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The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century.  Later, the title would be held for a time, by the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. During the French Revolution, in 1790, the county of Flanders was annexed to France and ceased to exist. In the 19th century, the title was appropriated by Belgium and granted twice to younger sons of Belgian kings. The most recent holder died in 1983. 
In 862 Baldwin I was appointed as the first Margrave of Flanders by King Charles II. It was a military appointment, responsible for repelling the Viking raids from the coast of Francia. The title of margrave (or marquis) evolved into that of count. Arnulf I was the first to name himself as count, by the Grace of God. The title of margrave largely fell out of use by the 12th century. Since then, the rulers of Flanders have only been referred to as counts.
The counts of Flanders enlarged their estate through a series of diplomatic marriages. The counties of Hainaut, Namur, Béthune, Nevers, Auxerre, Rethel, Burgundy, and Artois were all acquired in this manner. However, the County of Flanders suffered the same fate in turn. As a result of the marriage of Countess Margaret III with Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, the county and the subsidiary counties entered a personal union with the Duchy of Burgundy in 1405. 
The counts of Flanders were also associated with the Duchy of Brittany prior to its union with France. In c.1323, Joan, the daughter of Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, married the second son of Count Robert III. Joanna of Flanders, the granddaughter of Count Robert III and daughter of his son, Count Louis I, married John Montfort.  During Montfort's imprisonment, she fought on his behalf, alongside English allies, during the Breton War of Succession for the ducal crown, which was won definitively by her son John V, Duke of Brittany. It was through this alliance that the Duchy of Brittany was eventually joined to the throne of France. 
|Baldwin I||c. 830s – 879||862 – 879|| Judith of Flanders |
|Married Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald|
|Baldwin II||c. 865 – 10 September 918||879 – 10 September 918|| Ælfthryth |
|Son of Baldwin I and Judith|
|Arnulf I||c. 893/899 – 27 March 964||10 September 918 – 27 March 964|| Adele of Vermandois |
|Son of Baldwin II|
|Baldwin III||c. 940 – c. 962||958-962|| Matilda of Saxony |
|Ruled jointly with his father Arnulf I|
|Arnulf II||c. 961 – 30 March 987||965 – 30 March 987|| Rozala of Italy |
|Son of Baldwin III|
|Baldwin IV||980 – 30 May 1035||988 – 30 May 1035||(1) Ogive of Luxembourg |
(2) Eleanor of Normandy
|Son of Arnulf II|
|Baldwin V||19 August 1012 – 1 September 1067||30 May 1035 – 1 September 1067|| Adela of France |
|Son of Baldwin IV|
|Baldwin VI||c. 1030 – 17 July 1070||1 September 1067 – 17 July 1070|| Richilde, Countess of Hainaut |
|Son of Baldwin V; also Count of Hainaut|
|Arnulf III||c. 1055 – 22 February 1071||17 July 1070 – 22 February 1071||Never married||Son of Baldwin VI; also Count of Hainaut|
|Robert I||c. 1035 – 13 October 1093||22 February 1071 – 13 October 1093|| Gertrude of Saxony |
|Son of Baldwin V|
|Robert II||c. 1065 – 5 October 1111||13 October 1093 – 5 October 1111|| Clementia of Burgundy |
|Son of Robert I|
|Baldwin VII||1093 – 17 July 1119||5 October 1111 – 17 July 1119|| Hawise of Brittany |
|Son of Robert II|
|Charles I||1084 – 2 March 1127||1119 – 2 March 1127|| Margaret of Clermont |
|Son of Canute IV of Denmark and Adela of Flanders, cousin of Baldwin VII and designated by him. Also grandson of Robert I.|
|William I||25 October 1102 – 28 July 1128||2 March 1127 – 28 July 1128||(1) Sibylla of Anjou |
(2) Joanna of Montferrat
|Great-grandson of Baldwin V, designated by Louis VI of France|
|Theoderic||c. 1099 – 17 January 1168||28 July 1128 – 17 January 1168||(1) Margaret of Clermont (or Swanhilde)|
(2) Sibylla of Anjou
|Grandson of Robert I, recognised by Louis VI of France|
|Philip I||1143 – 1 August 1191||17 January 1168 – 1 August 1191||(1) Elisabeth of Vermandois |
(2) Theresa of Portugal
|Son of Thierry; also Count of Vermandois|
