Hungarian Greek Catholic Church

Last updated

Hungarian Greek Catholic Church
Greek Catholic Cathedral Hajdudorog.jpg
Classification Catholic
Orientation Eastern Catholic
Theology Christian
Polity Episcopal
Governance Metropolitanate
Pope Francis
Archbishop Metropolitan Péter Fülöp Kocsis
Associations Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Region Hungary
Liturgy Byzantine Rite
Headquarters Debrecen, Hungary [1]
Origin8 June 1912
Hungary
Merger of Catholic Church
Congregations187 [2]
Members326,200 [2]
Official website gorogkatolikus.hu
Hungarian Greek Catholic Church administrative divisions Hungarian Greek Catholic Church administrative divisions.svg
Hungarian Greek Catholic Church administrative divisions

The Hungarian Greek Catholic Church (Hungarian : Magyar görögkatolikus egyház; Latin : Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Hungariae) or Hungarian Byzantine Catholic Church is a metropolitan sui iuris ("autonomous") Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Catholic Church. It is headquartered in Debrecen. [1] Its liturgical usage is that of the Byzantine Rite in the Hungarian language.

Contents

History

Hungary's Greek Catholics were originally concentrated in what is now northeastern Hungary. This region was historically inhabited by Byzantine Rite Christians from the Carpathian Mountains (Ruthenians and Romanians).[ citation needed ] Serbs fleeing the Turkish advance arrived later in what was then Hungary, but most stayed in the area that is now part of Serbia. Later still, when the Turks were driven back from Vienna in 1683 and from Buda and central Hungary in 1686, Ruthenians and Slovaks settled in the abandoned lands of Hungary. They were cared for by the Ruthenian Byzantine Rite Eparchy of Mukacheve (Hungarian: Munkács). In the 17-18th centuries, during the conflict with Protestants, many Hungarians joined the Greek Catholic Church, and so adopted the Byzantine Rite rather than the Latin, which resulted in a considerable increase in their number. [3]

Perhaps largely because of this last element, Byzantine Hungarians began to use the Hungarian language in their liturgy. A translation of the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom for private study was published in 1795. A book containing the parts of the liturgy that the people sing appeared in 1862. Representatives of 58 Hungarian-speaking parishes met in 1868 and set up an organization to promote the liturgical use of the Hungarian language and the establishment of a separate eparchy. 1882 saw the publication, without formal ecclesiastical approval, of a Hungarian translation of the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom for actual use, which was soon followed by Hungarian translations of other liturgical texts.[ citation needed ]

Sui iuris

Finally, on 8 June 1912, Pope Pius X established the Eparchy of Hajdúdorog [4] [5] for the 162 Hungarian-speaking Greek Catholic parishes. He limited the use of Hungarian to non-liturgical functions, requiring the clergy to use Greek in the liturgy, but granted an interval of three years for the change of language to be effected. Because of the outbreak of the First World War, this interval was prolonged indefinitely, and use of Hungarian has continued.[ citation needed ]

The change of national frontiers after the First World War led to the reduction of the territory of the Eparchy of Hajdúdorog from the 168 parishes to which it had grown to only 90. Within Hungary there were also 21 parishes of the Eparchy of Prešov and one of the Eparchy of Mukačevo. On 4 June 1924, these were brought together as the new Exarchate of Miskolc, [6] [gci 1] at first - because at that time they still used Church Slavonic in the liturgy - classified as Ruthenian, but now considered part of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church.[ citation needed ]

The church was in a unique position under the Hungarian Communist regime. Unlike its counterparts in Romania or Soviet Ukraine, it was neither outlawed nor especially targeted for persecution. Factors for this relative leniency include the church's small size, its poverty (northeast Hungary, where its adherents are concentrated, has historically been the country's poorest area) as well as the near absence of an Orthodox church into which Greek Catholics could have been forced to merge. [7]

