Latin liturgical rites

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Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church, the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, that originated in Europe where the Latin language once dominated. Its language is now known as Ecclesiastical Latin. The most used rite is the Roman Rite.

Contents

The Latin rites were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. Their number is now much reduced. In the aftermath of the Council of Trent, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries (see Tridentine Mass and Roman Missal). Many local rites that remained legitimate even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, most of the religious orders that had a distinct liturgical rite chose to adopt in its place the Roman Rite as revised in accordance with the decrees of the Second Vatican Council (see Mass of Paul VI). A few such liturgical rites persist today for the celebration of Mass, since 19651970 in revised forms, but the distinct liturgical rites for celebrating the other sacraments have been almost completely abandoned.

Liturgical rites currently in use within the Latin Church

Roman Rite

The Roman Rite is by far the most widely used. Like other liturgical rites, it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium, during half of its existence (see Pre-Tridentine Mass). The forms that Pope Pius V, as requested by the Council of Trent, established in the 1560s and 1570s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition (the edition to which other printings are to conform) of the Roman Missal (see Tridentine Mass) and of the other liturgical books superseded the previous one.

The 20th century saw more profound changes. Pope Pius X radically rearranged the Psalter of the Breviary and altered the rubrics of the Mass. Pope Pius XII significantly revised the Holy Week ceremonies and certain other aspects of the Roman Missal in 1955.

Ordinary Form

The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) was followed by a general revision of the rites of all the Roman Rite sacraments, including the Mass. As before, each new typical edition of an official liturgical book supersedes the previous one. Thus, the 1970 Roman Missal, which superseded the 1962 edition, was superseded by the edition of 1975. The 2002 edition in turn supersedes the 1975 edition both in Latin and, as official translations into each language appear, also in the vernacular languages. Under the terms of Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI, the Mass of Paul VI, which followed Vatican II, is known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite.

Extraordinary Form

The Tridentine Mass, as in the 1962 Roman Missal, and other pre-Vatican II rites are still authorized for use within the Roman Rite under the conditions indicated in the motu proprio Traditionis Custodes . These practices emanate from the liturgical reforms of the Council of Trent, from which the word "Tridentine" is derived. Following its description in Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI, the ritual use of liturgical books promulgated before Vatican II is often referred to as the "Extraordinary Form."

Anglican Use (Divine Worship)

The Anglican Use is a form–a "use"–or variation of the Roman Rite, rather than a unique rite itself. During the Liturgy of the Eucharist, especially the Eucharistic Prayer, it is closest to other forms of the Roman Rite, while it differs more during the Liturgy of the Word and the Penitential Rite. The language used, which differs from that of the ICEL translation of the Roman Rite of Mass, is based upon the Book of Common Prayer , originally written in the 16th century. Prior to the establishment of the personal ordinariates, parishes in the United States were called "Anglican Use" and used the Book of Divine Worship , an adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer. The Book of Divine Worship has been replaced with the similar Divine Worship: The Missal for use in the ordinariates worldwide, replacing the official term "Anglican Use" with "Divine Worship".

Anglican liturgical rituals, whether those used in the ordinariates of the Catholic Church or in the various prayer books and missals of the Anglican Communion and other denominations, trace their origin back to the Sarum Use, which was a variation of the Roman Rite used in England before introduction during the reign of Edward VI of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer, following the break from the Roman church under the previous monarch Henry VIII. [1]

In the United States, under a Pastoral Provision in 1980, personal parishes were established that introduced adapted Anglican traditions to the Catholic Church from members' former Episcopal parishes. That provision also permitted, as an exception and on a case-by-case basis, the ordination of married former Episcopal ministers as Catholic priests. As personal parishes, these parishes were formerly part of the local Catholic diocese, but accepted as members any former Anglican who wished to make use of the provision.

On 9 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI established a worldwide provision for Anglicans who joined the church. This process set up personal ordinariates for former Anglicans and other persons entering the full communion of the Catholic Church. These ordinariates would be similar to dioceses, but encompassing entire regions or nations. Parishes belonging to an ordinariate would not be part of the local diocese. These ordinariates are charged with maintaining the Anglican liturgical, spiritual and pastoral traditions, and they have full faculties to celebrate the Eucharist and the other sacraments, the Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical functions in accordance with the liturgical books proper to the Anglican tradition, in revisions approved by the Holy See. This faculty does not exclude liturgical celebrations according to the Roman Rite. [2]

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham was set up for England and Wales on 15 January 2011; the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States and Canada on 1 January 2012; and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia on 15 June 2012. As of 2017 it was decreed that all parishes in the United States established under the Pastoral Provision be transferred to the Ordinariate. Bishop Steven Lopes of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter has requested that terms such as "Anglican Use" and "Anglican Ordinariate" be avoided, saying "Our clergy and faithful do not like being called Anglican, both because this is insensitive to actual Anglicans, and because it is a subtle way of suggesting that their entrance into full communion is less that total. We are Catholic in every sense." [3]

