Catholic Church and health care

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Marianne Cope and other Sisters of St Francis with the daughters of leper patients, at the Kaka`ako Branch Hospital, Hawaii. The Catholic Church established many of the world's modern hospitals. Gibson and Mother Marianne Cope.jpg
Marianne Cope and other Sisters of St Francis with the daughters of leper patients, at the Kakaʻako Branch Hospital, Hawaii. The Catholic Church established many of the world's modern hospitals.

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of health care services in the world. [1] It has around 18,000 clinics, 16,000 homes for the elderly and those with special needs, and 5,500 hospitals, with 65 percent of them located in developing countries. [2] In 2010, the Church's Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers said that the Church manages 26% of the world's health care facilities. [3] The Church's involvement in health care has ancient origins.

Health care Prevention of disease and promotion of wellbeing

Health care, health-care, or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, pharmacy, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

The Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers was set up on 11 February 1985 by Pope John Paul II who reformed the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers into its new form in 1988. It was part of the Roman Curia.

Contents

Jesus Christ, whom the Church holds as its founder, instructed his followers to heal the sick. The early Christians were noted for tending the sick and infirm, and Christian emphasis on practical charity gave rise to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals. The influential Benedictine rule holds that "the care of the sick is to be placed above and before every other duty, as if indeed Christ were being directly served by waiting on them". During the Middle Ages, monasteries and convents were the key medical centres of Europe and the Church developed an early version of a welfare state. Cathedral schools evolved into a well integrated network of medieval universities and Catholic scientists (many of them clergymen) made a number of important discoveries which aided the development of modern science and medicine.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Medicine The science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of physical and mental illnesses

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.

Saint Albert the Great (1206–1280) was a pioneer of biological field research; Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) helped revive knowledge of ancient Greek medicine, Renaissance popes were often patrons of the study of anatomy, and Catholic artists such as Michelangelo advanced knowledge of the field through sketching cadavers. The Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602 – 1680) first proposed that living beings enter and exist in the blood (a precursor of germ theory). The Augustinian Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) developed theories on genetics for the first time. As Catholicism became a global religion, the Catholic orders and religious and lay people established health care centres around the world. Women's religious institutes such as the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of St Francis opened and operated some of the first modern general hospitals.

Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials. Many components were considered in ancient Greek medicine, intertwining the spiritual with the physical. Specifically, the ancient Greeks believed health was affected by the humors, geographic location, social class, diet, trauma, beliefs, and mindset. Early on the ancient Greeks believed that illnesses were "divine punishments" and that healing was a "gift from the Gods". As trials continued wherein theories were tested against symptoms and results, the pure spiritual beliefs regarding "punishments" and "gifts" were replaced with a foundation based in the physical, i.e., cause and effect.

Michelangelo Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, known best as simply Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered by many the greatest artist of his lifetime, and by some the greatest artist of all time, his artistic versatility was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival, the fellow Florentine and client of the Medici, Leonardo da Vinci.

Athanasius Kircher German Jesuit scholar

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine. Kircher has been compared to fellow Jesuit Roger Boscovich and to Leonardo da Vinci for his enormous range of interests, and has been honored with the title "Master of a Hundred Arts". He taught for more than forty years at the Roman College, where he set up a wunderkammer. A resurgence of interest in Kircher has occurred within the scholarly community in recent decades.

While the prioritization of charity and healing by early Christians created the hospital, their spiritual emphasis tended to imply "the subordination of medicine to religion and doctor to priest". "[P]hysic and faith", wrote historian of medicine Roy Porter "while generally complementary... sometimes tangled in border disputes." Similarly in modern times, the moral stance of the Church against contraception and abortion has been a source of controversy. The Church, while being a major provider of health care to HIV AIDS sufferers, and of orphanages for unwanted children, has been criticised for opposing condom use. Due to Catholics' belief in the sanctity of life from conception, IVF, which leads to the destruction of many embryos, surrogacy, which relies on IVF, and embryonic stem-cell research, which necessitates the destruction of embryos, are among other areas of controversy for the Church in the provision of health care.

Roy Sydney Porter, FBA was a British historian known for his important work on the history of medicine. He retired in 2001 from the director of the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine at University College, London (UCL).

Theological basis: euntes docete et curate infirmos

St Matthew the Evangelist and an Angel by Rembrandt. St Matthew, one of the authors of the New Testament, wrote that Jesus wanted his followers to care for the sick. The Evangelist Matthew Inspired by an Angel.jpg
St Matthew the Evangelist and an Angel by Rembrandt. St Matthew, one of the authors of the New Testament, wrote that Jesus wanted his followers to care for the sick.

Catholic social teaching urges concern for the sick. Jesus Christ, whom the church holds as its founder, placed a particular emphasis on care for the sick and outcast, such as lepers. According to the New Testament, he and his Apostles went about curing the sick and anointing of the sick. [4] According to the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, which is found in Matthew 25, Jesus identified so strongly with the sick and afflicted that he equated serving them with serving him:

Catholic social teaching is the Catholic doctrines on matters of human dignity and common good in society. The ideas address oppression, the role of the state, subsidiarity, social organization, concern for social justice, and issues of wealth distribution. Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum novarum, which advocated economic distributism. Its roots can be traced to the writings of Catholic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas and Augustine of Hippo, and is also derived from concepts present in the Bible and the cultures of the ancient Near East.

