Patriarchatus Hierosolymitanus Latinorum
Patriarch of Jerusalem
Archbishop Pierbattista Pizzaballa, Apostolic Administrator of Jerusalem
|Country|| Cyprus |
|Ecclesiastical province||None, exempt, i.e. directly subject to the Holy See|
|(as of 2012)|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Cathedral||Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre|
|Co-cathedral||Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus|
|Apostolic Administrator||Pierbattista Pizzaballa|
|Vicar General||Imad Twal|
The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Latin : Patriarchatus Latinus Hierosolymitanus) is the Catholic episcopal see of Jerusalem, officially seated in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It was originally established in 1099 with the Kingdom of Jerusalem encompassing the newly territories in the Holy Land conquered by the First Crusade. From 1374-1847 it was a titular see, with the Patriarchs of Jerusalem being based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. A resident Latin Patriarch was re-established in 1847 by Pius IX.
The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the archbishop of Latin Church Catholics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem with jurisdiction for all Latin Catholics in Israel, the Palestinian territories, Jordan and Cyprus. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem also holds the office of Grand Prior of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. Since 24 June 2016, the office of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is vacant (sede vacante), and the Patriarchate is managed by Archbishop Pierbattista Pizzaballa as apostolic administrator.
It is exempt, being directly subject to the Holy See (and exceptionally its Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches, which normally handles Eastern Catholics). It is not an ecclesiastical province, and has no metropolitan functions.
The title of Patriarch in the Latin Church is retained by only four archbishops (since Benedict XVI relinquished the papal title of "Patriarch of the West" in 2006): the Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem, of Venice, of Lisbon and of the East Indies. Until 1964, there had also been the honorary patriarchal titles of Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch; still others were abolished earlier. The title of "Patriarch of Jerusalem" is also used by the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, as well as, titularly (along Alexandria), by the Melkite Patriarch.
Jerusalem (in Latin also Hierosolyma) was one of the Apostles' original bishoprics. It was renamed Aelia Capitolina in 135 AD, again Jerusalem in 325. In 451 it was promoted as Patriarchal See. After 649, Pope Martin appointed John of Philadelphia (Amman) as Patriarchal vicar of Jerusalem to replace Sergius of Jaffa.
In 1054, the Great Schism split Christianity into the Eastern Orthodox Church —which consisted of the four Orthodox Christian Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Constantinople and Alexandria —under the stewardship of Constantinople; and the Catholic Church, which consisted of the Pope of Rome and virtually all of Western Christianity. Apart from the Maronites, most Christians in the Holy Land came under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
In 1099, the Western Crusaders captured Jerusalem, set up the Kingdom of Jerusalem and established a Latin hierarchy under a Latin Patriarch (in communion with Rome), while expelling the Orthodox Patriarch. The Latin Patriarchate was divided into four archdioceses —their heads bearing the titles of Archbishop of Tyre, Archbishop of Caesarea, Archbishop of Nazareth and Archbishop of Petra —and a number of suffragan dioceses. The Latin Patriarch took over control of the Latin quarter of the city of Jerusalem (the Holy Sepulchre and the immediate surroundings) as his Metropolitan see, and had as his direct suffragans the bishops of Lydda-Ramla, Bethlehem, Hebron and Gaza, and the abbots of the Temple, Mount Sion and the Mount of Olives.
The Latin Patriarch resided in Jerusalem from 1099 to 1187, while Orthodox Patriarchs continued to be appointed, but resided in Constantinople. In 1187, the Crusaders were forced to flee Jerusalem, and the Latin Patriarchy moved to Acre (Akka), while the Orthodox Patriarch returned to Jerusalem. The Catholic Church continued to appoint residential Latin Patriarchs. The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem endured almost 200 years until the last vestiges of the Kingdom were conquered by the Muslim Mamluks in 1291, and the Latin hierarchy was effectively eliminated in the Levant.
With the Fall of Acre, the Latin Patriarch moved to The Kingdom of Cyprus in 1291.
In 1374, the Kingdom of Cyprus underwent a severe upheaval when it was invaded by the Genoese, who conquered Famagusta and held King Peter II captive.
