Christian terrorism

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Christian terrorism comprises terrorist acts by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals. [1] Christian terrorists justify their violent tactics through their interpretation of the Bible, in accordance with their own objectives and world view. [2] [3] [4] These interpretations are typically different from those of established Christian denominations. [2] [5]

Terrorism use of violence and intimidation against civilians in order to further a political goal

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence, generally against civilians, for political purposes. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in context of war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.

Christians people who adhere to Christianity

Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach (מָשִׁיחַ).

Bible Collection of religious texts in Judaism and Christianity

The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafarians.

Contents

These terrorist acts can be committed against other Christian denominations, other religions, or a secular government group, individuals or society. [2] Christianity can also be used cynically by terrorists as a rhetorical device to achieve political or military goals. [6]

Christian terrorist groups include paramilitary organizations, cults and loose collections of people that might come together to attempt to terrorize another group. Some groups also encourage terrorist acts by unaffiliated individuals. [7] The paramilitary groups are typically tied to ethnic and political goals as well as religious ones [8] [9] and many of such groups have religious beliefs at odds with conventional Christianity. [10]

Paramilitary Militarised force or other organization

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is formally not part of a country's armed forces.

Cult A social group defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs,

In modern English, the term cult has come to usually refer to a social group defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal. This sense of the term is controversial and it has divergent definitions in both popular culture and academia and it also has been an ongoing source of contention among scholars across several fields of study. It is usually considered pejorative.

A lone actor, lone-actor terrorist, or lone wolf is someone who prepares and commits violent acts alone, outside of any command structure and without material assistance from any group. They may be influenced or motivated by the ideology and beliefs of an external group and may act in support of such a group. In its original sense, a "lone wolf" is an animal or person that generally lives or spends time alone instead of with a group.

Terminology

The literal use of the phrase Christian terrorism is disputed. [11] [12] [13] It appears in the academic literature to describe a large range of actions and beliefs. [11] [14]

Religion can be cited as the motivation for terrorism in conflicts that have a variety of ethnic, economic and political causes, such as the one in Bosnia. [15] In cases such as the Lord's Resistance Army or the Taiping Rebellion the beliefs of the founders differ significantly from what is recognizably Christian. [16] [6] In such cases the term Christian terrorism is problematic despite the claim that they are motivated by their religious beliefs.

Bosnian War international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively.

Lords Resistance Army Ugandan rebel movement

The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Originally known as the United Holy Salvation Army and Uganda Christian Army/Movement, its stated goals include establishment of multi-party democracy, ruling Uganda according to the Ten Commandments, and Acholi nationalism.

Taiping Rebellion Rebellion in Qing dynasty China

The Taiping Rebellion, which is also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

The term terrorist can also be applied for disingenuous reasons, to encourage public support for a groups vilification or allow the use of stricter laws in punishing a group or individual. [17] [18] [19] The intimidation of minority communities along with sporadic acts of violence do not typically get referred to as terrorism. [20] [21] However, in 2015 a majority of Americans from both political parties thought that 'attacks on abortion providers [should] be considered domestic terrorism'. [22]

Political parties in the United States

Political parties in the United States are dominated by the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, constituting what is known as the two-party system, many aspects of which have been written into law, and others of which are customary. The United States Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, since at the time of its signing in 1787 there were no existing parties.

Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.

History

Christianity came to prominence in the Roman Empire during and directly after the rule of Constantine the Great (324-337 AD). [23] By this time it had spread throughout western Asia as a minority belief and became the state religion of Armenia. [24] [25] In early Christianity there were many rival sects, which were collectively persecuted by some rulers. There is, however, no record of indiscriminate violence or attempts to use terror as a religious weapon by early Christian groups. [26]

Once a particular Christian sect or creed gained state backing religious violence increased. This took the form of persecuting adherents to rival Christian beliefs and other religions. [27] In Europe during the Middle Ages Christian antisemitism increased and both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to an increase in interdenominational violence. [28] [29] As with modern examples it is debated as to what extent these acts were religious as opposed to ethnic or political in nature.

Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Plot Conspirators (1605) The Gunpowder Plot Conspirators, 1605 from NPG.jpg
The Gunpowder Plot Conspirators (1605)

The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the recusancy that emerged in opposition to it. [30] The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I, and to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. Although the modern concept of religious terrorism, or indeed terrorism at all, had not yet come into use in the seventeenth century, David C. Rapoport and Lindsay Clutterbuck point out that the Plot, with its use of explosives, was an early precursor of nineteenth century anarchist terrorism. [31] Sue Mahan and Pamala L. Griset classify the plot as an act of religious terrorism, writing that "Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion." [32] Peter Steinfels also characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism. [33]

Pogroms

Orthodox Christian-influenced movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic and fascist, respectively, they were involved in the Bucharest pogrom and committed numerous politically-motivated murders during the 1930s. [34] [35] [36] [37] [38]

Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan members conduct a cross burning in Colorado, 1921. Ku Klux Klan members and a burning cross, Denver, Colorado, 1921.jpg
Ku Klux Klan members conduct a cross burning in Colorado, 1921.

After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, former Confederate soldiers organized the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) organization originally as a social club, which was taken over in the next year by "night rider" elements. It then began engaging in arson, beatings, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering, whipping, and voter intimidation. They targeted newly freed slaves, carpetbaggers and scalawags, and the occupying Union army. That iteration of the Klan disappeared by the 1870s, but in 1915 a new Protestant-led [39] iteration of the Klan was formed in Georgia, during a period of xenophobia and anti-Catholicism. This version of the Klan vastly expanded both its geographical reach and its list of targets over those of the original Klan.

Rev. Branford Clarke's illustration in the 1926 book Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty portrays the Klan as slaying Catholic influence in the US. Theendkkk.jpg
Rev. Branford Clarke's illustration in the 1926 book Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty portrays the Klan as slaying Catholic influence in the US.

Vehemently anti-Catholic, the 1915 Klan had an explicitly Protestant Christian terrorist ideology, basing its beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity and targeting Jews, Catholics, and other social or ethnic minorities, [40] as well as people who engaged in "immoral" practices such as adulterers, bad debters, gamblers, and alcohol abusers. From an early time onward, the goals of the KKK included an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", and it believed that "Jesus was the first Klansman". [41] Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK. [42]

From 1915 onward, "second era" Klansmen initiated cross burnings (adapted from [43] scenes in the 1915 film Birth of a Nation ), not only to intimidate targets, but also to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ. [43] The ritual of lighting crosses was steeped in Christian symbolism, including prayer and hymn singing. [43] Modern Klan organizations remain associated with acts of domestic terrorism in the United States. [44]

Start of modern terrorism

Mark Juergensmeyer, a former president of the American Academy of Religion, has argued that there has been a global rise in religious nationalism after the Cold War due to a post-colonial collapse of confidence in Western models of nationalism and the rise of globalization. [45] [46] Juergensmeyer categorizes contemporary Christian terrorists as being a part of "religious activists from Algeria to Idaho, who have come to hate secular governments with an almost transcendent passion and dream of revolutionary changes that will establish a godly social order in the rubble of what the citizens of most secular societies regard as modern, egalitarian democracies". [47]

According to terrorism expert David C. Rapoport, a "religious wave", or cycle, of terrorism, dates from approximately 1979 to the present. According to Rapoport, this wave most prominently features Islamic terrorism, but it also includes terrorism by Christians and other religious groups that may have been influenced by Islamic terrorism. [48]