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Anointing of the sick form of religious anointing for the benefit of a sick person, practiced by various Christian denominations

Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" for the benefit of a sick person. It is practiced by many Christian churches and denominations.

The Good Samaritan by Aime Morot (1880) illustrates Jesus' Parable of the Good Samaritan told in Luke. Aime-Morot-Le-bon-Samaritain.JPG
The Good Samaritan by Aimé Morot (1880) illustrates Jesus' Parable of the Good Samaritan told in Luke.

For I was hungry and you fed me, thirsty and you gave me drink. I was a stranger and you received me in your homes. Naked and you clothed me. I was sick and you took care of me, in prison and you visited me ... [W]hatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me.

In a 2013 presentation to its twenty-seventh international conference in 2013, the President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers, Zygmunt Zimowski, said that "The Church, adhering to the mandate of Jesus, 'Euntes docete et curate infirmos' (Mt 10:6-8, Go, preach and heal the sick), during the course of her history, which by now has lasted two millennia, has always attended to the sick and the suffering."

Zygmunt Zimowski Polish bishop

Zygmunt Zimowski was a Polish prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop Zimowski had served until his death in July 2016 as President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers, having been head of that office since his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI on 18 April 2009. He previously served as bishop of Radom from 2002 until 2009.

In orations such as his Sermon on the Mount and stories such as the Parable of the Good Samaritan , Jesus called on followers to worship God (Rpm 12:1-2) through care for our neighbor: the sick, hungry and poor. Such teachings formed the foundation of Catholic Church involvement in hospitals and health care. [4]

According to Dr. James Joseph Walsh, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia:

Christ Himself gave His followers the example of caring for the sick by the numerous miracles He wrought to heal various forms of disease including the most loathsome, leprosy. He also charged His Apostles in explicit terms to heal the sick (Luke 10:9) and promised to those who should believe in Him that they would have power over disease (Mark 16:18) [...] Like the other works of Christian charity, the care of the sick was from the beginning a sacred duty for each of the faithful, but it devolved in a special way upon the bishops, presbyters, and deacons. The same ministrations that brought relief to the poor naturally included provision for the sick who were visited in their homes. [5]

The Benedictine rule, which led the profusion of medieval hospitals founded by the Church, requires that "the care of the sick is to be placed above and before every other duty, as if indeed Christ were being directly served by waiting on them". [6]

History

Saint Fabiola founded a hospital at Rome around 400 AD. Jean-Jacques Henner Fabiola.jpg
Saint Fabiola founded a hospital at Rome around 400 AD.

Antiquity

Ancient Greek and Roman medicine developed solid foundations over seven centuries, creating, Porter wrote, "the ideal of a union of science, philosophy and practical medicine in the learned physician...". [7] But Greek and Roman religion did not preach of a duty to tend to the sick. [4] Christianity emerged into this world as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century and early Christians from the outset went about tending the sick and infirm. Their priests were often also physicians. [4] St Luke the Evangelist, credited as one of the authors of The New Testament, was a physician. [8] Christian emphasis on practical charity was to give rise to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals after the end of the persecution of the early church. [5]

The early Christian outlook on sickness drew on various traditions, including Eastern asceticism and Jewish healing traditions, while the New Testament wrote of Jesus and his Apostles as healers. [9] Porter wrote: "While suffering and disease could appear as chastisement of the wicked or a trial of those the Lord loved, the Church also developed a healing mission". [10] Pagan religions seldom offered help to the sick, but the early Christians were willing to nurse the sick and take food to them. [4] [11] Notably during the smallpox epidemic of AD 165–180 and the measles outbreak of around AD 250, "In nursing the sick and dying, regardless of religion, the Christians won friends and sympathisers", wrote historian Geoffrey Blainey. [4]

Hospitality was considered an obligation of Christian charity and bishops' houses and the valetudinaria of wealthier Christians were used to tend the sick. [5] Deacons were assigned the task of distributing alms, and in Rome by 250 AD the Church had developed an extensive charitable outreach, with wealthy converts supporting the poor. [10] It is believed that the first church hospitals were constructed in the East, and only later in the Latin West. An early hospital may have been built at Constantinople during the age of Constantine by St. Zoticus. St. Basil built a famous hospital at Cæsarea in Cappadocia which "had the dimensions of a city". In the West, Saint Fabiola founded a hospital at Rome around 400. [5] Saint Jerome wrote that Fabiola founded a hospital and "assembled all the sick from the streets and highways" and "personally tended the unhappy and impoverished victims of hunger and disease... washed the pus from sores that others could not even behold" [11]

Panorama of Siena's Santa Maria della Scala Hospital, one of Europe's oldest hospitals. SantaMariaDellaScalaSienaBack.JPG
Panorama of Siena's Santa Maria della Scala Hospital, one of Europe's oldest hospitals.

