Nahum ( // or // ; Hebrew : נַחוּםNaḥūm) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. His book comes in chronological order between Micah and Habakkuk in the Bible. He wrote about the end of the Assyrian Empire, and its capital city, Nineveh, in a vivid poetic style.
Little is known about Nahum's personal history. His name means "comforter," and he was from the town of Alqosh (Nahum 1:1), which scholars have attempted to identify with several cities, including the modern Alqosh in northern Iraq and Capharnaum of northern Galilee.He was a very nationalistic Hebrew, however, and lived amongst the Elkoshites in peace. Nahum, called "the Elkoshite", is the seventh in order of the minor prophets.
Nahum's writings could be taken as prophecy or as history. One account suggests that his writings are a prophecy written in about 615 BC, just before the downfall of Assyria, while another account suggests that he wrote this passage as liturgy just after its downfall in 612 BC.
The book was introduced in Reformation theologian Calvin's Commentaryas a complete and finished poem:
No one of the minor Prophets seems to equal the sublimity, the vehemence and the boldness of Nahum: besides, his Prophecy is a complete and finished poem; his exordium is magnificent, and indeed majestic; the preparation for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of its ruin, and its greatness, are expressed in most vivid colors, and possess admirable perspicuity and fulness.— Rev. John Owen, translator, Calvin's Commentary on Jonah, Micah, Nahum
There are indications that an acrostic underlies the present [text]. Thus 1:2 begins with the first letter of the alphabet (א), vs. 3b (‘in whirlwind’) with the second letter (ב), vs. 4 with the third (ג), and so on until from ten to sixteen of the twenty two letters have appeared. In places the scheme breaks down… in the process of transmission what was once an alphabetic poem has now been seriously corrupted, rearranged, and supplemented.
Nahum, taking words from Moses himself, has shown in a general way what sort of "Being God is". Calvin argued that Nahum painted God by which his nature must be seen, and "it is from that most memorable vision, when God appeared to Moses after the breaking of the tablets."
Although all three chapters fall below the standards set by the developed Judaeo-Christian tradition concerning the nature of God and man’s relation with his brother man… it is one of the world’s classic rebukes of militarism…. All tyrants are doomed. They make enemies of those whom they attack and oppress; they become corrupt, dissolute, drunken, effeminate; they are lulled into false security…
Tomb of Nahum
|Location||Town of Alqosh, Northern Iraq, 50km north of Mosul|
|Type||Shrine to the biblical prophet Nahum|
|Condition||Partial Collapse, Stabilized in 2018|
The tomb of Nahum is supposedly inside the synagogue at Alqosh, although there are other places outside Iraq which also lay claim to being the original "Elkosh" from which Nahum hailed. Alqosh was abandoned by its Jewish population in 1948, when they were expelled, and the synagogue that purportedly houses the tomb is now in a poor structural state, to the extent that the tomb itself is in danger of destruction. The tomb underwent basic repairs in 1796. When all Jews were compelled to flee Alqosh in 1948, the iron keys to the tomb were handed to an Assyrian man by the name of Sami Jajouhana. Few Jews visit the historic site, yet Jajouhana continues to keep the promise he made with his Jewish friends, and looks after the tomb.
As of early 2017, the tomb was in significant disrepair and was threatened by the rise of ISIS in Iraq.A team of engineers conducted a survey of the tomb and determined that the tomb was in danger of imminent collapse and might not survive another winter. A team led by the U.S.-based 501(c)(3) non-profit, the Alliance for the Restoration of Cultural Heritage ("ARCH") raised the funds necessary to stabilize the site. After raising the necessary funds, ARCH partnered with the Prague-based GEMA Art Group, experts in historic preservation and reconstruction to do the immediate stabilization work. Following coordination with local partners, the initial stabilization work was completed in January, 2018. The stabilization work is expected to prevent further deterioration of the structure for between two and three years. With the tomb and its surrounding structure stabilized, ARCH is planning on raising the funding necessary to fully restore the site. On 26 April 2019, the United States government announced that it would contribute $500,000 to restore the tomb.