Reason for claiming a Christian motivation

Numerous individuals and groups have cited their Christianity or Christian beliefs as the motivation for their terrorist acts. [49] [50] This can mean that they see Christianity as their identity, partially in comparison to another group which they view as threatening and non-Christian. Terrorists can also cite their interpretation of the Bible or Christian beliefs as their motivation. [49] All types of terrorism have a complex interrelationship with psychology and mental health, however only a minority have diagnosable medical illnesses. [51] Christianity can also be disingenuously claimed as a motive to inspire followers or curry political favor or protection. All these motivations are not independent and often complexly interwoven. [50] [52]

Christianity as an identity

Religion is often closely tied to ethnic identity, economic standing and self image. [53] Should a group of Christians feel threatened, religion is a verifiable, culturally important label to use in creating a "them-and-us" mentality. This is particularly the case where both groups are from a broadly similar cultural group, for example the break up of Yugoslavia and the Lords Resistance Army in Uganda. [54] [15] In situations where the opposing ethnicities are more diverse, skin color or cultural practices are also sometimes used as identifiers of the other. [55] [56] In these cases terrorists may identify themselves as Christian, but not be motivated by any particular interpretation of Christian belief. For example Anders Behring Breivik, who considers himself to be 'culturally Christian', claims no strong religious beliefs, but cited saving Christian Europe as motive for his attacks. [57] The use of Christianity in this way serves as a legitimating device for violence and claims solidarity with a wider social group. [58] In such cases Christianity is a label and does not necessarily have connection to any Christian texts, beliefs or practices.

This cultural Christian identity is often reinforced in the mind of the terrorist by media and governmental sources that vilify the other group or amplify its threat. This politicizing of ethno-religious tensions is a key contributor to the violence in the Central African Republic. [59] The targets of this kind of terrorist motivation include other religions or denominations, but can also extend to those that the perpetrator believes to be in any way threatening, such as LGBT or any group that does not conform with the view they have of who they are.

When the opposing group is also Christian but belongs to a different denomination, it is often denounced as non-Christian or anti-Christian. For example the leader of the Orange Volunteers, who described themselves as Protestant fundamentalists, defended their attacks on Catholic churches on the basis that they were "bastions of the Antichrist". [60] [61]

Interpretations of Christian morality or theology

Perpetrators have cited their often very individual forms of Christianity as both a justification and a motivation for their actions. [49] Typically as with attacks on abortion clinics or LGBT people the perpetrators use a nuanced negativity [62] [63] from an established Church as justification for unsanctioned acts of violence. [64] However, they may also have a wholly individual theology that is unrecognizable as established Christian dogma. [65] Conventional Christian Bible interpretations also offer a number of sanctions against violence as a political or religious weapon.

Mental health

There are a wide variety of mental health conditions and illness, and it is quite rare for them to lead to violence. [66] [67] Objectivity determining the mental health of a terrorist is often complicated by a number of factors. [68] [69] There is minimal statistically robust information specifically on terrorists who claim Christian motivation. However, one study [70] claims that about 30% of right wing, 52% of single issue and 25% of Al Qaeda related individual terrorists and 8% of those in a terrorist group have a mental illness. Another study found that about 53% of individual terrorists could have been characterized as socially isolated before their attacks. [51] People in some terrorist groups are less likely to have a mental illness than the general population, due to the selection criteria of such groups. [68] Mental illness does not seem to unduly prevent terrorists from performing successful complex attacks. [71]

Tactics of terrorists

Terrorists who claim to have a Christian motivation can act alone or in groups. It is often difficult to determine if the perpetrator acted completely alone or was inspired by a religious or political group. The same problem exists with "Islamic terrorism" or any allegedly religiously or politically motivated act of terror. [50] [72] [73]