Several early Christian healers are honoured as Saints in the Catholic tradition. Cosmas and Damian, brothers from Cilicia in Asia Minor, supplanted the pagan Asclepius as the patron saints of medicine and were celebrated for their healing powers.." [12] Said to have lived in the late Third Century AD and to have performed a miraculous first leg transplant on a patient, and later martyred under the Emperor Diocletian, Cosmos and Damian appear in the heraldry of barber-surgeon companies.." [12] Notable contributors to the medical sciences of those early centuries include Tertullian (born A.D. 160), Clement of Alexandria, Lactantius and the learned St. Isidore of Seville (d. 636). St. Benedict of Nursia (480) emphasised medicine as an aid to the provision of hospitality. [13] The martyr Saint Pantaleon was said to be physician to the Emperor Galerius, who sentenced him to death for his Christianity. Since the Middle Ages, Pantaleon has been considered a patron saint of physicians and midwives. [14]

Saint Benedict of Nursia. Fra Angelico 031.jpg
Saint Benedict of Nursia.

The administration of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires split and the demise of the Western Empire by the sixth century was accompanied by a series of violent invasions, and precipitated the collapse of cities and civic institutions of learning, along with their links to the learning of classical Greece and Rome. For the next thousand years, medical knowledge would change very little.." [15] A scholarly medical tradition maintained itself in the more stable East, but in the West, scholarship virtually disappeared outside of the Church, where monks were aware of a dwindling range of medical texts.." [16] The legacy of this early period was, in the words of Porter, that "Christianity planted the hospital: the well-endowed establishments of the Levant and the scattered houses of the West shared a common religious ethos of charity.". [11]

Middle Ages

Geoffrey Blainey likened the Catholic Church in its activities during the Middle Ages to an early version of a welfare state: "It conducted hospitals for the old and orphanages for the young; hospices for the sick of all ages; places for the lepers; and hostels or inns where pilgrims could buy a cheap bed and meal". It supplied food to the population during famine and distributed food to the poor. This welfare system the church funded through collecting taxes on a large scale and possessing large farmlands and estates. [17] It was common for monks and clerics to practice medicine and medical students in northern European universities often took minor Holy orders. Mediaeval hospitals had a strongly Christian ethos and were, in the words of historian of medicine Roy Porter, "religious foundations through and through"; Ecclesiastical regulations were passed to govern medicine, partly to prevent clergymen profiting from medicine. [18]

John XXI was a medieval pope and physician who wrote popular medical texts. Pope John XXI.jpg
John XXI was a medieval pope and physician who wrote popular medical texts.

After a period of decline, the Holy Roman Emperor Charlamagne had decreed that a hospital should be attached to each cathedral and monastery. Following his death, the hospitals again declined, but by the tenth century monasteries were the leading providers of hospital work – among them the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny. [5] Charlemagne's decree required each monastery and Cathedral chapter to establish a school and in these schools medicine was commonly taught. Gerbert of Aurillac (c. 946 – 12 May 1003), known to history as Pope Sylvester II, taught medicine at one such school. [13] Petrus of Spain (1210-1277) was a physician who wrote the popular Treasury of the Poor medical text and became Pope John XXI in 1276. [18]

St Hildegard of Bingen dictating to a scribe. Hildegarde is recognised as a doctor of the church, and was among the most distinguished of Medieval Catholic women scientists. Hildegard von Bingen.jpg
St Hildegard of Bingen dictating to a scribe. Hildegarde is recognised as a doctor of the church, and was among the most distinguished of Medieval Catholic women scientists.

Other famous physicians and medical researchers of the Middle Ages include the Abbot of Monte Cassino Bertharius, the Abbot of Reichenau Walafrid Strabo, the Abbess St Hildegard of Bingen and the Bishop of Rennes Marbodus of Angers. [4] Monasteries of this era were diligent in the study of medicine, and often too were convents. Hildegard of Bingen, a doctor of the church, is among the most distinguished of Medieval Catholic women scientists. Other than theological works, Hildegard also wrote Physica, a text on the natural sciences, as well as Causae et Curae. Hildegard was well known for her healing powers involving practical application of tinctures, herbs, and precious stones. [19]

In keeping with the Benedictine rule that the care of the sick be placed above all other duties, monasteries were the key medical care providers prior to 1300. Most monasteries offered shelter for pilgrims and an infirmary for sick monks, while separate hospitals were founded for the public. [6] The Benedictine order was noted for setting up hospitals and infirmaries in their monasteries, growing medical herbs and becoming the chief medical care givers of their districts. [4] The Capuchin monks sought a revival of the ideals of Francis of Assisi, offering care after plague struck at Camerino in 1523. [4]

Healing shrines were established and different saints came to be invoked for every body part in the hope of miraculous cures. [20] Some of the shrines remain to the present day, and were in the Middle Ages great centres for pilgrims, complete with relics and souvenirs. [21] St Luke or St Michael were invoked for various ailments, and a host of saints for individuals conditions, including St Roch as a protector against plague. [22] St Roch is venerated as one who provided care to plague suffers, only to fall sick himself and be "healed by an angel". [22] [23] Through the devastating Bubonic Plague, the Franciscans were notable for tending the sick. The apparent impotence of medical knowledge against the disease prompted critical examination. Medical scientists came to divide among anti-Galenists, anti-Arabists and positive Hippocratics. [13]

Crusader orders established several new traditions of Catholic medical care. [24] The famous Knights Hospitaller arose as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in Jerusalem, which was built to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims to the Holy Land. Following the capture of the city by Crusaders, the order became a military as well as infirmarian order. [25] The Knights of St John of Jerusalem were later known as the Knights of Malta. The Knights Templar and Teutonic Knights established hospitals around the Mediterranean and through Germanic lands. [26]

Saint Albert Magnus was a pioneer of biological field research. AlbertusMagnus.jpg
Saint Albert Magnus was a pioneer of biological field research.

