5 December 1973 and consecrated on 24 January 1974. Died in office 16 February 1990.|
|1990||2003||John Oliver||Formerly Archdeacon of Sherborne (1985–90). Nominated on 3 October 1990. Retired on 30 November 2003.|
|2004||2013||Anthony Priddis||Translated from Warwick. Nominated on 17 February 2004 and inaugurated on 26 June 2004. Retired on 24 September 2013.|
|17 October 2014||2019||Richard Frith||Translated from Hull; confirmed 17 October 2014; installed 22 November; retired 30 November 2019.|
|7 January 2020||present||Richard Jackson||Translated from Lewes.|
Among those who have served as assistant bishops of the diocese were:
Knowledge of the coats of arms of Bishops of Hereford is necessary for the identification of the patrons or instigators of building works, manuscripts, stained glass windows and other art-works, which frequently bear heraldic imagery with no further identifying marks. The following list of the blazons of the arms of the Bishops of Hereford (with his sources) was compiled by Rev. Francis T. Havergal (Vicar-Choral and Sub-Treasurer of Hereford Cathedral) in his Fasti Herefordenses of 1869;all arms before the start of the age of heraldry (c.1200-1215) are attributed arms, some, like de Vere, being the arms later adopted by his family:
Diaper is any of a wide range of decorative patterns used in a variety of works of art, such as stained glass, heraldic shields, architecture, and silverwork. Its chief use is in the enlivening of plain surfaces.
The lines of partition used to divide and vary fields and charges in heraldry are by default straight, but may have many different shapes. Care must sometimes be taken to distinguish these types of lines from the extremely unusual and non-traditional use of lines as charges, and to distinguish these shapes from actual charges, such as "a mount [or triple mount] in base," or, particularly in German heraldry, different kinds of embattled from castle walls.
Ordinaries in heraldry are sometimes embellished with stripes of colour alongside them, have lumps added to them, shown with their edges arciform instead of straight, have their peaks and tops chopped off, pushed up and down out of the usual positions, or even broken apart.
In heraldry, an ordinary is a simple geometrical figure, bounded by straight lines and running from side to side or top to bottom of the shield. There are also some geometric charges known as subordinaries, which have been given lesser status by some heraldic writers, though most have been in use as long as the traditional ordinaries. Diminutives of ordinaries and some subordinaries are charges of the same shape, though thinner. Most of the ordinaries are theoretically said to occupy one-third of the shield; but this is rarely observed in practice, except when the ordinary is the only charge.
In heraldry, impalement is a form of heraldic combination or marshalling of two coats of arms side by side in one divided heraldic shield or escutcheon to denote a union, most often that of a husband and wife, but also for unions of ecclesiastical, academic/civic and mystical natures. An impaled shield is bisected "in pale", that is by a vertical line.
In heraldry, an ordinary is described as quadrate when it has a square central boss.
The Diocese of Cape Town is a diocese of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa (ACSA) which presently covers central Cape Town, some of its suburbs and the island of Tristan da Cunha, though in the past it has covered a much larger territory. The Ordinary of the diocese is Archbishop of Cape Town and ex officio Primate and Metropolitan of the ACSA. His seat is St. George's Cathedral in Cape Town.
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image. The verb to blazon means to create such a description. The visual depiction of a coat of arms or flag has traditionally had considerable latitude in design, but a verbal blazon specifies the essentially distinctive elements. A coat of arms or flag is therefore primarily defined not by a picture but rather by the wording of its blazon. Blazon is also the specialized language in which a blazon is written, and, as a verb, the act of writing such a description. Blazonry is the art, craft or practice of creating a blazon. The language employed in blazonry has its own vocabulary, grammar and syntax, which becomes essential for comprehension when blazoning a complex coat of arms.
Clan Trotter is a Scottish clan of the Scottish Borders.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the heir of several of Europe's leading royal houses. In 1506, he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands, which came from his paternal grandmother, Mary of Burgundy. In 1516, Charles became the king of Spain, inheriting the kingdoms first united by his maternal grandparents, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Finally, on the death of his paternal grandfather in 1519, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, he inherited the Habsburg lands in central Europe and was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
In heraldry, a pile is a charge usually counted as one of the ordinaries. It consists of a wedge emerging from the upper edge of the shield and converging to a point near the base. If it touches the base, it is blazoned throughout.
In heraldry, a bar is an ordinary consisting of a horizontal band across the shield. If only one bar appears across the middle of the shield, it is termed a fess; if two or more appear, they can only be called bars. Calling the bar a diminutive of the fess is inaccurate, however, because two bars may each be no smaller than a fess. Like the fess, bars too may bear complex lines. The diminutive form of the bar is the barrulet, though these frequently appear in pairs, the pair termed a "bar gemel" rather than "two barrulets".
Sir Amyas Bampfylde of Poltimore and North Molton in Devon, England, was a Member of Parliament for Devon in 1597.
Coats of arms and seals of the County and Duchy of Cornwall, the Diocese of Truro, and of Cornish boroughs and towns.
Sir John III Chichester of Hall was Member of Parliament for Lostwithiel in Cornwall in 1624.
Hall is a large estate within the parish and former manor of Bishop's Tawton, Devon. It was for several centuries the seat of a younger branch of the prominent and ancient North Devon family of Chichester of Raleigh, near Barnstaple. The mansion house is situated about 2 miles south-east of the village of Bishop's Tawton and 4 miles south-east of Barnstaple, and sits on a south facing slope of the valley of the River Taw, overlooking the river towards the village of Atherington. The house and about 2,500 acres of surrounding land continues today to be owned and occupied by descendants, via a female line, of the Chichester family. The present Grade II* listed neo-Jacobean house was built by Robert Chichester between 1844 and 1847 and replaced an earlier building. Near the house to the south at the crossroads of Herner the Chichester family erected in the 1880s a private chapel of ease which contains mediaeval woodwork saved from the demolished Old Guildhall in Barnstaple.
Ash in the parish of Braunton in North Devon is a historic estate listed in the Domesday Book. The present mansion, known as The Ash Barton estate is a Grade II* listed building.
The House of Stratford is a British aristocratic family, originating in Stratford-on-Avon between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. The family has produced multiple titles, including Earl of Aldborough, Viscount Amiens, Baron Baltinglass, Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe and the Dugdale Baronets. The Viscount Powerscourt and Baron Wrottesley both claim descent from this House. Historic seats have included Farmcote Manor and Stratford Park in Gloucester, Merevale Hall in Warwickshire, Baltinglass Castle, Belan and Aldborough House in Ireland, and Stratford House in London, amongst many others. The house was at its most powerful in the fourteenth, sixteenth, and eighteenth centuries.
Clan Carruthers is a Lowland Scottish clan of the Scottish Borders headed by their Chief, Simon Peter Carruthers of Holmains and is recognised as such by the Lord Lyon King of Arms.
Thomas Rugge was a diarist and later compiler of 'Mercurius Politicus Redivivus'. The "Diurnall" of Thomas Rugge, which is preserved in the British Museum, corroborates Pepys in many ways.
MERCURIUS POLITICUS REDIVIVUS
or, A Collection of the most materiall occurrances and transactions
in Public Affairs since Anno Dni, 1659, untill
28 March 1672,
serving as an annuall diurnall for future satisfaction and
BY THOMAS RUGGE.
Est natura hominum novitatis avida.—Plinius.