Anti-abortion violence

On 16 July 2001, Peter James Knight walked into the East Melbourne Fertility Clinic, a private abortion provider, carrying a rifle and other weapons [74] including 16 litres of kerosene, three lighters, torches, 30 gags, and a handwritten note that read "We regret to advise that as a result of a fatal accident involving some members of staff, we have been forced to cancel all appointments today". Knight later stated that he intended to massacre everyone in the clinic, and attack all Melbourne abortion clinics. He developed home made mouth gags and door jambs to restrain all patients and staff inside a clinic while he doused them with the kerosene. [75] He shot 44-year-old Stephen Gordon Rogers, a security guard, in the chest, killing him. Staff and clients overpowered him soon after. He intended to massacre the 15 staff and 26 patients at the clinic by burning them alive. [76]

According to psychiatrist Don Sendipathy, Knight interpreted the Bible in his own unique way and believed in his own brand of Christianity. He believed in a pro-life Crusade. [76]

Eric Robert Rudolph carried out the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, as well as subsequent attacks on an abortion clinic and a lesbian nightclub. Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, considers Rudolph to likely fit the definition of a Christian terrorist. James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, argues that religious considerations inspired Rudolph only in part. [77]

Dr. George Tiller, one of the few doctors in the United States who provided abortions late in pregnancy, was a frequent target of anti-abortion violence and was killed in 2009 by Scott Roeder as he stood in the foyer of his church. A witness who was serving as an usher alongside Dr. Tiller at the church that day told the court that Mr. Roeder entered the foyer, put a gun to the doctor's head and pulled the trigger. At trial, Mr. Roeder admitted to killing Dr. Tiller and said he did it to protect unborn babies. He was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison. At his sentencing, he told the court that God's judgment would "sweep over this land like a prairie wind."

Dr. Tiller was shot once before, in 1993, by Shelley Shannon, an anti-abortion activist who compared abortion providers to Hitler and said she believed that "justifiable force" was necessary to stop abortions. Ms. Shannon was sentenced to 10 years in prison for the shooting of Dr. Tiller and later confessed to vandalizing and burning a string of abortion clinics in California, Nevada and Oregon.

James Kopp was convicted of the murder of Dr. Barnett Slepian, an obstetrician who provided abortion services in the Buffalo area, and has been named a suspect in the shooting of several abortion providers in Canada. Mr. Kopp hid in the woods behind Dr. Slepian's home in October 1998 and shot him through the window with a high-powered rifle, killing him as he stood in his kitchen with his family. Dr. Slepian had just returned from a memorial service for his father when he was killed. Mr. Kopp spent several years on the run in Mexico, Ireland and France before he was captured and extradited to the United States. He was convicted of a state charge of second-degree murder in 2003 and sentenced to 25 years in jail. He was convicted in 2007 on a separate federal charge and sentenced to life in prison. The authorities in Canada also suspect Mr. Kopp in the nonlethal attacks on several abortion providers there who were shot through the windows of their homes. He was charged with the 1995 attempted murder of Dr. Hugh Short, an abortion provider in Ontario, although the charges were dropped after his conviction in New York. The police in Canada also named him a suspect in the 1997 shooting of Dr. Jack Fainman in Winnipeg and the 1994 shooting of Dr. Garson Romalis in Vancouver, which was the first attack on an abortion provider in Canada.

The November 2015 Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting, in which three were killed and nine injured, was described as "a form of terrorism" by Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper. [78] The gunman, Robert Lewis Dear, was described as a "delusional" man [79] who had written on a cannabis internet forum that "sinners" would "burn in hell" during the end times, and had also written about smoking marijuana and propositioned women for sex. [80] [81] He had praised the Army of God, saying that attacks on abortion clinics are "God's work". [82] Dear's ex-wife said he had put glue on a lock of a Planned Parenthood clinic, and in court documents for their divorce she said "He claims to be a Christian and is extremely evangelistic, but does not follow the Bible in his actions. He says that as long as he believes he will be saved, he can do whatever he pleases. He is obsessed with the world coming to an end." Authorities said that he spoke of "no more baby parts" in a rambling interview after his arrest.