Non-military orders of brothers also took up the service of the infirm. By the 15th century, the brothers of the Order of the Holy Spirit were providing care across Europe, and by the sixteenth century the Spanish-founded Order of St John of God had set up about 200 hospitals in the Americas. [26] In Catholic Spain amidst the early Reconquista, Archbishop Raimund founded an institution for translations, which employed a number of Jewish translators to communicate the works of Arabian medicine. Influenced by the rediscovery of Aristotelian thought, churchmen like the Dominican Albert Magnus and the Franciscan Roger Bacon made significant advances in the observation of nature.

Small hospitals for pilgrims sprung up in the West during the early Middle Ages, but by the latter part of the period had grown more substantial, with hospitals founded for lepers, pilgrims, the sick, aged and poor. Milan, Siena, Paris and Florence had numerous and large hospitals. "Within hospitals walls", wrote Porter, "the Christian ethos was all pervasive". From just 12 beds in 1288, the Sta Maria Nuova in Florence "gradually expanded by 1500 to a medical staff of ten doctors, a pharmacist, and several assistants, including female surgeons", and was boasted of as the "first hospital among Christians". [24]

Clergy were active at the School of Salerno, the oldest medical school in Western Europe – among the important churchmen to teach there were Alpuhans, later (1058–85) Archbishop of Salerno, and the influential Constantine of Carthage, a monk who produced superior translations of Hippocrates and investigated Arab literature. [13] Cathedral schools began in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education, some of them ultimately evolving into medieval universities. The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, [27] and Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. [28] Porter wrote that, "The great age of hospital building from around 1200 coincided with the flourishing of universities in Italy, Spain, France and England, sustained by the new wealth of the High Middle Ages. ... The Universities extended the work of Salerno in medical education". [26]

Renaissance

From the 14th Century, the European Renaissance saw a revival of interest in Classical learning in Western Europe, coupled with and fuelled by the spread of new inventions like the printing press. The Fall of Constantinople brought refugee scholars from the Greek East to the West. The Catholic scholar Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) was interested in medicine and influential in reviving Greek as a language of learning, and the study of the pre-Christian works of Galen. Roy Porter wrote that "after centuries where the Church had taught mankind to renounce worldly goods, for the sake of eternity, Renaissance man showed an insatiable curiosity for the materiality of the here and now...". [29]

In Renaissance Italy, the Popes were often patrons of the study of anatomy and Catholic artists such as Michelangelo advanced knowledge of the field through such studies as sketching cadavers to improve his portraits of the crucifixion. [13] It is often wrongly asserted that the papacy banned dissection during the period, though in fact the directive of Pope Sixtus IV of 1482 to the University of Tübingen said that the Church had no objection to anatomy studies, provided the bodies belonged to an executed criminal, and was given a religious burial once examinations were completed. [6]

Gregor Mendel, Augustinian Friar and scientist, who developed theories on genetics for the first time. Gregor Mendel Monk.jpg
Gregor Mendel, Augustinian Friar and scientist, who developed theories on genetics for the first time.

Development of modern medicine

In modern times, the Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of health care in the world. Catholic religious have been responsible for founding and running networks of hospitals across the world where medical research continues to be advanced. [30] In 2013, Robert Calderisi wrote that the Catholic Church has around 18,000 clinics, 16,000 homes for the elderly and those with special needs, and 5,500 hospitals – with 65 per cent of them located in developing countries. [2]

Europe

The French Saint Jeanne Jugan (1792-1879) founded the Little Sisters of the Poor who specialise in care for the aged. Jeanne Jugan.jpg
The French Saint Jeanne Jugan (1792-1879) founded the Little Sisters of the Poor who specialise in care for the aged.

Catholic scientists in Europe (many of them clergymen) made a number of important discoveries which aided the development of modern science and medicine. Catholic women were also among the first female professors of medicine, as with Trotula of Salerno the 11th century physician and Dorotea Bucca who held a chair of medicine and philosophy at the University of Bologna. [31] The Jesuit order, created during the Reformation, contributed a number of distinguished medical scientists. In the field of bacteriology it was the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1671) who first proposed that living beings enter and exist in the blood (a precursor of germ theory). In the development of ophthalmology, Christoph Scheiner made important advances in relation to refraction of light and the retinal image. [13]

Gregor Mendel, an Austrian scientist and Augustinian friar, began experimenting with peas around 1856. [32] Mendel had joined the Brno Augustinian Monastery in 1843, but also trained as a scientist at the Olmutz Philosophical Institute and the University of Vienna. The Brno Monastery was a centre of scholarship, with an extensive library and tradition of scientific research. [33] Observing the processes of pollination at his monastery in modern Czechoslovakia, Mendel studied and developed theories pertaining to the field of science now called genetics. Mendel published his results in 1866 in the Journal of the Brno Natural History Society, and is considered the father of modern genetics. [32] Where Charles Darwin's theories suggested a mechanism for improvement of species over generations, Mendel's observations provided explanation for how a new species itself could emerge. Though Darwin and Mendel never collaborated, they were aware of each other's work (Darwin read a paper by Wilhelm Olbers Focke which extensively referenced Mendel). Bill Bryson wrote that "without realizing it, Darwin and Mendel laid the groundwork for all of life sciences in the twentieth century. Darwin saw that all living things are connected, that ultimately they trace their ancestry to a single, common source; Mendel's work provided the mechanism to explain how that could happen". [34]