Two other possible burial sites mentioned in historical accounts are Elkesi, near Ramah in the Galilee and Elcesei in the West Bank.
The Prophet Nahum is venerated as a saint in Eastern Christianity. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is December 1(for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, December 1 currently falls on December 14 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is commemorated with the other minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.
The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament, one of twelve prophetic books known as the Twelve Minor Prophets.
The Book of Micah is the sixth of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament. Ostensibly, it records the sayings of Micah, whose name is Mikayahu, meaning "Who is like Yahweh?", an 8th-century BC prophet from the village of Moresheth in Judah.
The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Nahum, and was probably written in Jerusalem in the 7th century BC.
The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible. It is attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and was probably composed in the late 7th century BC.
Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
In the Hebrew Bible, Hosea, son of Beeri, was an 8th-century BC prophet in Israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name. He is one of the Twelve Prophets of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, also known as the Minor Prophets of the Christian Old Testament. Hosea is often seen as a "prophet of doom", but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. The Talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. The period of Hosea's ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of Israel of his time who left any written prophecy.
Habakkuk, who was active around 612 BC, was a prophet whose oracles and prayer are recorded in the Book of Habakkuk, the eighth of the collected twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible. He is revered by Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Jonah or Jonas, in the Hebrew Bible, is a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE. He is the central figure of the Book of Jonah, in which he is called upon by God to travel to Nineveh and warn its residents of impending divine wrath. Instead, Jonah boards a ship to Tarshish. Caught in a storm, he orders the ship's crew to cast him overboard, whereupon he is swallowed by a giant fish. Three days later, after Jonah agrees to go to Nineveh, the fish vomits him out onto the shore. Jonah successfully convinces the entire city of Nineveh to repent, but waits outside the city in expectation of its destruction. God shields Jonah from the sun with a plant, but later sends a worm to cause it to wither. When Jonah complains of the bitter heat, God rebukes him.
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Today it is a common name for the half of Mosul that lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris and the Nineveh Governorate takes its name from it.
Zechariah was a person in the Hebrew Bible and traditionally considered the author of the Book of Zechariah, the eleventh of the Twelve Minor Prophets. He was a prophet of the Kingdom of Judah, and, like the prophet Ezekiel, was of priestly extraction.
Nevi'im is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible, between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings). The Nevi'im are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings; while the Latter Prophets include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets.
The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets, occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh. The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian Old Testament, one for each of the prophets. The terms "minor prophets" and "twelve prophets" can also refer to the twelve traditional authors of these works.
Alqosh is an ethnic Assyrian town in northern Iraq and is within Nineveh Plains. It is a sub-district of the Tel Kaif District and is 45 km north of Mosul. The town has a military base that belongs to the Nineveh Plain Protection Units. Colonel R. S. Stafford, who was the British Administrative Inspector for Mosul, referred to Alqosh as an "Assyrian center" where another massacre was planned.
Joel was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and according to the book itself the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to that book, as the son of Pethuel. The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH, and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH.
Micaiah, son of Imlah, is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. He is one of the four disciples of Elijah and not to be confused with Micah, prophet of the Book of Micah.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Micah was a prophet in Judaism and is the author of the Book of Micah. He is considered one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible and was a contemporary of the prophets Isaiah, Amos and Hosea. Micah was from Moresheth-Gath, in southwest Judah. He prophesied during the reigns of kings Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah.
Habakkuk 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Habakkuk in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Habakkuk, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter and the next form a unit, which Sweeney sees as "a report of a dialogue between the prophet and YHWH" about the fate of Judah which the biblical scholars, such as F. F. Bruce, label as "the oracle of Habakkuk".
Nahum 1 is the first chapter of the Book of Nahum in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Nahum, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter describes the character of God in giving a fair judgment upon Nineveh.
Nahum 3 is the third and last chapter of the Book of Nahum in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Nahum, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter describes the cause of the destruction of Nineveh.
Nahum 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Nahum in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Nahum, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
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