Ethiopian Catholic Church

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Ethiopian Catholic Church cross.png
Ethiopian Catholic Church
Cathedral of the Holy Saviour, Adigrat .jpg
Classification Eastern Catholic
Orientation Eastern Christianity
Theology Catholic theology
Polity Episcopal
Governance Metropolitanate
Pope Francis
Archbishop Cardinal Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel [1] [2]
Region Ethiopia
Liturgy Alexandrian Rite
Headquarters Addis Ababa
FounderSaint Mark the Evangelist, by tradition
Origin20 February 1951
Egypt
Congregations207 (2010)
Members70,832 (2017) [3]
Ministers 590 [4]

The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church within the Catholic Church, established in 1930 in Ethiopia.

Contents

Like the other Eastern Catholic Churches, the Ethiopian Catholic Church is in full communion with the Holy See. It holds the Christological doctrine of the Council of Chalcedon and accepts the universal jurisdiction of the Pope. These points distinguish it from the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, an Oriental Orthodox Church which comprises most Christians in the country. Like the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Ethiopian Catholic Church follows the Alexandrian liturgical rite.

Ge'ez, a Semitic language fallen out of daily use several centuries ago, is the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Catholic Church. The Church's liturgy is based on that of the Coptic Church.

Terminology

The term "Ethiopic Catholic Church", which was synonymous with "Ethiopian Catholic Church" until January 2015, when the Eritrean Catholic Church was established, can be applied to either church or to both jointly, since their liturgy is celebrated in the Ethiopic or Ge'ez language.

History

The Portuguese voyages of discovery opened the way for direct contacts between the Catholic Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In the 14th century, Catholic missionaries arrived in Ethiopia. On August 28, 1439, Pope Eugene IV sent a message of unity with the Catholic Church to Ethiopian Emperor Constantine I but this effort was unsuccessful. [5]

With Islamic attacks up to 1531 threatening Christian Ethiopia, an appeal from the Emperor to the Portuguese brought support to defeat the Adal Sultanate in the Ethiopian–Adal War. Jesuit missionaries came with the Portuguese to Ethiopia. These missionaries focused their conversion activities with the country's governing class including the Emperor to have the Ethiopian Orthodox Church unite with the Catholic Church. The Emperor Susenyos was converted primarily by Father Pedro Páez. In 1622, Susenyos made Catholicism the state religion. The next year, Pope Gregory XV named Afonso Mendes, a Portuguese Jesuit, Patriarch of the Ethiopian Church. A formal union in 1626 was declared when Patriarch Mendes came to the country. With Mendes trying to Latinize the Ethiopian church, Susenyos used force to impose the latinization. Public backlash resulted. In 1632, Susenyos died. His successor Fasilides in 1636 removed Mendes from the country, ended the union with Rome and removed or killed the remaining missionaries. For the next 200 years, Ethiopia was closed to Catholic Missions. [5]

In 1839, Italian Lazarists and Capuchins resumed, albeit within certain limitations imposed due to strong public opposition. That same year, Justin de Jacobis was appointed first Prefect Apostolic of Abyssinia and entrusted with the foundation of Catholic missions in that country. After laboring with great success in Abyssinia for eight years, he was appointed titular Bishop of Nilopolis in 1847, and shortly afterwards Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia, but he refused the episcopal dignity until it was finally forced upon him in 1849. [6]

In 1919, the Pontifical Ethiopian College was founded within the Vatican walls by Pope Benedict XV with St. Stephen's Church, behind St. Peter's Basilica, as the designated church for the College. [1]

The Latin Church had become established in the south of Ethiopia in areas that had not been Christian and that were incorporated into the modern country only at the end of the 19th century. The Italian occupation of Ethiopia in 1936 gave rise to an increase in the number of Latin-Church jurisdictions, but the expulsion of foreign missionaries at the end of the Second World War meant that the Ethiopic Rite clergy had to take responsibility for areas thus denuded of Catholic clergy. Accordingly, in 1951, the Ethiopic Rite Apostolic Exarchate of Addis Ababa was established, and the ordinariate for Eritrea was elevated to the rank of exarchate. Ten years later, on February 20, 1961, an Ethiopic ecclesiastical province was established, with Addis Ababa as the Metropolitan See [2] and Asmara (in Eritrea) and Adigrat (in Ethiopia) as suffragan eparchies. [5]

Metropolitan Archbishop of Addis Abeba Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel Archbishop Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel.jpg
Metropolitan Archbishop of Addis Abeba Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel

In 1995, two new eparchies, Barentu and Keren, were established in Eritrea, [4] and the Latin-Church apostolic vicariate was abolished. Eritrea thus became the only country where all Catholics, whatever Church of their canonical ascription, belong to an Eastern Catholic jurisdiction. [1] In 2003, one more eparchy was created in Endibir in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia. [2]

In January 2015 Pope Francis established the Eritrean Catholic Church as a sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church, thus granting it autonomy from the Ethiopian Catholic Church. [7]

There are also Latin Church jurisdictions in the south of Ethiopia, none of them raised to the rank of diocese. Eight are apostolic vicariates and one is an apostolic prefecture.

Eparchies

There are four eparchies (bishoprics) in the country: [8]

Differences between the Catholic and Orthodox Ethiopian Churches

Interior of the Medhani Alem Catholic Church in Adigrat Interior of Medhani Alem Catholic Church - Adigrat - Ethiopia (8707721278).jpg
Interior of the Medhani Alem Catholic Church in Adigrat

Doctrinal distinctions between the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Catholic Ethiopian Churches include recognition of the Council of Chalcedon. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a broader canon of Scripture than the Catholic Church. [13] The order of the diaconate is reserved for adult men in the Catholic Church, but boys are commonly ordained as deacons in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Ethiopian Catholic clergy also tend to dress in the Roman cassock and collar, distinct from the Ethiopian Orthodox custom.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Christianity in Eritrea

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Ethiopian Catholic Archeparchy of Addis Abeba archeparchy

The Ethiopian Catholic Archeparchy of Addis Abeba, officially the Metropolitan sui iuris Archeparchy of Addis Abeba is the metropolitan see of the Ethiopian Catholic Church, a sui iuris metropolitan Eastern Catholic Church.

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Ethiopian Catholic Eparchy of Adigrat eparchy

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Yet it depends on the missionary Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches.

Apostolic Vicariate of Eritrea apostolic vicariate

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Roberson, Ronald G. "The Ethiopian Catholic Church". Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. p. 2. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Addis Abeba". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  3. The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017
  4. 1 2 Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  5. 1 2 3 Roberson, Ronald G. "The Ethiopian Catholic Church". Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. p. 1. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  6. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Blessed Justin de Jacobis"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. "Erezione della Chiesa Metropolitana sui iuris eritrea e nomina del primo Metropolita". Holy See Press Office. January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  8. "Ethiopian Catholic Church Current Dioceses" . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  9. "Archeparchy of Addis Abeba (Ethiopian)" . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  10. "Eparchy of Adigrat (Ethiopian)" . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  11. "Eparchy of Bahir Dar - Dessie (Ethiopian)" . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  12. "Eparchy of Emdeber (Ethiopian)" . Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  13. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Faith and Order:The Bible