Anti-minority violence

Vigil in Wellington, New Zealand for the victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings in March 2019 Vigil in Wellington on 17 March 2019 for the Christchurch mosques attacks (1).jpg
Vigil in Wellington, New Zealand for the victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings in March 2019

Anders Behring Breivik was convicted for the 2011 Norway attacks, in which he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo and then shot dead 69 participants at a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya, leaving 77 dead. On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, describing his militant ideology. [83] [84] [85] [86] In them, he lays out a worldview that encompasses opposition to Islam and blames feminism for causing Europe's "cultural suicide". [87] [88] The texts call Islam and "Cultural Marxism" the enemy and advocate the deportation of all Muslims from Europe based on the model of the Beneš decrees, while also claiming that feminism and Islam exist to destroy Christian European culture. [89] [90] Breivik wrote that his main motive for the atrocities was to market his manifesto. [91] Breivik contends that he is waging a Christian Crusade against multiculturalism and believes that the attacks were "necessary". [92] His manifesto also states that its author is "100 percent Christian", [57] but he is not "excessively religious". [57] Nevertheless, he said he planned to pray to God for help during his attacks. [93] Before the attacks, he stated an intention to attend Frogner Church in a final "Martyr's mass". [94] In 2015, Breivik claimed to be an Odinist, but Breivik and others have previously linked his religious beliefs to Christianity during the attacks. [95]

Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that the information on Breivik's websites was "so to speak, Christian fundamentalist" [96] [97] [98] [99] and many mainstream media such as The New York Times have described him a Christian fundamentalist. [100] Others, however, have disputed Andresen's characterisation of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist. [101]

Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder were a gay couple from Redding, California, who were murdered by Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams in 1999. Neighbors said that the family was known for its fundamentalist Christian beliefs, and that recordings of sermons and religious music were often heard from their house. [102] The two perpetrators are believed to have had ties to the Christian Identity movement. They were also suspected of playing a role in 18 arson attacks on three synagogues. [103]

In 1996 three men—Charles Barbee, Robert Berry and Jay Merelle—were charged with two bank robberies and bombings at the banks, a Spokane newspaper, and a Planned Parenthood office in Washington State. The men were anti-Semitic Christian Identity theorists who believed that God wanted them to carry out violent attacks and they also believed that such attacks would hasten the ascendancy of the Aryan race. [104]

In 2015, Robert Doggart, a 63-year-old mechanical engineer, was indicted for solicitation to commit a civil rights violation by intending to damage or destroy religious property after communicating that he intended to amass weapons to attack Islamberg, an Islamic hamlet and religious community in Delaware County, New York. [105] Doggart, a member of several private militia groups, communicated to an FBI source in a phone call that he had an M4 carbine with "500 rounds of ammunition" that he intended to take to the Delaware County enclave, along with a handgun, molotov cocktails and a machete. The FBI source recorded him saying "if it gets down to the machete, we will cut them to shreds". [106] Doggart had previously travelled to a site in Dover, Tennessee, which had been described as a "jihadist training camp", in chain emails and found that the claims were wrong. In April, Doggart accepted a plea bargain and stated that he had "willfully and knowingly sent a message in interstate commerce containing a true threat" to injure someone. The plea bargain was struck down by a judge because it did not contain enough facts to constitute a true threat. [107] [108] Doggart, who describes himself as a Christian minister in the "Christian National (Congregational) Church" (apparently the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches). [109] None of the charges against him are terrorism related, however, some groups have described his actions as such. [110] [111] [112] [113]