Algonquian and Iroquoian Uses

Also called "Indian Masses", a number of variations on the Roman Rite developed in the Indian missions of Canada and the United States. These originated in the 17th century, and some remained in use until the Second Vatican Council. The priest's parts remained in Latin, while the ordinaries sung by the choir were translated into the vernacular (e.g., Mohawk, Algonquin, Micmac, and Huron). They also generally featured a reduced cycle of native-language propers and hymns. [4]

Zaire Use

The Zaire Use is an inculturated variation of the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite of the Roman Catholic Church. It has been used to a very limited extent in some African countries since the late 1970s.

Sarum Use

The Use of Sarum is a variant on the Roman rite originating in the Diocese of Salisbury, which had come to be widely practised in England and Scotland until its suppression during the English Reformation and replaced by the Book of Common Prayer, which was heavily influenced by it in the then schismatic Church of England, and its usage among the remaining Catholics was gradually supplanted by the Tridentine Mass. It was practised during the Middle Ages alongside limited other variants such as the Use of York, Lincoln Use, Bangor Use, and Hereford Use, until the suppression of all the other local uses. The Use of Sarum saw a revival during the 19th Century due to the increasing interest in medieval Catholicism stemming from the Gothic Revival and the Oxford Movement. Today, the Sarum Use is used by a small number of Catholic clergy and some Western Orthodox groups. It is used by some Anglican clerics as well, albeit being viewed as invalid by the Catholic Church due to the invalidity of the Anglican orders.[ citation needed ]

Western Rites of "Gallican" type

Ambrosian Rite

The Ambrosian Rite is celebrated in most of the Archdiocese of Milan, Italy, and in parts of some neighbouring dioceses in Italy and Switzerland. The language used is now usually Italian, rather than Latin. With some variant texts and minor differences in the order of readings, it is similar in form to the Roman Rite. Its classification as Gallican-related is disputed. [5]

Rite of Braga

The Rite of Braga is used, but since 18 November 1971 only on an optional basis, in the Archdiocese of Braga in northern Portugal. [6] [7]

Mozarabic Rite

The Mozarabic Rite, which was prevalent throughout Spain in Visigothic times, is now celebrated only in limited locations, principally the cathedral of Toledo.

Carthusian Rite

The Carthusian rite is in use in a version revised in 1981. [8] Apart from the new elements in this revision, it is substantially the rite of Grenoble in the 12th century, with some admixture from other sources. [9] Among other differences from the Roman Order of Mass, the deacon prepares the gifts while the Epistle is being sung, the celebrating priest washes his hands twice at the offertory and says the eucharistic prayer with arms extended in the form of a cross except when using his hands for some specific action, and there is no blessing at the end of Mass. [10]

This is now the only extant Mass rite of a Catholic religious order;[ citation needed ] but by virtue of the Ecclesia Dei indult some individuals or small groups are authorized to use some now-defunct rites.

Western Rite of sui generis type

Benedictine Rite

The Order of Saint Benedict has never had a rite of the Mass peculiar to it, but it keeps its very ancient Benedictine Rite of the Liturgy of the Hours.

Defunct Catholic Western liturgical rites

African Rite

In Africa Proconsulare, located in present-day Tunisia (of which Carthage was the capital), the African Rite was used before the 7th-century Arab conquest. It was very close to the Roman Rite – so much so that Western liturgical traditions have been classified as belonging to two streams, the North African-Rome tradition, and the Gallican (in the broad sense) tradition encompassing the rest of the Western Roman Empire, including northern Italy. [11]

Celtic Rite

The ancient Celtic Rite was a composite of non-Roman ritual structures (possibly Antiochian) and texts not exempt from Roman influence, that was similar to the Mozarabic Rite in many respects and would have been used at least in parts of Ireland, Scotland, the northern part of England and perhaps even Wales, Cornwall and Somerset, before being authoritatively replaced by the Roman Rite in the early Middle Ages. "Celtic" is possibly a misnomer and it may owe its origins to Augustine's re-evangelisation of the British Isles in the 6th century. Little is known of it, though several texts and liturgies survive.

Some Christians – typically groups not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, especially some Western Orthodox Christian communities in communion with Eastern Orthodox Churches, e.g. Celtic Orthodoxy – have attempted to breathe life into a reconstruction of the Celtic Rite, the historical accuracy of which is debated. Historical evidence of this rite is found in the remnants of the Stowe (Lorrha) Missal .

