Quadratus of Athens

Last updated

Quadratus of Athens
Apostol Kodrat from Afinen.jpg
Bishop of Athens, Apologist
BornLate first century
Died129
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Church
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Feast 26 May (Roman Catholic Church), 21 September (Eastern Orthodox Church)

Saint Quadratus of Athens (Greek : Κοδρᾶτος) was a Greek Apostolic Father, bishop of Athens. [1] He is counted among the Seventy Apostles in the tradition of the Eastern Churches.

Contents

Ministry

According to the early church historian Eusebius of Caesarea he is said to have been a disciple of the Apostles (auditor apostolorum). [2]

In his Ecclesiastical History , Book IV, chapter 3, Eusebius records that: 1. After Trajan had reigned for nineteen and a half years Ælius Adrian became his successor in the empire. To him Quadratus addressed a discourse containing an apology for our religion, because certain wicked men had attempted to trouble the Christians. The work is still in the hands of a great many of the brethren, as also in our own, and furnishes clear proofs of the man's understanding and of his apostolic orthodoxy.2. He himself reveals the early date at which he lived in the following words: But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were genuine:— those that were healed, and those that were raised from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Saviour was on earth, but also after his death, they were alive for quite a while, so that some of them lived even to our day. Such then was Quadratus. [3] In other words, Eusebius is stating that Quadratus addressed a discourse to the Roman Emperor Hadrian containing a defense, or apology, of the Christian religion, when the latter was visiting Athens in AD 124 or 125, which Eusebius states moved the emperor to issue a favourable edict. The mention that many of those healed or raised from the dead by Christ were still living seems to be part of an argument that Christ was no mere wonder-worker whose effects were transitory.

Eusebius later summarises a letter by Dionysius of Corinth which simply states that Quadratus was appointed Bishop of Athens 'after the martyrdom of Publius', and which states that 'through his zeal they [the Athenian Christians] were brought together again and their faith revived. [4]

P. Andriessen has suggested that Quadratus' Apology is the work known as Epistle to Diognetus , [5] a suggestion Michael W. Holmes finds "intriguing". While admitting that Epistle to Diognetus does not contain the only quotation known from Quadratus' address, Holmes defends this identification by noting "there is a gap between 7.6 and 7.7 into which it would fit very well." [6] Edgar J. Goodspeed states it is an ingenious theory, but says it is improbable and that the fragment does not fit the gap. [7]

Because of the similarity of name, some scholars [8] have concluded that Quadratus the Apologist is the same person as Quadratus, a prophet mentioned elsewhere by Eusebius (H. E., 3.37). The evidence, however, is too slight to be convincing.[ citation needed ] The later references to Quadratus in Jerome and the martyrologies are all based on Eusebius, or are arbitrary enlargements of his account.

Another apologist, Aristides, presented a similar work. Eusebius had copies of both essays. Because he was bishop of Athens after Publius, Quadratus is sometimes figured among the Apostolic Fathers. Eusebius called him a "man of understanding and of Apostolic faith." and Jerome in Viri illustrissimi intensified the apostolic connection, calling him "disciple of the apostles".

See also

Related Research Articles

Ignatius of Antioch Late 1st / early 2nd century Christian writer and Patriarch of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch, also known as Ignatius Theophorus, was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch. While en route to Rome, where he met his martyrdom, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. This correspondence now forms a central part of a later collection of works known to be authored by the Apostolic Fathers. He is considered to be one of the three most important of these, together with Clement of Rome and Polycarp. His letters also serve as an example of early Christian theology. Important topics they address include ecclesiology, the sacraments, and the role of bishops.

Pope Linus 2nd pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Linus was the second bishop of Rome. His pontificate lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. As with all the early popes, he was later canonized.

Polycarp Christian bishop of Smyrna (69-155)

Polycarp was a Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to consume his body. Polycarp is regarded as a saint and Church Father in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches. His name means "much fruit" in Greek. Both Irenaeus and Tertullian record that Polycarp had been a disciple of John the Apostle, one of Jesus’s disciples. In On Illustrious Men, Jerome writes that Polycarp was a disciple of John the Apostle and that John had ordained him as a bishop of Smyrna. Polycarp is regarded as one of three chief Apostolic Fathers, along with Clement of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch.

Saint Timothy 1st century Christian evangelist, philosopher and bishop

Timothy or Timothy of Ephesus was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.

Pope Clement I Fourth Pope of the Catholic Church from AD 88 to 99

Pope Clement I, also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as the fourth bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 AD to his death in 99 AD. He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church, one of the three chief ones together with Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch.

Hippolytus of Rome Roman Christian theologian (c. 170 – c. 235)

Hippolytus of Rome was one of the most important second-third century Christian theologians, whose provenance, identity and corpus remain elusive to scholars and historians. Suggested communities include Palestine, Egypt, Anatolia, Rome and regions of the mideast. The best historians of literature in the ancient church, including Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome, openly confess they cannot name where Hippolytus the biblical commentator and theologian served in leadership. They had read his works but did not possess evidence of his community. Photios I of Constantinople describes him in his Bibliotheca as a disciple of Irenaeus, who was said to be a disciple of Polycarp, and from the context of this passage it is supposed that he suggested that Hippolytus so styled himself. This assertion is doubtful. One older theory asserts he came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a schismatic group as a rival to the bishop of Rome, thus becoming an antipope. In this view, he opposed the Roman Popes who softened the penitential system to accommodate the large number of new pagan converts. However, he was reconciled to the Church before he died as a martyr.