Catholic religious institutes, notably those for women, developed many hospitals throughout Europe and its empires. Ancient orders like the Dominicans and Carmelites have long lived in religious communities that work in ministries such as education and care of the sick. [35] The Portuguese Saint John of God (d. 1550) founded the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God to care for the sick and afflicted. The order built hospitals across Europe and its growing empires. In 1898, John was declared patron of the dying and of all hospitals by Pope Leo XIII. [36] The Italian Saint Camillus de Lellis, considered a patron saint of nurses, was a reformed gambler and soldier who became a nurse and then director of Romes's Hospital of St. James, the hospital for incurables. In 1584 he founded the Camillians to tend to the plague-stricken. [37] Irishwoman Catherine McAuley founded the Sisters of Mercy in Dublin in 1831. Her congregation went on to found schools and hospitals across the globe. [38] Saint Jeanne Jugan founded the Little Sisters of the Poor on the Rule of Saint Augustine to assist the impoverished elderly of the streets of France in the mid-nineteenth century. It too spread around the world. [39]

In 2017, controversy arose when an Associated Press report, which the Vatican criticized, stated that Bambino Gesu (Baby Jesus) Pediatric Hospital, a cornerstone of Italy's health care system and administered by the Holy See, put children at risk between 2008 and 2015 and turned its attention to profit after losing money and expanding services. [40]

The Americas

Hospicio Cabanas was the largest hospital in colonial America, in Guadalajara, Mexico Hospicio Cabanas.JPG
Hospicio Cabañas was the largest hospital in colonial America, in Guadalajara, Mexico

The Spanish and Portuguese Empires were largely responsible for spreading the Catholic faith and its philosophy regarding health care to South and Central America, where the church established substantial hospital networks.

Catholic hospitals were established in the modern United States prior to the American War of Independence. The first was probably Charity Hospital, New Orleans, established around 1727. [41] The Sisters of Saint Francis of Syracuse, New York, produced Saint Marianne Cope, who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system, and famously taking her nuns to Hawaii to work with Saint Damien of Molokai in the care of lepers. St Damien himself is considered a martyr of charity and model of Catholic humanitarianism for his mission to the lepers of Molokai.

The Catholic Church is the largest private provider of health care in the United States of America. [42] During the 1990s, the church provided about one in six hospital beds in America, at around 566 hospitals, many established by nuns. [41] The church has carried a disproportionate number of poor and uninsured patients at its facilities and the American bishops first called for universal health care in America in 1919. The church has been an active campaigner in that cause ever since. [41] In the abortion debate in America, the church has sought to retain the right not to perform abortions in its health care facilities. [41] In 2012, the church operated 12.6% of hospitals in the US, accounting for 15.6% of all admissions, and around 14.5% of hospital expenses (c. 98.6 billion dollars). Compared to the public system, the church provided greater financial assistance or free care to poor patients, and was a leading provider of various low-profit health services such as breast cancer screenings, nutrition programs, trauma, and care of the elderly. [43]

Roman Catholic medical facilities refuse treatment which runs counter to their beliefs. Contraception is a treatment that is not provided, and complications due to existing contraception may not be treated. Users may be unaware of these restrictions, even unaware that their health provider is connected with the Roman Catholic Church until something goes wrong. For example, a woman bleeding and in pain due to a misplaced intrauterine contraceptive device was refused treatment. [44]

We think that people should be aware that they may face limitations on the kind of care they can receive when they go to the doctor based on religious restrictions. It’s really important that the public understand that this is going on and it is going on in a widespread fashion so that people can take whatever steps they need to do to protect themselves. (Lorie Chaiten, director of the women’s and reproductive rights project of the ACLU Illinois) [45]

However, the hospital's director of mission integration, Marty Folan, denied that that the removal of IUDs went against hospital policy.

That act [of removing an IUD] in itself does not violate the directives. [45]

Asia

Salesian sister caring for sick and poor in former Madras Presidency, India. Catholic women have been heavily involved as care givers. Hunger and sickness Madras.jpg
Salesian sister caring for sick and poor in former Madras Presidency, India. Catholic women have been heavily involved as care givers.

During the Middle Ages, Arab medicine was influential on Europe. During Europe's Age of Discovery, Catholic missionaries, notably the Jesuits, introduced the modern sciences to India, China and Japan. While persecutions continue to limit the spread of Catholic institutions to some Middle Eastern Muslim nations, places such as the People's Republic of China and North Korea, elsewhere in Asia the church is a major provider of health care services – especially in Catholic nations like the Philippines.