|Margaret I||c. 1145 - 15 November 1194||1 August 1191 - 15 November 1194||(1) Ralph II of Vermandois |
(2) Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
|Daughter of Thierry|
|Baldwin VIII||1150 – 17 December 1195||1 August 1191 - 17 December 1194|| Margaret I |
|Husband of Margaret I|
|Baldwin IX||July 1172 – c. 1205||1194 - 1205|| Marie of Champagne |
6 January 1186
|Son of Margaret I and Baldwin VIII, also Latin Emperor of Constantinople|
|Joan||c. 1199 – 5 December 1244||1205 – 5 December 1244||(1) Ferdinand of Portugal |
(2) Thomas of Savoy-Piedmont
2 April 1237
|Daughter of Baldwin IX|
|Ferdinand||24 March 1188 – 27 July 1233||1212 – 27 July 1233|| Joan, Countess of Flanders |
|Husband of Joan|
|Thomas||c. 1199 – 7 February 1259||1212 – 5 December 1244|| Joan, Countess of Flanders |
2 April 1237
|Husband of Joan|
|Margaret II||1202 – 10 February 1280||5 December 1244 – 29 December 1278||(1) Bouchard IV of Avesnes |
c. 23 July 1212
(2) William II of Dampierre
18 August/15 November 1223
|Sister of Joan|
In 1244, the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut were claimed by Margaret II's sons, the half-brothers John I of Avesnes and William III of Dampierre in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault. In 1246, King Louis IX of France awarded Flanders to William.
|William II||1224 – 6 June 1251||1247 - 6 June 1251|| Beatrice of Brabant |
|Son of Margaret II and William II of Dampierre|
|Guy||c. 1226 – 7 March 1305||6 June 1251 - 7 March 1305||(1) Matilda of Béthune |
(2) Isabelle of Luxembourg
|Brother of William II|
|Robert III||1249 – 17 September 1322||7 March 1305 – 17 September 1322||(1) Blanche of Sicily |
1 son (died young)
(2) Yolande II, Countess of Nevers
|Son of Guy: also Count of Nevers|
|Louis I||c. 1304 – 26 August 1346||17 September 1322 – 26 August 1346|| Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy |
|Grandson of Robert III|
|Louis II||25 October 1330 – 30 January 1384||26 August 1346 – 30 January 1384|| Margaret of Brabant |
|Son of Louis I; also Count of Burgundy|
|Margaret III||13 April 1350 – 16 March 1405||30 January 1384 – 16 March 1405||(1) Philip I, Duke of Burgundy |
(2) Philip II, Duke of Burgundy
19 June 1369
|Daughter of Louis II|
|Philip II||17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404||1363 – 27 April 1404|| Margaret III |
19 June 1369
|Husband of Margaret III; also Duke of Burgundy|
|John||28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419||27 April 1404 – 10 September 1419|| Margaret of Bavaria |
12 April 1385
|Son of Philip II and Margaret III|
|Philip III||31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467||10 September 1419 – 15 June 1467||(1) Michelle of Valois |
1 daughter (died young)
(2) Bonne of Artois
30 November 1424
(3) Isabella of Portugal
7 January 1430
18 illegitimate children
|Son of John|
|Charles II||10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477||15 June 1467 – 5 January 1477||(1) Catherine of France |
19 May 1440
(2) Isabella of Bourbon
30 October 1454
(3) Margaret of York
3 July 1468
|Son of Philip III|
|Mary||13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482||5 January 1477 – 27 March 1482|| Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor |
19 August 1477
|Daughter of Charles II|
|Maximilian I||22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519||19 August 1477 – 27 March 1482||(1) Mary of Burgundy |
19 August 1477
(2) Anne, Duchess of Brittany
19 December 1490
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
|Husband of Mary|
|Philip IV||22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506||27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506|| Joanna of Castile |
20 October 1496
|Son of Mary and Maximilian I|
|Charles III||24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558||25 September 1506 – 25 October 1555|| Isabella of Portugal |
10 March 1526
|Son of Philip IV|
Charles V proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 eternally uniting Flanders with the other lordships of the Low Countries in a personal union. When the Habsburg empire was divided among the heirs of Charles V, the Low Countries, including Flanders, went to Philip II of Spain, of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg.
