Pope Benedict II

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Benedict II
BenedictII.jpg
19th century depiction of Pope Benedict II
Papacy beganJune 26, 684
Papacy endedMay 8, 685 [1]
Predecessor Leo II
Successor John V
Orders
Created cardinal5 December 680
by Agatho
Personal details
Born Rome, Byzantine Empire
DiedMay 8, 685 (aged 50)
Rome, Byzantine Empire. Location of tomb has since been lost.
Previous postCardinal-Deacon (680-84)
Other popes named Benedict

Pope Benedict II (Latin : Benedictus II) was Bishop of Rome from 26 June 684 to his death in 685. Pope Benedict II's feast day is May 7.

Biography

Benedict was born in Rome. [2] It is possible that he was a member of the Savelli family, though this is not certain. Sent when young to the schola cantorum, he distinguished himself by his knowledge of the Scriptures and by his singing. [1]

The bishops of Rome were anciently chosen by the clergy and people of Rome, according to the discipline of those times; the Christian emperors were the head of the people, on which account their consent was required. But whilst they resided in the East, this condition produced often long delays and considerable inconveniences. Although chosen in 683, he was not ordained until 684 awaiting the permission of Emperor Constantine IV. According to the Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum , he obtained from the Emperor a decree which either abolished imperial confirmations altogether or made them obtainable from the Exarch of Ravenna. Benedict symbolically adopted Constantine's two sons Justinian and Heraclius. [1]

Constantine IV Byzantine emperor (b. 652 d. 685)

Constantine IV, sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685. His reign saw the first serious check to nearly 50 years of uninterrupted Islamic expansion, while his calling of the Sixth Ecumenical Council saw the end of the monothelitism controversy in the Byzantine Empire.

Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum is the name given to a miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formulae used in the Papal chancery until about the 11th century. It fell into disuse through the changed circumstances of the times and was soon forgotten and lost.

Justinian II Byzantine emperor

Justinian II, surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus, was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II was an ambitious and passionate ruler who was keen to restore the Roman Empire to its former glories, but he responded poorly to any opposition to his will and lacked the finesse of his father, Constantine IV. Consequently, he generated enormous opposition to his reign, resulting in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, and he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav army. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him.

To help to suppress Monothelitism, he endeavoured to secure the subscriptions of the bishops of Hispania to the decrees of the Third Council of Constantinople of 680/1, and to bring about the submission to the decrees of Macarius, the deposed bishop of Antioch. [1]

Monothelitism Doctrine in Christian theology

Monothelitism or monotheletism is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus. The Christological doctrine formally emerged in Armenia and Syria in 629. Specifically, monothelitism is the view that Jesus Christ has two natures but only one will. That is contrary to the Christology that Jesus Christ has two wills that correspond to his two natures (dyothelitism). Monothelitism is a development of the Neo-Chalcedonian position in the Christological debates. Formulated in 638, it enjoyed considerable popularity, even garnering patriarchal support, before being rejected and denounced as heretical in 681, at the Third Council of Constantinople.

Hispania Roman province

Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia". From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae. The name Hispania was also used in the period of Visigothic rule.

Third Council of Constantinople Synod - sixth Ecumenical Council

The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680/681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills.

Restorations of numerous churches in Rome are ascribed to the less than a year's pontificate of Benedict II. After a pontificate of about eleven months, Pope Benedict II died on May 8, 685 and was buried in St. Peter's. [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 PD-icon.svg  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Mann, Horace (1907). "Pope St. Benedict II". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 2. New York: Robert Appleton. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  2. Butler, Alban. The Lives of the Saints. 1866
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Leo II
Pope
684685
Succeeded by
John V