According to University of Auckland Professor Douglas Pratt, who is an international expert in religious terrorism, the Christchurch mosque shootings which killed 51 people and injured 50 more (primarily Muslims) at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand were a form of "Christian terrorism" and white supremacy. Australia-born Christchurch shooter Brenton Harrison Tarrant's manifesto The Great Replacement named after the French far-right theory of the same name quoted Pope Urban II (who ordered The First Crusade) and his speech demanding the retaking of Jerusalem, the death of 11-year-old Swedish girl Ebba Akerlund, NATO involvement in Kosovo, a desire to retake Istanbul (aka Constantinople) from Turkey to have in Christian hands and the motives listed was in his own words revenge against Islam. The shooter's rifles were covered with white supremacist symbols and names of various historical figures and battles between Muslims and non-Muslims such as Charles Martel and Skanderbeg as well as the Battle of Tours in 732 and Battle of Vienna in 1683. [114] [115] [116] [117]

The perpetrator of the Pittsburgh Tree of Life synagogue shooting Robert Bowers cited a Bible quote about Jesus Christ on the bio of his now defunct Gab account. [118] Similarly the Poway synagogue shooting suspect John T. Earnest also used Bible quotes to justify the attack and had burned down a mosque in Escondido, California earlier in March 2019. [119]

See also

Related Research Articles

Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs. However, fundamentalism has come to be applied to a tendency among certain groups–mainly, although not exclusively, in religion–that is characterized by a markedly strict literalism as it is applied to certain specific scriptures, dogmas, or ideologies, and a strong sense of the importance of maintaining ingroup and outgroup distinctions, leading to an emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed. Rejection of diversity of opinion as applied to these established "fundamentals" and their accepted interpretation within the group often results from this tendency.

Religious terrorism is terrorism carried out based on motivations and goals that may have a predominantly religious character or influence.

The English word militant is both an adjective and a noun, and is generally used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in "militant reformers". It comes from the 15th century Latin "militare" meaning "to serve as a soldier". The related modern concept of the militia as a defensive organization against invaders grew out of the Anglo-Saxon fyrd. In times of crisis, the militiaman left his civilian duties and became a soldier until the emergency was over, when he returned to his civilian occupation.

Islamic terrorism terrorist acts committed by Muslims, particularly violent Islamists, who claim a religious rationale for these acts

Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism are terrorist acts against civilians committed by violent Islamists who claim a religious motivation. Islamic terrorists justify their religious terrorism and extreme political violence through a utopic political vision of a pan-Islamic state under Sharia law and a revival of the Islamic Golden Age, combined with a fundamentalistic (non-traditional) interpretation of jihad, martyrdom and other religious concepts in the Quran and Hadith. Islamic terrorism also comes from the idea of Islamic supremacy which is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it".

Religious violence

Religious violence is a term that covers phenomena where religion is either the subject or the object of violent behavior. Religious violence is violence that is motivated by, or in reaction to, religious precepts, texts, or doctrines of a target or attacker. It includes violence against religious institutions, people, objects, or events. Religious violence does not refer exclusively to acts committed by religious groups, but includes acts committed by secular groups against religious groups.

Army of God (United States) organization

Army of God (AOG) is a Christian terrorist organization that has engaged in the use of anti-abortion violence in the United States to fight against abortion. According to the Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security's joint Terrorism Knowledge Base, the Army of God is an active underground terrorist organization in the United States that was formed in 1982. In addition to numerous property crimes, the group has committed acts of kidnapping, attempted murder, and murder. While sharing a common ideology and tactics, the group's members claim that they rarely communicate with each other; this is known more formally as leaderless resistance. The organization forbids those who wish to "take action against baby killing abortionists" from discussing their plans with anyone in advance.

Domestic terrorism in the United States consists of incidents confirmed as terrorist acts. These attacks are considered domestic because they were carried out by U.S. citizens or U.S. permanent residents.

Jewish religious terrorism is religious terrorism committed by extremists within Judaism motivated by religious rather than ethnic or nationalistic beliefs.

Right-wing terrorism or far-right terrorism is terrorism that is motivated by a variety of different right-wing and far-right ideologies, most prominently by neo-Nazism, neo-fascism, white nationalism and anti-government patriot/sovereign citizen beliefs and occasionally by anti-abortion and tax resistance. Modern right-wing terrorism first emerged in North America during the Reconstruction era (1863-1877) and it later emerged in Western and Central Europe in the 1970s, and following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it emerged in Eastern Europe.