The famous Mother Teresa of Calcutta established the Missionaries of Charity in the slums of Calcutta in 1948 to work among "the poorest of the poor". Initially founding a school, she then gathered other sisters who "rescued new-born babies abandoned on rubbish heaps; they sought out the sick; they took in lepers, the unemployed, and the mentally ill". Teresa achieved fame in the 1960s and began to establish convents around the world. By the time of her death in 1997, the religious institute she founded had more than 450 centres in over 100 countries. [46]

Mother Theresa encouraged a daily prayer for the Mother Theresa Children's Home:

Oceania

St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia, was established by the Sisters of Charity and became an early leader in AIDS treatment. It remains among many leading medical research centres established by the Catholic Church around the world. StVincentsHospital1.JPG
St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia, was established by the Sisters of Charity and became an early leader in AIDS treatment. It remains among many leading medical research centres established by the Catholic Church around the world.
St Damien of Molokai famously established a mission among the lepers of Molokai, Hawaii. Edward Clifford - Damien in 1888.jpg
St Damien of Molokai famously established a mission among the lepers of Molokai, Hawaii.

French, Portuguese, British and Irish missionaries brought Catholicism to Oceania and built hospitals and care centres across the region. The church remains not only a key provider of health care in predominantly Catholic nations like East Timor but also in predominantly Protestant and secular nations like Australia and New Zealand.

As restrictions were lifted by British authorities on the practice of Catholicism in colonial Australia, Catholic religious institutes founded many of Australia's hospitals. Irish Sisters of Charity arrived in Sydney in 1838 and established St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, in 1857 as a free hospital for the poor. The Sisters went on to found hospitals, hospices, research institutes and aged care facilities in Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania. [47] At St Vincent's they trained leading surgeon Victor Chang and opened Australia's first AIDS clinic. [48] In the 21st century, with more and more lay people involved in management, the sisters began collaborating with Sisters of Mercy Hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney. Jointly the group operates four public hospitals; seven private hospitals and 10 aged care facilities.

The Sisters of Mercy arrived in Auckland in 1850 and were the first order of religious sisters to come to New Zealand; they began work in health care and education. [49]

The Sisters of St Joseph was founded in Australia by Australia's first Saint, Mary MacKillop, and Fr Julian Tenison Woods in 1867. [50] [51] [52] MacKillop travelled throughout Australasia and established schools, convents and charitable institutions. [53] The English Sisters of the Little Company of Mary arrived in 1885 and have since established public and private hospitals, retirement living and residential aged care, community care and comprehensive palliative care in New South Wales, the ACT, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and the Northern Territory. [54] The Little Sisters of the Poor, who follow the charism of Saint Jeanne Jugan to "offer hospitality to the needy aged" arrived in Melbourne in 1884 and now operate four aged care homes in Australia. [55]

Catholic Health Australia is today the largest non-government provider grouping of health, community and aged care services in Australia. These do not operate for profit and range across the full spectrum of health services, representing about 10% of the health sector and employing 35,000 people. [56] Catholic organisations in New Zealand remain heavily involved in community activities including education, health services, chaplaincy to prisons, rest homes, and hospitals, social justice, and human rights advocacy. [57] [58]

Africa

Catholicism has grown rapidly in Africa over the last two centuries. As in all other continents, Catholic missionaries established health care centres across the continent – though limitations on Catholic institutions remain in place for much of Muslim North Africa. Caritas Internationalis is the Church's main international aid and development body and operates in over 200 countries and territories and co-operates closely with the United Nations. [59]

HIV/AIDS

Pope Paul VI issued the Humanae Vitae Encyclical Letter on the Regulation of Birth in 1968, which outlined opposition to "artificial birth control" on the basis that it would open a "wide and easy road ... towards conjugal infidelity and the general lowering of morality". [60] In response to the subsequent AIDS epidemic which emerged from the 1980s onward, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has argued that "comprehensive condom programming is a key institutional priority ... because condoms ... are recognized as the only currently available and effective way to prevent HIV – and other sexually transmitted infections – among sexually active people". [61] A 2014 report by The U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child called on the Church to "overcome all the barriers and taboos surrounding adolescent sexuality that hinder their access to sexual and reproductive information, including on family planning and contraceptives". [62]

In Africa today, the church is heavily engaged in providing care to AIDS sufferers amidst the AIDS epidemic. [63] [64] Following the election of Pope Francis in 2013, UNAIDS wrote that the Church "provides support to millions of people living with HIV around the world" and that "Statistics from the Vatican in 2012 indicate that Catholic Church-related organizations provide approximately a quarter of all HIV treatment, care, and support throughout the world and run more than 5,000 hospitals, 18,000 dispensaries and 9,000 orphanages, many involved in AIDS-related activities." UNAIDS co-operates closely with the Church on critical issues such as the elimination of new HIV infections in children and keeping their mothers alive, as well as increasing access to antiretroviral medication. [65]

Religious orders dedicated to care giving

In keeping with the emphasis of Catholic social teaching, many religious institutes have devoted themselves to service of the sick, homeless, disabled, orphaned, aged or mentally ill. Women's religious institutes played a particularly prominent role in the development of the Catholic Church's health care networks.