The territory of the eparchy at first corresponded to that of the Latin Church Archdiocese of Eger in eastern Hungary and Budapest. But its jurisdiction was extended on 17 July 1980 to the whole of Hungary.[ citation needed ]

On 20 March 2015, Pope Francis elevated the Hungarian Church to a Metropolitanate with Debrecen as its Metropolitan See, naming Bishop Fülöp Kocsis as its metropolitan. He also raised the Apostolic Exarchate of Miskolc to the status of an Eparchy, to be headed by Bishop Atanáz Orosz. Finally he erected the Eparchy of Nyiregyhaza from territory previously within the See of Hajdúdorog. The two eparchies are suffragans of the Hajdúdorog see. [8]

A small number of Hungarian Greek Catholics have emigrated to North America, where their few parishes are aggregated, in the United States of America, to the Ruthenian Byzantine Metropolia, and, in Canada, to the Ukrainian eparchies. [9] More than half of the diocesan priests are married. [10]

Structure

The Church comprises only a single ecclesiastical province, which consists of the Metropolitan Archeparchy (Archdiocese) and two suffragan Eparchies (dioceses):

Its bishops are members of the (mainly Latin) episcopal conference of Hungary.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Exarch</span> Former political and military office; now an ecclesiastical office

An exarch was the holder of any of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church</span> Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church

The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular church that is in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church. It is the second-largest particular church in the Catholic Church, second only to the Latin Church. As a major archiepiscopal church, it is governed by a Major Archbishop; the incumbent is Sviatoslav Shevchuk.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church</span> Eastern Catholic church of the Byzantine Rite

The Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church, also known in the United States simply as the Byzantine Catholic Church, is an Eastern Catholic church that uses the Byzantine Rite for its liturgies, laws, and cultural identity. It is one of the 23 sui juris Eastern Catholic churches that are in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church. There are significant, culturally distinct communities in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In the United States, the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh is self-governing. In Europe, Ruthenian jurisdictions are exempt, i.e. dependent directly on the Holy See. The European branch has an eparchy in Ukraine and another in the Czech Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh</span> Metropolitan province for Byzantine Rite Catholics in the North America

The Byzantine Catholic Metropolis of Pittsburgh is a metropolitan province for Eastern Catholics of the Byzantine Rite in the United States of America, with specific jurisdiction over several communities that originated from the regions of Carpathian Ruthenia, Slovakia, Hungary and former Yugoslavia. Its membership thus includes several Byzantine Catholic groups, mainly among Rusyn Americans, Slovak Americans, Hungarian Americans, and Croatian Americans. Since 2022, the Exarchate of Saints Cyril and Methodius of Toronto in Canada has also been under the provincial jurisdiction the Metropolis of Pittsburgh rather than the Slovak Greek Catholic Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ruthenian Catholic Eparchy of the Holy Protection of Mary of Phoenix</span> Ruthenian Catholic Church hierarchy

The Holy Protection of Mary Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Phoenix, commonly known as the Eparchy of Phoenix and formerly known as the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Van Nuys, is a Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church territory jurisdiction or eparchy of the Catholic Church in the western United States. Its episcopal see is Phoenix, Arizona. The last bishop was the Most Reverend John Stephen Pazak.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ethiopian Catholic Church</span> Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church within the Catholic Church

The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church within the Catholic Church, established in 1930 in Ethiopia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Macedonian Greek Catholic Church</span> Eastern Catholic church

The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church is sui juris Eastern Catholic church in full union with the Catholic Church which uses the Macedonian language in the liturgy. The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church comprises a single eparchy, the Macedonian Catholic Eparchy of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Strumica-Skopje.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slovak Greek Catholic Church</span> Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church

The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Catholic Church and the Pope of Rome. Its liturgical rite is the Byzantine Rite. In 2008 in Slovakia alone, the Slovak Greek Catholic Church had some 350,000 faithful, 374 priests and 254 parishes. In 2017, the Catholic Church counted 207,320 Slovak Greek Catholics worldwide, representing roughly one percent of all Eastern Catholics.