Gallican Rite

The Gallican Rite is a retrospective term applied to the sum of the local variants, on similar lines to that designated elsewhere as the Celtic Rite (above) and the Mozarabic Rite, which faded from use in France by the end of the first millennium. It should not be confused with the so-called Neo-Gallican liturgical books published in various French dioceses after the Council of Trent, which had little or nothing to do with it. [12]

Regional Latin rites or uses

Several local rites of limited scope existed, but are now defunct. More properly these are uses or variants of the Roman Rite, most with Gallican elements, some with Byzantine liturgical and traditional elements.

Rites of religious orders

Some religious orders celebrated Mass according to rites of their own, dating from more than 200 years before the papal bull Quo primum . These rites were based on local usages and combined elements of the Roman and Gallican Rites. Following the Second Vatican Council, they have mostly been abandoned, except for the Carthusian Rite (see above). Religious orders of more recent origin have never had special rites.

The following previously existing rites of Mass, distinct from the Roman Rite, continue to be used on a limited basis by the permission of ecclesiastical superiors: [15]

The Catholic Encyclopedia applied the word "rite" also to the practices followed (to some extent even now, a century later) by certain Catholic religious orders, while at the same time stating that they in fact followed the Roman Rite: [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Mass is the main Eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church, and in the Western Rite Orthodox, and Old Catholic churches. The term is used in some Lutheran churches, as well as in some Anglican churches. The term is also used, on rare occasion, by other Protestant churches, such as in Methodism.

The Mass of Paul VI, also known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite Mass, the most commonly used liturgy in the Latin Church, sometimes referred as the post–Vatican II Mass, is the form promulgated after the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) by Pope Paul VI in 1969. It was published by him in the 1970 edition of the Roman Missal and the revised 1975 edition, and as further revised by Pope John Paul II in 2000 and published in the third Vatican II edition (2002).

Tridentine Mass Type of mass in the Roman Catholic Church

The Tridentine Mass, also known as the Traditional Latin Mass (TLM), is the Roman Rite Mass of the Catholic Church which appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962. Celebrated exclusively in Ecclesiastical Latin, it was the most widely used Eucharistic liturgy in the world from its issuance in 1570 until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI.

Anglican Use Roman Rite liturgical use of former Anglicans in the Catholic Church

The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain "aspects of the Anglican patrimony that are of particular value". The use's most common occurrence is within parishes of the Personal ordinariates, which were erected to fulfill that patrimonial need.

Use of Sarum Latin liturgical rite of Britain and Ireland

The Use of Sarum is the Latin liturgical rite developed at Salisbury Cathedral and used from the late eleventh century until the English Reformation. It is largely identical to the Roman rite, with about ten per cent of its material drawn from other sources. The cathedral's liturgy was widely respected during the late Middle Ages, and churches throughout the British Isles and parts of northwestern Europe adapted its customs for celebrations of the Eucharist and Liturgy of the Hours. The use has a unique ecumenical position in influencing and being authorized by Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches.

Christian liturgy Pattern for worship used by a Christian congregation or denomination

Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis. The term liturgy comes from Greek and means "public work".

<i>Book of Divine Worship</i> Adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer for Roman Catholic use

The Book of Divine Worship (BDW) was an adaptation of the American Book of Common Prayer (BCP) by the Catholic Church. It was used primarily by former members of the Episcopal Church within Anglican Use parishes of the Pastoral Provision and the Personal Ordinariates. It has been replaced by a new book to be used worldwide, titled Divine Worship: The Missal.

The Pastoral Provision, in the context of the Catholic Church in the United States, is a set of practices and norms by which bishops are authorized to provide spiritual care for Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, by establishing parishes for them and ordaining priests from among them. The Pastoral Provision still provides a way for individuals to become priests in territorial dioceses, even though Anglicanorum Coetibus was declared which led to the establishment of Personal Ordinariates, another mechanism for former Anglicans to join the Catholic Church.

Latin Mass Catholic mass celebrated in Latin

A Latin Mass is a Roman Catholic Mass celebrated in Ecclesiastical Latin. While the liturgy is Latin, any sermon may be in the local vernacular, as permitted since the Council of Tours 813.

Roman Rite Most widespread liturgical rite in the Latin Church

The Roman Rite is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church. It developed in the Latin language in the city of Rome and, while distinct Latin liturgical rites such as the Ambrosian Rite remain, the Roman Rite has over time been adopted almost everywhere in the Western Church. In medieval times there were very many local variants, even if they did not all amount to distinct rites, but uniformity grew as a result of the invention of printing and in obedience to the decrees of the 1545–1563 Council of Trent. Several Latin liturgical rites that survived into the 20th century were abandoned voluntarily in the wake of the Second Vatican Council. The Roman Rite is now the most widespread liturgical rite not only in the Latin Church but in Christianity as a whole.

Anglican Missal Anglican liturgical book

The Anglican Missal is a liturgical book used liturgically by some Anglo-Catholics and other High Church Anglicans as a supplement to the Book of Common Prayer.