Contemporary issues

Bioethics

Because the Catholic Church opposes abortion, euthanasia and contraception [66] and other health procedures, Catholic health facilities will not provide most or all such services. [67] In public debates, particularly among Western nations like the United States, this has raised questions over insurance public/private financial co-operation and government interference and regulation of health facilities. Writing in 2012, the Australian human rights lawyer and Jesuit Frank Brennan, in response to calls for public funding to Catholic hospitals to be contingent on them offering the "full suites of services", said that: [68]

The nation is the better for policies and funding arrangements that encourage public and private providers of healthcare, including the Churches. The public may need to be patient with Church authorities as they discern appropriate moral responses to new technologies. This is a small price to pay for creative diversity which delivers healthcare of the highest standard with a special character cherished by many citizens, not just Catholics.

The Catholic Church's opposition to abortion has also restricted its hospitals' treatment of miscarriages. [69] In cases where evacuation of the miscarriage from the uterus is medically indicated, doctors have been prohibited from carrying it out while a fetal heartbeat is still present, "in effect delaying care until fetal heart tones cease, the pregnant woman becomes ill, or the patient is transported to a non–Catholic-owned facility for the procedure." [70]

A number of controversies have arisen over the application of these treatments in Catholic hospitals, or the lack thereof; [69] for instance, in the United States, a member of a hospital ethics committee was excommunicated when she approved a therapeutic, direct abortion to save a patient's life, and in Germany a case of two hospitals turning away and refusing to examine or treat a rape victim led to new guidelines from the country's bishops stating that hospitals could provide emergency contraception to victims of rape. [71]

As regards IVF and surrogacy, the Church's teaching, which states that every human life is sacred from conception until natural death, and that the vulnerable should be protected, therefore finds that this technology, which leads to the death of many embryos for each successful pregnancy, to be an abuse of power at the cost of the weakest. [72] However, Catholics have been active in developing alternative treatments for infertility and especially addressing its root causes, which, in addition to causing infertility or risk of miscarriage, are likely to have other consequences on health, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, thyroid conditions and endometriosis. [73]

In 2016, a woman was refused treatment according to the "Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services" [66] for her dislodged IUD, although she was bleeding, cramping and in pain. [74] [75] [76] [77]

Transgender

In 2019, a Catholic hospital in Eureka, California was criticized for not performing a hysterectomy as part of a sex-change operation. [78]

Patron saints

Saint Luke the Evangelist, one of the four writers of the Gospels, was said to be a physician. Andrea Mantegna 017.jpg
Saint Luke the Evangelist, one of the four writers of the Gospels, was said to be a physician.

Physicians

There are a number of patron saints for physicians, the most important of whom are Saint Luke the Evangelist, the physician and disciple of Christ; Saints Cosmas and Damian, 3rd-century physicians from Syria; and Saint Pantaleon, a 4th-century physician from Nicomedia. Archangel Raphael is also considered a patron saint of physicians. [79]

Surgeons

The patron saints for surgeons are Saint Luke the Evangelist, the physician and disciple of Christ, Saints Cosmas and Damian (3rd-century physicians from Syria), Saint Quentin (3rd-century saint from France), Saint Foillan (7th-century saint from Ireland), and Saint Roch (14th-century saint from France). [80]

Nurses

Various Catholic saints are considered patrons of nursing: Saint Agatha, Saint Alexius, Saint Camillus of Lellis, St Catherine of Alexandria, St Catherine of Siena, St John of God, St Margaret of Antioch, and Raphael the Archangel. [81]

See also

Related Research Articles

Faith healing Prayer and gestures that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in physical healing

Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice. Believers assert that the healing of disease and disability can be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or other rituals that, according to adherents, can stimulate a divine presence and power. Religious belief in divine intervention does not depend on empirical evidence that faith healing achieves an evidence-based outcome.

Frances Xavier Cabrini Italian-American saint

Frances Xavier Cabrini, also called Mother Cabrini, was an Italian-American Roman Catholic nun, who founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a Catholic religious institute that was a major support to the Italian immigrants to the United States. She was the first naturalized citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church, on July 7, 1946.

Martin de Porres Dominican lay brother and saint

Martin de Porres Velázquez, O.P., was a Peruvian lay brother of the Dominican Order who was beatified in 1837 by Pope Gregory XVI and canonized in 1962 by Pope John XXIII. He is the patron saint of mixed-race people, barbers, innkeepers, public health workers, and all those seeking racial harmony.

Camillus de Lellis Italian priest, nurse and saint

Saint Camillus de Lellis, M.I., was a Roman Catholic priest from Italy who founded the Camillians, a religious order dedicated to the care of the sick.

Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul society of apostolic life

The Company of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, called in English the Daughters of Charity or Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent De Paul, is a Society of Apostolic Life for women within the Catholic Church. Its members make annual vows throughout their life, which leaves them always free to leave, without need of ecclesiastical permission. They were founded in 1633 and state that they are devoted to serving the poor through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy.

Providence Health & Services is a non-profit Catholic health care system operating multiple hospitals across 6 states, with headquarters in Renton, Washington. The health system includes 27 hospitals, more than 35 non-acute facilities and numerous other health, supportive housing and educational services in the states of the United States West Coast and Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Providence Health & Services was started by the Sisters of Providence in 1859.

The Hospital of Saint Raphael or Saint Raphael Hospital, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States, was a 511-bed community teaching hospital founded by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth in 1907. On September 12, 2012, Yale-New Haven Hospital acquired the assets of the Hospital of Saint Raphael, making it a single 1,541-bed hospital with two main campuses, and establishing Saint Raphael's as Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus.