Nicholas Thomas Elko was the third bishop of the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh, the American branch of the Ruthenian Catholic Church. At the age of 46 he became the first American-born Bishop of the Greek Catholic Church. He later served as Auxiliary Bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati, Ohio.

Stephen John Kocisko was the first Metropolitan Archbishop of the Byzantine Catholic Metropolitan Church of Pittsburgh, the American branch of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh</span> Archeparchy of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

The Byzantine Catholic Archeparchy of Pittsburgh is a Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church ecclesiastical territory or archeparchy of the Catholic Church that serves portions of the Eastern United States. Its territory covers the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend William C. Skurla, whose is resident in the archepiscopal see of Pittsburgh, Allegheny, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian Catholic Archeparchy of Hajdúdorog</span> Eastern Catholic archeparchy in Hungary

The Hungarian (Greek) Catholic Archeparchy of Hajdúdorog is a Metropolitan archeparchy of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slovak Catholic Metropolitan Archeparchy of Prešov</span> Eastern Catholic archeparchy in Slovakia

The Archeparchy of Prešov is a Slovak Greek Catholic Church ecclesiastical territory or archeparchy of the Catholic Church in Slovakia. Its territory covers the Prešov Region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apostolic Exarchate of the Greek Catholic Church in the Czech Republic</span> Eastern Catholic ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Czechia

The Apostolic Exarchate of the Greek Catholic Church in the Czech Republic is an Eastern Catholic institution overseeing Catholics of byzantine-slavonic rite in the Czech Republic. It uses the localized Byzantine Rite in archaic Church Slavonic language. Its cathedral episcopal see is St. Clement's Cathedral, Prague.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Péter Fülöp Kocsis</span> Hungarian Greek Catholic archbishop (born 1963)

Péter Fülöp Kocsis is a Hungarian Greek Catholic archbishop. He is as metropolitan archbishop of the Archeparchy of Hajdúdorog, the head of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian Catholic Eparchy of Nyíregyháza</span> Eastern Catholic eparchy in Hungary

The Hungarian (Greek) Catholic Eparchy of Nyíregyháza is an eparchy (diocese) of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic church which uses the Byzantine Rite in the Hungarian language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hungarian Catholic Eparchy of Miskolc</span> Eastern Catholic eparchy in Hungary

The Hungarian (Greek) Catholic Eparchy of Miskolc is an eparchy of the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church, a Metropolitan particular church sui juris which uses the Byzantine Rite in the Hungarian language.

References

  1. 1 2 "Ferenc pápa megalapította a Hajdúdorogi Metropóliát" (in Hungarian). Hungarian Catholic Church website. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  2. 1 2 Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2014" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  3. Magyar Katolikus Lexikon (Hungarian Catholic Lexicon): Görögkatolikusok (Greek Catholics)
  4. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Hajdúdorog". All Dioceses. catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  5. "Diocese of Hajdúdorog". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  6. Cheney, David M. "Apostolic Exarchate of Miskolc". All Dioceses. catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  7. Stéphane Mahieu, “The Hungarian Greek Catholic Church”, in Lucian Leuștean (ed.), Eastern Christianity and Politics in the Twenty-First Century, p. 590-91. Routledge, 2014, ISBN   978-1-315-81903-7
  8. "Pope raises Byzantine-rite Hungarian Catholic Church to status of sui juris metropolitan see | News Headlines".
  9. Roberson, Ronald G. "The Hungarian Catholic Church. Page 2". Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  10. Galadza, Peter (2010). "Eastern Catholic Christianity". In Parry, Kenneth (ed.). The Blackwell companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell companions to religion. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 303. ISBN   978-1-4443-3361-9.
  1. "Apostolic Exarchate of Miskolc". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic. Retrieved 10 January 2012.

Coordinates: 47°57′19″N21°42′45″E / 47.9554°N 21.7124°E / 47.9554; 21.7124