Buda

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Buda in the Middle Ages Nuremberg chronicles - BVJA.png
Buda in the Middle Ages

Buda (Hungarian pronunciation:  [ˈbudɒ] ; German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Serbian: Будим, Czech and Slovak: Budín, Turkish: Budin) was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises a third of Budapest's total territory and is mostly wooded. Landmarks include Buda Castle, the Citadella, and the president of Hungary's residence, Sándor Palace.

Contents

Demographics

Flag of Buda before 1873. Flag of Buda (pre-1873).svg
Flag of Buda before 1873.
Historical coat of arms of Buda, used between 1703 and 1873. Buda varos cimere 1703.JPG
Historical coat of arms of Buda, used between 1703 and 1873.

The Buda fortress and palace were built by King Béla IV of Hungary in 1247, and were the nucleus around which the town of Buda was built, which soon gained great importance, and became in 1361 the capital of Hungary. [2]

While Pest was mostly Hungarian in the 15th century, Buda had a German majority; [3] however according to the Hungarian Royal Treasury, it had a Hungarian majority with a sizeable German minority in 1495. [4] Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686. It was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era. By the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim, largely resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. [5]

In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda, which was formerly the capital of medieval Hungary. This time, the Holy League's army was twice as large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Dutch, Hungarian, English, Spanish, Czech, French, Croat, Burgundian, Danish and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers, artillerymen, and officers, the Christian forces reconquered Buda (see Siege of Buda).

After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the almost deserted city. Germans — also clinging to their language — partly crowded out, partly assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here. [3] As the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century slowly Hungarians became the majority there.

Notable residents

Twin cities

See also

Related Research Articles

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Tabán

Tabán usually refers to an area within the 1st district of Budapest, the capital of Hungary. It lies on the Buda side of the Danube, to the south of György Dózsa Square, on the northern side of Elisabeth Bridge and to the east of Naphegy. Outside of Budapest, several other Hungarian cities and towns also have districts called Tabán.

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Kelenföld

Kelenföld is a neighborhood in Budapest, Hungary. It belongs to Újbuda, and located in the southern part of Buda. The large Kelenföld housing estate was built between 1967 and 1983 from pre-fabricated concrete blocks. The older streets around Bocskai út were mainly built in the first half of the 20th century. The Kelenföld railway station is an important transport hub of Buda, especially since 2014, when it gained convenient access to the city center thanks to the newly opened Metro Line M4. Kelenföld Power Station, the largest electrical generation plant in the world after its construction in 1912, is now a tourist attraction and has received coverage in the English-speaking world in recent years thanks in part to its Art Deco control room.

Sashegy

Sashegy is a hill and neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. It is a green, upper middle class area in Buda with expensive family homes. Administratively Sashegy is divided between the 11th and the 12th districts of Budapest.

Ottoman Hungary

Ottoman Hungary describes the history of southern and central Medieval Hungary which was conquered and ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1541 to 1699. The Ottoman rule was scattered and covered mostly the southern territories of the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary, namely almost the entire region of the Great Hungarian Plain and Southern Transdanubia.

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Siege of Buda (1686)

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History of Budapest

The city of Budapest was officially created on 17 November 1873 from a merger of the three neighboring cities of Pest, Buda and Óbuda. Smaller towns on the outskirts of the original city were amalgamated into Greater Budapest in 1950. The origins of Budapest can be traced to Celts who occupied the plains of Hungary in the 4th century BC. The area was later conquered by the Roman Empire, which established the fortress and town of Aquincum on the site of today's Budapest around AD 100. The Romans were expelled in the 5th century by the Huns, who were challenged by various tribes during the next several centuries. The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin started at the end of the 9th century, and the Kingdom of Hungary was established at the end of the 11th century.

Ecser Large village in Pest, Hungary

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Demographics of Budapest

The population of Budapest was 1,735,041 on 1 January 2013. According to the 2011 census, the Budapest metropolitan area was home to 2,530,167 people and the Budapest commuter area had 3.3 million inhabitants. The Hungarian capital is the largest in the Pannonian Basin and the ninth largest in the European Union. Budapest is also the primate city of Hungary and some neighbouring territories.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Budapest, Hungary.

St. Catherine of Alexandria Church, Budapest Church in Budapest, Hungary

The St. Catherine of Alexandria Church is a Roman Catholic church in the Tabán quarter of Budapest, Hungary. It is the parish church of the Tabán Parish which also comprises parts of Gellért Hill and Naphegy. The church is a listed monument that was built in Central European Baroque style between 1728 and 1777. It was reconstructed several times in the 19-20th centuries.

References

  1. 1 2 Nyerges, András, ed. (1998). Pest-Buda, Budapest szimbólumai[Budapest arms & colours: throughout the centuries]. Budapest: Budapest Főváros Levéltára. p. 2.
  2. The Budapest article of Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
  3. 1 2 "Budapest". A Pallas Nagy Lexikona (in Hungarian). Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  4. Károly Kocsis (DSc, University of Miskolc) – Zsolt Bottlik (PhD, Budapest University) – Patrik Tátrai: Etnikai térfolyamatok a Kárpát-medence határon túli régióiban, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) – Földrajtudományi Kutatóintézet (Academy of Geographical Studies); Budapest; 2006.; ISBN   963-9545-10-4, CD Atlas
  5. Faroqhi, Suraiya (1994). "Crisis and Change, 1590-1699". In İnalcık, Halil; Donald Quataert (eds.). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 440. ISBN   0-521-57456-0.

Further reading

Coordinates: 47°28′N19°03′E / 47.467°N 19.050°E / 47.467; 19.050