Camillians Roman Catholic religious order for the ministery of the sick

The Camillians or Clerics Regular, Ministers to the Sick are a Roman Catholic religious order, founded in 1582 by St. Camillus de Lellis (1550-1614). A large red cross was chosen by the founder as the distinguishing badge for the members of the Order to wear upon their black cassocks, which was later adopted as the international symbol of medical care. As of 2018, 1080 Camillians serve in 35 countries. They use the postnominal initials of M.I..

Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God religious order

The Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God are a Roman Catholic order founded in 1572. They are also known commonly as the Fatebenefratelli, meaning "Do-Good Brothers" in Italian, the Brothers of Mercy, and the Merciful Brothers. The Order carries out a wide range of health and social service activities in 389 centres and services in 46 countries.

SSM Health is a Catholic, not-for-profit United States health care system with 11,000 providers and nearly 39,000 employees in four states, including Wisconsin, Oklahoma, Illinois, and Missouri. SSM Health is one of the largest employers in the cities it serves.

Dignity Health

Dignity Health is a California-based not-for-profit public-benefit corporation that operates hospitals and ancillary care facilities in 3 states. As such, it is exempt from federal and state income taxes. Dignity Health is the fifth largest hospital system in the nation and the largest not-for-profit hospital provider in California. Dignity Health was founded in 1986 by the Sisters of Mercy under the name Catholic Healthcare West.

The word "nurse" originally came from the Latin word "nutrire", meaning to suckle, referring to a wet-nurse; only in the late 16th century did it attain its modern meaning of a person who cares for the infirm.

Hospital health care facility (for organizations use medical organization (Q4287745)

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with many beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received.

Anna Maria Dengel Austrian doctor, Religious Sister and foundress

Mother Anna Maria Dengel, S.C.M.M., was an Austrian physician, Religious Sister and missionary. She was the founder of the Medical Mission Sisters, which was among the first congregations of Religious Sisters authorized by the Roman Catholic Church to provide full medical care to the poor and needy in the overseas missions.

OSF HealthCare is a not-for-profit Catholic health care corporation that operates a medical group, hospital system, and other health care facilities in Illinois and Michigan. Headquartered in Peoria, Illinois, OSF HealthCare is owned and operated by the Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis.

The Medical Mission Sisters (MMS) are a religious congregation of women in the Roman Catholic Church founded in 1925 and dedicated to providing the poor of the world better access to health care. They were formerly officially known as the "Society of the Catholic Medical Missions".

Comprising about ten to fifteen per cent of the total population in Egypt, Coptic Orthodox Christians rely on the many services of the Orthodox Church and its dogma. Because the Copts compromise a small percentage of the population, most live in remote areas around Egypt mostly in the Zabbaleen, a poverty stricken area located in the Mokattam Village, Assuit, Akhmim, Girgeh, Luxor, Kuft and Nagada. As part of their core belief, Copts practice and accept the “Seven Sacrament,” which are explained as channels in which believers receive the sanctifications of the Holy Spirit. In Greek, the word “Sacrament” translates to “mystery” and Copts use this term specifically because of the unexplainable absolution that may derive from it. The Seven Sacraments are affirmed and derived by contemporary Orthodox Catechisms and textbooks. Although there are more than seven official Sacraments of the church, the Orthodox Confessions in the 17th century, endorsed by local councils against the Reformation such as Metrophanes Critopoulos in 1625, Peter Mogila in 1638 and Dostheos of Jerusalem in 1672, determined that there were seven important Sacraments to a spiritual life and the Orthodox Church accepted this. The Seven Sacraments are in order of: baptism, confirmation, repentance and confession, communion, matrimony, anointing of the sick, and priesthood. Here, we will further examine the sixth Sacrament, ‘anointing of the sick’, but first we must briefly contextualize Orthodoxy in Egypt to understand the hierarchy of the Church among Egyptians in Egypt and worldwide.

The history of hospitals has stretched over 2500 years, starting with precursors in the Ascelpian temples in ancient Greece and then the military hospitals in ancient Rome, though no civilian hospital existed in the Roman empire until the Christian period. Towards the end of the 4th century, the "second medical revolution" took place with the founding of the first Christian hospital in the eastern Byzantine Empire by Basil of Caesarea, and within a few decades, such hospitals had become ubiquitous in Byzantine society. The hospital would undergo development and progress throughout Byzantine, medieval European and Islamic societies, until the early modern era where care and healing would transition into a secular affair.

The history of medicine in the United States encompasses a variety of periods and approaches to health care in the United States from colonial days to the present, ranging from early folk remedies to the increasing professionalization and managed care of modern medicine.

Trinity Health Mid-Atlantic was formed in October 2018 by the joining together of Mercy Catholic Medical Center – Mercy Fitzgerald Campus in Darby, Pennsylvania; Mercy Catholic Medical Center – Mercy Philadelphia Campus; Nazareth Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Saint Francis Healthcare in Wilmington, Delaware; St. Mary Medical Center in Langhorne, Pennsylvania; and their associated home health and LIFE programs, physician practices, aligned joint ventures, sub-corporations, programs and services.

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