|Philip V||21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598||16 January 1556 – 6 May 1598||(1) Maria Manuela of Portugal |
12 November 1543
(2) Mary I of England
25 July 1554
(3) Elisabeth of Valois
(4) Anna of Austria
|Son of Charles III|
|Isabella Clara Eugenia||12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633||6 May 1598 – 13 July 1621|| Albert VII, Archduke of Austria |
18 April 1599
|Daughter of Philip V; ruled jointly with her husband Albert VII, Archduke of Austria|
|Albert||13 November 1559 – 13 July 1621||6 May 1598 – 13 July 1621|| Isabella Clara Eugenia |
18 April 1599
|Husband of Isabella Clara Eugenia|
|Philip VI||8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665||13 July 1621 – 17 September 1665||(1) Elisabeth of France |
18 October 1615
(2) Mariana of Austria
7 October 1649
|Grandson of Philip V|
|Charles IV||6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700||17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700||(1) Marie Louise d'Orléans |
19 November 1679
(2) Maria Anna of Neuburg
14 May 1690
|Son of Philip VI|
|Philip VII||19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746||1 November 1700 – 14 March 1713||(1) Maria Luisa of Savoy |
2 November 1701
(2) Elisabeth Farnese
16 September 1714
|Great-grandson of Philip VI|
Between 1706 and 1714, Flanders was invaded by the English and the Dutch during the War of the Spanish Succession. The fief was claimed by the House of Habsburg and the House of Bourbon. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht settled the succession and the County of Flanders went to the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg.
|Charles V||1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740||7 September 1714 – 20 October 1740|| Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel |
1 August 1708
Santa Maria del Mar
|Great-grandson of Philip III, also Holy Roman Emperor|
|Maria Theresa||13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780||20 October 1740 – 29 November 1780|| Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor |
12 February 1736
Augustinian Church, Vienna
|Daughter of Charles V, jointly with Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Francis I||8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765||21 November 1740 – 18 August 1765|| Maria Theresa |
12 February 1736
Augustinian Church, Vienna
|Husband of Maria Theresa|
|Joseph||13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790||18 August 1765 – 20 February 1790||(1) Isabella of Parma |
5 children (died young)
(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
25 January 1765
|Son of Maria Theresa and Francis I|
|Leopold||5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792||20 February 1790 – 1 March 1792|| Maria Luisa of Spain |
16 February 1764
|Brother of Joseph|
|Francis II||12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835||1 March 1792 – 17 October 1797||(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg |
6 January 1788
1 daughter (died young)
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
|Son of Leopold|
The title was abolished de facto after revolutionary France annexed Flanders in 1795. Emperor Francis II relinquished his claim to the Low Countries in the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797, and the area remained part of France until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
In modern times, the title was granted to two younger sons of the kings of the Belgians.
The title, Count of Flanders, is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown. It is a historical title which is only nominally and ceremonially used.
The Duchy of Guelders is a historical duchy, previously county, of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
The Capetian house of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century. They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., what is now the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and most of the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (Artois). Also within this area were semi-independent fiefdoms, mainly ecclesiastical ones, such as Liège, Cambrai and Stavelot-Malmedy.