From that time on, the Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem ceased to reside in Cyprus. The Catholic Church continued to appoint titular Patriarchs of Jerusalem, but from then on they were based at the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome.
In 1342, Pope Clement VI officially committed the care of the Holy Land to the Franciscans and the Franciscan Custos of the Holy Lands (The Grand Masters of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre) held the title ex officio under the Papal bull Gratiam agimus by Pope Clement VI, unless someone was specifically appointed to the honorary office.
Yet in 1570 it gained territories from the suppressed Archdiocese of Nicosia and Diocese of Paphos, and in 1571 it gained more territories from the suppressed Diocese of Limassol and Diocese of Famagosta, all in former Crusader Kingdom of Cyprus, which had fallen to the Ottoman Turks.
A resident Latin Patriarch was re-established in 1847 by Pius IX, with Bishop Joseph Valerga being appointed to the office. Though officially superseding the Franciscans, Valerga was also the Grand Master of the Order. On Valerga's death in 1872, Vincent Braco was appointed, and following his death in 1889, the Ottoman Sultan authorised the re-establishment of a Latin hierarchy. The Grand Masters of the Order continued to be named as Latin Patriarchs until 1905.
The Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus is the principal, or "mother" Church of the Latin Patriarchate, the church in which the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem has his official chair (cathedra). km south of Jerusalem, where it has been since 1936.However, the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre has the title of cathedral of the patriarchate. The residence of the Patriarch is in the Old City, near the Co-Cathedral, while the seminary, which is responsible for the liturgical education, is in Beit Jala, a town 10
In 1987, Michel Sabbah became the first native Palestinian to be appointed Latin Patriarch. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the diocesan archbishop of Latin Catholics of the Catholic Archdiocese of Jerusalem and has jurisdiction for all Latin Church Catholics in Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Cyprus.
The prerogatives of the Patriarch in his relation with government authorities overlap with the prerogatives of the Apostolic Nuncio to Israel and the Apostolic Delegate to Jerusalem and Palestine.
In 2003, the Latin Patriarch was one of the signatories of the "Statement regarding the Separation Wall by heads of Churches in Jerusalem,"and in 2006, the Jerusalem Declaration on Christian Zionism, which repudiates Christian Zionism as inconsistent with Christian teaching. In 2008, Sabbah also signed the Kairos Palestine Document (published in 2009, after Sabbah term) against Israeli occupation.
In 2008, Archbishop Fouad Twal was appointed Patriarch to succeed Patriarch Michel Sabbah.He exercised his mandate from June 21, 2008, until June 24, 2016, when he reached the canonical age of retirement and Pope Francis accepted his resignation. Pope Francis appointed Pierbattista Pizzaballa as Apostolic Administrator sede vacante of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, until the appointment of a new Patriarch.
Pope Paul VI visited in January 1964, Pope John Paul II in March 2000, Pope Benedict XVI in May 2009 and Pope Francis in May 2014.
As per 2015, it pastorally served 293,053 Catholics in 66 parishes with 464 priests (81 diocesan, 383 religious), 9 deacons, 1,652 lay religious (590 brothers, 1,062 sisters) and 55 seminarians.
The proper Archdiocese of the patriarchal see of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over all 'Latin Church' Catholics (not Eastern Catholics) in the Holy Land (Israel, Palestine and Jordan) as well as Cyprus. In Jerusalem, the Latin Catholic community is the largest Christian community, with some 4,500 people out of an estimated Christian population of about 11,000.
In Jerusalem, the patriarch has his Cathedral archiepiscopal see, a Minor Basilica and World Heritage Site: the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, as well as the Co-Cathedral, also a World Heritage Site: Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, and four other Minor Basilicas and World Heritage Sites: Basilica of the Agony, Basilica of St. Stephen, Dormition Abbey of the Virgin Mary and St. Anne’s Church.
Other cities in the archdiocese have more Minor Basilicas: Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth, Basilica of the Transfiguration in Mount Tabor, Carmelite Monastery of Stella Maris in Haifa and Church of Emmaus in Emmaus (El Qubeibeh), and two other World Heritage Sites, both in Bethlehem : Church of St. Catherine and Church of the Nativity.