Pre-Tridentine Mass

Pre-Tridentine Mass refers to the variants of the liturgical rite of Mass in Rome before 1570, when, with his bull Quo primum, Pope Pius V made the Roman Missal, as revised by him, obligatory throughout the Latin-Rite or Western Church, except for those places and congregations whose distinct rites could demonstrate an antiquity of two hundred years or more.

The English Missal is a translation of the Roman Missal used by some Anglo-Catholic parish churches. After its publication by W. Knott & Son Limited in 1912, The English Missal was rapidly endorsed by the growing Ritualist movement of Anglo-Catholic clergy, who viewed the liturgies of the Book of Common Prayer as insufficient expressions of fully Catholic worship. The translation of the Roman Missal from Latin into the stylized Elizabethan Early Modern English of the Book of Common Prayer allowed clergy to preserve the use of the vernacular language while adopting the Roman Catholic texts and liturgical rubrics.

Mass in the Catholic Church Central liturgical ritual of the Roman Catholic Church

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Western Rite Orthodoxy Congregations within the Eastern Orthodox Church which use liturgies of Western or Latin origin rather than adopting Eastern liturgies

Western Rite Orthodoxy, also called Western Orthodoxy or Orthodox Western Rite, are congregations within the autocephalous churches of Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy which perform their liturgy in Western forms.

Summorum Pontificum is an apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specified the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church could celebrate Mass according to what he called the "Missal promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962", and administer most of the sacraments in the form used before the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council.

The liturgical books of the Roman Rite are the official books containing the words to be recited and the actions to be performed in the celebration of Catholic liturgy as done in Rome. The Roman Rite of the Latin or Western Church of the Catholic Church is the most widely celebrated of the scores of Catholic liturgical rites. The titles of some of these books contain the adjective "Roman", e.g. the "Roman Missal", to distinguish them from the liturgical books for the other rites of the Church,.

Order of Mass is an outline of a Mass celebration, describing how and in what order liturgical texts and rituals are employed to constitute a Mass.

Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter Diocese-like institution of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States

The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter is a personal ordinariate jurisdiction within the Catholic Church for priests and laypeople from an Anglican background, that enables them to retain elements of their Anglican patrimony after entering the Catholic Church. Its territory extends over the United States and Canada. The personal ordinariate, roughly the equivalent of a diocese, is part of the Latin Church. Former Methodists and former members of communions of "Anglican heritage" such as the United Church of Canada are also included. The liturgy of the ordinariates, known as the Anglican Use, is a form of the Roman Rite with the introduction of traditional Anglican elements.

<i>Divine Worship: The Missal</i> Current Anglican Use Missal of the Catholic Church

Divine Worship: The Missal (DW:TM) is the liturgical book containing the instructions and texts for the celebration of Mass by the former Anglicans within the Catholic Church in the three personal ordinariates of Great Britain, United States and Canada, and Australia. The rite contained in this missal is the Anglican Use, a variant of the Roman Rite eucharistic liturgy. It was approved for use beginning on the first Sunday of Advent, November 29, 2015.

References

  1. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Sarum Rite". Newadvent.org. 1912-02-01. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
  2. "Anglicanorum coetibus Providing for Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans Entering into Full Communion with the Catholic Church (November 4, 2009) | BENEDICT XVI". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  3. Voices, Other (2017-09-27). "In Interview: Bishop Steven Lopes". PrayTellBlog. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  4. Salvucci, Claudio R. 2008. The Roman Rite in the Algonquian and Iroquoian Missions. Merchantville, NJ:Evolution Publishing. See also http://mysite.verizon.net/driadzbubl/IndianMasses.html Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN   978-0-19-280290-3), article Ambrosian rite
  6. (in Portuguese) Braga - Capital de Distrito Archived September 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  7. "New Liturgical Movement: Rádio Renascença: Fr. Joseph Santos and the Rite of Braga". newliturgicalmovement.org.
  8. The text of the Carthusian Missal and the Order's other liturgical books is available at Carthusian Monks and Carthusian nuns Archived 2006-12-05 at the Wayback Machine
  9. The Carthusian Order in Catholic Encyclopedia. The text of the former Ordo Missae of the Carthusian Missal is available at this site.
  10. Non-Roman Latin or Western Rites Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  11. "Liturgica.com - Liturgics - Western Roman Liturgics - Early Western Liturgics". liturgica.com. Archived from the original on 2015-05-21.
  12. Anscar J. Chupungco (1997), Handbook for Liturgical Studies: Introduction to the liturgy, Liturgical Press, ISBN   978-0-8146-6161-1
  13. See the section Liturgy of the article Lyons in the Catholic Encyclopedia
  14. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2006-09-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. 1 2 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Rites"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.