Patriarch of Alexandria Archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt; includes the designation "pope"

The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation "pope".

The Apostolic Fathers were core Christian theologians among the Church Fathers who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them. Their writings, though widely circulated in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature which came to be part of the New Testament. Some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers appear to have been as highly regarded as some of the writings which became the New Testament.

<i>Epistle to Diognetus</i> 2nd century Christian apologetic text

The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus is an example of Christian apologetics, writings defending Christianity against the charges of its critics. The Greek writer and recipient are not otherwise known. Estimates of dating based on the language and other textual evidence have ranged from AD 130, to the late 2nd century, with the latter often preferred in modern scholarship.

Saint Publius 1st-century Maltese bishop and Christian Saint

Saint Publius is a first century Maltese Saint. He is venerated as the first Bishop of Malta and one of the first Bishops of Athens. St. Publius is Malta's first acknowledged saint, the prince of the island. According to Maltese Christian tradition, Publius' conversion led to Malta being the first Christian nation in the West. His feast day is celebrated by the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church, of which the traditions related and the day of celebration differ.

Simeon of Jerusalem 1st century Bishop of Jerusalem

Simeon of Jerusalem, son of Clopas, was a Jewish Christian leader and according to most Christian traditions the second Bishop of Jerusalem.

<i>Apology of Aristides</i>

The Apology of Aristides was written by the early Christian writer Aristides. Until 1878, our knowledge of Aristides was confined to some references in works by Eusebius of Caesarea and Saint Jerome. Eusebius said that he was an Athenian philosopher and that Aristides and another apologist, Quadratus, delivered their Apologies directly to the Emperor Hadrian. Aristides is also credited with a sermon on Luke 23:43. Aristides remained a philosopher after his conversion to Christianity, and he continued to work as a philosopher in Athens.

Christian apologetics Branch of Christian theology that defends Christianity against objections

Christian apologetics is a branch of Christian theology that defends Christianity against objections.

Aristides of Athens 2nd-century Christian Greek author

Aristides the Athenian was a 2nd-century Christian Greek author who is primarily known as the author of the Apology of Aristides. His feast day is August 31 in Roman Catholicism and September 13 in Eastern Orthodoxy.

Jude, brother of Jesus One of the brothers of Jesus according to the New Testament

Jude is one of the brothers of Jesus (Greek: ἀδελφοί, romanized: adelphoi, lit. 'brethren') according to the New Testament. He is traditionally identified as the author of the Epistle of Jude, a short epistle which is reckoned among the seven general epistles of the New Testament—placed after Paul's epistles and before the Book of Revelation—and considered canonical by Christians. Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians believe this Jude is the same person as Jude the Apostle and that Jude was perhaps a cousin, but not literally a brother of Jesus, or perhaps St. Joseph’s son from a previous marriage.

Christianity in the ante-Nicene period period following the Apostolic Age to the First Council of Nicaea in 325

Christianity in the ante-Nicene period was the time in Christian history up to the First Council of Nicaea. This article covers the period following the Apostolic Age of the first century, c.100 AD, to Nicaea in 325 AD.

Early Christianity spread from the Levant, across the Roman Empire, and beyond. Originally, this progression was closely connected to already established Jewish centers in the Holy Land and the Jewish diaspora. The first followers of Christianity were Jews or proselytes, commonly referred to as Jewish Christians and God-fearers.

Saint Peter Apostle of Jesus and 1st pope between 30 AD till 64-68 AD

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and one of the first leaders of the early Church.

Eastern Orthodox opposition to papal supremacy Religious disagreement

The Eastern Orthodox Church is opposed to the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy. While not denying that some form of primacy could exist for the Bishop of Rome, Orthodox Christians argue that the tradition of Rome's primacy in the early Church was not equivalent to the current doctrine of supremacy.

Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans

The Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans is an epistle attributed to Ignatius of Antioch, a second-century bishop of Antioch. It was written during his transport from Antioch to his execution in Rome. To the Romans contains Ignatius’ most detailed explanation of his views on martyrdom.

References

  1. Walker, Williston; Norris, Richard; Lotz, David; Handy, Robert (1985). The History of the Christian Church (4th ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 53. ISBN   9780684184173.
  2. Chronicon "ad annum Abrahamum 2041" (AD 124).
  3. Historia Ecclesiastica 4.3.1–2, http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250104.htm
  4. ' Historia Ecclesiastica , 4.23.
  5. Andriessen, "The Authorship of the Epistula ad Diognetum," Vigiliae Christianae 1 (1947), pp. 129–36.
  6. Michael W. Holmes, The Apostolic Fathers in English (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2006), p. 290
  7. Goodspeed, Edgar J. (1966). A History of Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 97. ISBN   0226303861.
  8. For example, Otto Bardenhewer, Patrology, p. 40

Sources

Catholic Church Titles
Preceded by
Publius
Bishop of Athens
125–129
Succeeded by
Leonidas