Prior to the Great Schism, there were no separate Latin and Greek Orthodox Churches, and thus no separate Patriarchs. For Patriarchs of Jerusalem of the unified Church prior to the Schism, see Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem itself was lost in 1187; seat of the Patriarch moved (with the kingdom in retreat) to Acre.
Acre lost in 1291; see in exile moved to Cyprus, then Rome after 1374; titular patriarchs until 1847.
The Franciscan Custodian of the Holy Land held the title from 1342 to 1830 under the Papal bull Gratiam agimus by Pope Clement VI. The bull declared the Franciscans as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church, "unless someone was specifically appointed in the honorary office".
During the Western Schism, the Patriarch was appointed by both Popes resulting in overlapping appointments.
Restoration of resident Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem in 1847.
Latin patriarchate hierarchy re-established in 1889.
Vacant (2016.06.24 – ...); Pierbattista Pizzaballa is the Apostolic Administrator
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church, and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs.
The Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople was an office established as a result of the Fourth Crusade and its conquest of Constantinople in 1204. It was a Roman Catholic replacement for the Eastern Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, and remained in the city until the reconquest of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261, whereupon it became a titular see. The office was finally abolished in 1964.
The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem or Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, officially Patriarch of Jerusalem, is the head bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Since 2005, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem has been Theophilos III. The Patriarch is styled "Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Holy Land, Syria, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, and Holy Zion." The Patriarch is the head of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, and the religious leader of about 130,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land, most of them Palestinians.
The Latin Patriarch of Antioch was a religious office of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church created in 1098 by Bohemond, founder of the Principality of Antioch, one of the crusader states.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity. It is headed by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, the incumbent being Theophilos III since 2005. Christians believe that it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples of Jesus Christ and that the Gospel of Christ spread from Jerusalem. The Church celebrates its liturgy in the Byzantine Rite, whose original language is Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament, and follows its own calendar of feasts, preserving the Julian calendar. It is also often called "Σιωνίτις Εκκλησία".
The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt. The current holder of this position is Pope Tawadros II, who was selected as the 118th pope on November 18, 2012.
The Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria was a nominal Patriarchate of the Latin church on the see of Alexandria in Egypt, that had no pastoral connection to the city of Alexandria.
The Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch is the only actual residential Patriarchate of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. It was formed in 1724 when a portion of the Orthodox Church of Antioch went into communion with Rome, becoming an Eastern Catholic Church, while the rest of the ancient Patriarchate continues in full communion with the rest of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related articles on English Wikipedia
Fouad Twal is the emeritus Archbishop and Patriarch of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, having been its ordinary from 2008 to 2016. He has also served as the Grand Prior of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem and President for the Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land.
The Catholic Church in Israel is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, in full communion with the Holy See in Rome.
The Custody of the Holy Land is a custodian priory of the Order of Friars Minor in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who also founded the Franciscan Order. Its mission is to guard "the grace of the Holy Places" of the Holy Land and the rest of the Middle East, "sanctified by the presence of Jesus", as well as pilgrims visiting them, on behalf of the Catholic Church. In 1342, the Franciscans were declared by two papal bulls as the official custodians of the Holy Places in the name of the Catholic Church.
Michel Sabbah was the Archbishop and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1987 to 2008, the first non-Italian to hold this position in more than five centuries.
Maroun Elias Nimeh Lahham, was the first Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tunis from 2010 to 2012, after having been a bishop for more than four years. Lahham was named the Patriarchal Vicar to Jordan of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 2012.
Giacinto-Boulos Marcuzzo is a Roman Catholic Auxiliary Bishop of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, resident in Nazareth.
Giovanni Vincenzo Bracco was a Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
The Apostolic Vicariate of Aleppo is an apostolic vicariate and is immediately subject to the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Pierbattista Pizzaballa, O.F.M. is a Catholic archbishop, the current apostolic administrator of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the former Franciscan Custos of the Holy Land.