Terrorism in the United States Systematic or threatened use of violence to create a general climate of fear

In the United States a common definition of terrorism is the systematic or threatened use of violence in order to create a general climate of fear to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change. This article serves as a list and compilation of acts of terrorism, attempts of terrorism, and other such items pertaining to terrorist activities within the domestic borders of the United States by non-state actors or spies acting in the interests of or persons acting without approval of state actors.

Christianity and violence

Christians have held diverse views towards violence and non-violence through time. Currently and historically there have been four views and practices within Christianity toward violence and war: non-resistance, Christian pacifism, Just war theory, and the Crusade. The early church in the Roman empire adopted a nonviolent stance when it came to war since imitating Jesus's sacrificial life was preferable. The concept of "Just war", whereby limited uses of war were considered acceptable originated with earlier non-Christian Roman and Greek thinkers such as Cicero and Plato. This theory was adapted later by Christian thinkers such as St Augustine, who like other Christians, borrowed much of the justification from Roman writers like Cicero and Roman Law. Even though "Just War" concept was widely accepted early on, warfare was not regarded as a virtuous activity and expressing concern for the salvation of those who killed enemies in battle, regardless of the cause for which they fought, was common. Concepts such as "Holy war", whereby fighting itself might be considered a penitential and spiritually meritorious act, did not emerge before the 11th century.

Christofascism is a combination of Christian and fascism coined by Dorothee Sölle in 1970. Sölle, a liberation theology proponent, used the term to describe the Christian church which she characterized as totalitarian and imperialistic.

2011 Norway attacks Two sequential domestic terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011

The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July or as 22/7, were two sequential lone wolf domestic terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp, in which 77 people were killed.

Anders Behring Breivik Norwegian spree killer

Anders Behring Breivik, since 2017 legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In July 2012, he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism.

Counter-jihad or counterjihad or counter-jihad movement is a self-titled political current loosely consisting of authors, bloggers, think tanks, street movements and campaign organisations all linked by a common belief that the Western world is being subjected to invasion and takeover by Muslims. Several academic accounts have presented conspiracy theory as a key component of the counter-jihad movement. On a day-to-day level, it seeks to generate outrage at perceived Muslim crimes.

Kahanism is an extremist Jewish ideology based on the views of Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the Jewish Defense League and the Kach party in Israel. Kahane maintained the view that the majority of Arabs living in Israel are enemies of Jews and Israel itself, and believed that a Jewish theocratic state, where non-Jews have no voting rights, should be created. The Kach party has been banned by the Israeli government and the U.S. State Department has labeled it a Foreign Terrorist Organization.

Domestic terrorism or homegrown terrorism is a form of terrorism in which victims "within a country are targeted by a perpetrator with the same citizenship" as the victims. There are many definitions of terrorism, and none of them are universally accepted. The United States Department of State defined terrorism in 2003 as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience."

<i>22 July</i> (film) 2018 film directed by Paul Greengrass

22 July is a 2018 Norwegian-American crime drama film about the 2011 Norway attacks and their aftermath, based on the book One of Us: The Story of a Massacre in Norway — and Its Aftermath by Åsne Seierstad. The film was written, directed and produced by Paul Greengrass and features a Norwegian cast and crew. It stars Anders Danielsen Lie, Jon Øigarden, Thorbjørn Harr, Jonas Strand Gravli, Ola G. Furuseth, Ulrikke Hansen Døvigen, Isak Bakli Aglen, Maria Bock and Seda Witt. The film had its world premiere on September 5, 2018 in the main competition section of the 75th Venice International Film Festival. On September 5, the film was screened at the 75th Venice International Film Festival and released online and in select theaters on October 10, 2018, by Netflix.

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Bibliography

Further reading