The Duchy of Brittany was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547. Its territory covered the northwestern peninsula of Europe, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the English Channel to the north. It was also less definitively bordered by the river Loire to the south, and Normandy, and other French provinces, to the east. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939. The Duchy, in the 10th and 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their own personal lands. The Duchy had mixed relationships with the neighbouring Duchy of Normandy, sometimes allying itself with Normandy, and at other times, such as the Breton-Norman War, entering into open conflict.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, were the parts of the Low Countries belonging to the Holy Roman Empire which were at first largely controlled by Habsburg Spain and later by the Austrian Habsburgs until occupied and annexed by Revolutionary France (1794–1815).
Duke of Burgundy was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of Spain from the House of Habsburg who claimed Burgundy proper and ruled the Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries.
The Duchy of Burgundy emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire. Upon the 9th-century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were reduced to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France in 1004. Robert II's son and heir, King Henry I of France, inherited the duchy but ceded it to his younger brother Robert in 1032. Other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Burgundy-Arles, including the County of Burgundy (Franche-Comté).
The County of Artois was a historic province of the Kingdom of France, held by the Dukes of Burgundy from 1384 until 1477/82, and a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1493 until 1659.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands or the Burgundian Age is the period between 1384 and 1482, during which a growing part of the Low Countries was ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy. Within their Burgundian State, which itself belonged partly to the Holy Roman Empire and partly to the Kingdom of France, the dukes united these lowlands into a political union that went beyond a personal union as it gained central institutions for the first time.
Spanish Netherlands was the Habsburg Netherlands ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs from 1556 to 1714. They were a collection of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries held in personal union by the Spanish Crown. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, the southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels. The Army of Flanders was given the task of defending the territory.
The Burgundian Circle was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1512 and significantly enlarged in 1548. In addition to the Free County of Burgundy, the Burgundian Circle roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e., the areas now known as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg and adjacent parts in the French administrative region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. For most of its history, its lands were coterminous with the holdings of the Spanish Habsburgs in the Empire.
The House of Montfort was a Breton-French noble family, which reigned in the Duchy of Brittany from 1365 to 1514. It was a cadet branch of the House of Dreux; it was thus ultimately part of the Capetian dynasty. It should not be confused with the older House of Montfort which ruled as Counts of Montfort-l'Amaury.
The Duchy of Luxemburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, the ancestral homeland of the noble House of Luxembourg. The House of Luxembourg, now Duke of Limburg, became one of the most important political forces in the 14th century, competing against the House of Habsburg for supremacy in Central Europe. They would be the heirs to the Přemyslid dynasty in the Kingdom of Bohemia, succeeding the Kingdom of Hungary and contributing four Holy Roman Emperors until their own line of male heirs came to an end and the House of Habsburg got the pieces that the two Houses had originally agreed upon in the Treaty of Brünn in 1364.
The Count of Hainaut was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries. In English-language historical sources, the title is often given the older spelling Hainault.
The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.
Habsburg Netherlands was the Renaissance period fiefs in the Low Countries held by the Holy Roman Empire's House of Habsburg. The rule began in 1482, when the last Valois-Burgundy ruler of the Netherlands, Mary, wife of Maximilian I of Austria, died. Their grandson, Emperor Charles V, was born in the Habsburg Netherlands and made Brussels one of his capitals.
The Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries consisted of numerous fiefs held by the Dukes of Burgundy in modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and in parts of France and Germany. The Duke of Burgundy was originally a member of the House of Valois-Burgundy and later of the House of Habsburg. Given that the Dukes of Burgundy lost Burgundy proper to the Kingdom of France in 1477, and were never able to recover it, while retaining Charolais and the Free County of Burgundy, they moved their court to the Low Countries. The Burgundian Low Countries were ultimately expanded to include Seventeen Provinces under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian inheritance then passed to the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs under Philip II of Spain, whose rule was contested by the Dutch revolt, and fragmented into the Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch republic. Following the War of the Spanish succession, the Habsburg Netherlands passed to Austria and remained in Austrian hands until the French conquest of the late 18th century. The Bourbon Restoration did not re-establish the Burgundian states, with the former Burgundian territories remaining divided between France, the Netherlands and, following the Belgian Revolution, modern-day Belgium.
The Burgundian State is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to as Valois Burgundy.