|Papacy began||26 September 1143|
|Papacy ended||8 March 1144|
|Birth name||Guido di Castello|
|Born||Città di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire|
|Died||8 March 1144|
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
|Other popes named Celestine|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Celestine II
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Celestine II (Latin : Caelestinus II; died 8 March 1144), born Guido di Castello, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 26 September 1143 to his death in 1144. He is the first pope mentioned in the prophecy of Saint Malachy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia successfully unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
Saint Malachy was an Irish saint and Archbishop of Armagh, to whom were attributed several miracles and an alleged vision of 112 Popes later attributed to the apocryphal Prophecy of the Popes. It is now believed by scholars that this document was a forgery created by Cardinal Girolamo Simoncelli. Saint Malachy was the first native born Irish saint to be canonised. His brother was Gilla Críst Ua Morgair who later became Bishop Christian of Clogher from 1126 to 1138.
Guido di Castello, possibly the son of a local noble, Niccolo di Castello,was born either in Città di Castello, situated in Paterna Santa Felicità upon the Apennines, or at Macerata in the March of Ancona.
Città di Castello is a city and comune in the province of Perugia, in the northern part of the Umbria. It is situated on a slope of the Apennines, on the flood plain along the upper part of the river Tiber. The city is 56 km (35 mi) north of Perugia and 104 km (65 mi) south of Cesena on the motorway SS 3 bis. It is connected by the SS 73 with Arezzo and the A1 highway, situated 38 km (23 mi) west. Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche.
Macerata is a city and comune in central Italy, the county seat of the province of Macerata in the Marche region. It has a population of about 41,564.
The March of Ancona was a frontier march centred on the city of Ancona and, then, Macerata in the Middle Ages. Its name is preserved as an Italian region today, the Marches, and it corresponds to almost the entire modern region and not just the Province of Ancona.
Guido had studied under Pierre Abélard, and eventually became a distinguished master in the schools.Eventually Guido began his career in Rome as a subdeacon and a scriptor apostolicus under Pope Callixtus II. He was created Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata by Pope Honorius II in 1127; as such, he signed the papal bulls issued between 3 April 1130 and 21 December 1133. In the double papal election of 1130 he joined the obedience of Pope Innocent II. In December 1133 Innocent promoted him to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of San Marco. He signed the papal bulls as S.R.E. indignus sacerdos between 11 January 1134 and 16 May 1143. As the cardinal of San Marco's, he supported Innocent's claims with regards to Monte Cassino, and as a mark of his confidence in him, Innocent made Guido the rector of Benevento. Afterwards, he made him a papal legate to France in 1140.
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity.
Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II, born Guy of Burgundy, was pope of the western Christian church from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
Santa Maria in Via Lata is a church on the Via del Corso, in Rome, Italy. It stands diagonal from the church of San Marcello al Corso.
He participated in the papal election of 1143, the first undisturbed papal election that Rome had seen for eighty-two years,and was elected pope two days after the death of Innocent II, on 25 September 1143, taking the name of Celestine.
Celestine II governed the Church for only five months and thirteen days from his election until his death on 8 March 1144. Upon his accession he wrote to Peter the Venerable and the monks of Cluny, asking them to pray for him, while he was congratulated by Arnulf of Lisieux.Regardless of the brevity of his reign, he was prepared to chart a very different course from that of his predecessor. He was opposed to Innocent II's concessions to King Roger II of Sicily and refused to ratify the Treaty of Mignano ("a foolish policy, which he survived - just - long enough to regret" ). He was in favor of the House of Plantagenet’s claim to the English throne, thus opposed to King Stephen of England. To emphasise this shift, he refused to renew the legatine authority that Innocent II had granted to King Stephen's brother, Henry of Blois. Celestine also favored the Templars, ordering a general collection for them, as well as the Hospitallers, giving them control of the hospital of Saint Mary Teutonicorum in Jerusalem.
Peter the Venerable, also known as Peter of Montboissier, was the abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Cluny. He has been honored as a saint but has never been formally canonized. The Catholic Church's Martyrologium Romanum, issued by the Holy See in 2004 regards him as a Blessed.
Cluny is a commune in the eastern French department of Saône-et-Loire, in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. It is 20 km (12 mi) northwest of Mâcon.
Arnulf of Lisieux was a medieval French bishop who figured prominently as a conservative figure during the Renaissance of the 12th century, built the Cathedral of Lisieux, which introduced Gothic architecture to Normandy, and implemented the reforms of Bernard of Clairvaux.
The principal act of his papacy was the absolution of Louis VII of France.King Louis had refused to accept the nomination of Pierre de la Chatre as the Archbishop of Bourges, who went to see Innocent II to have his nomination confirmed. When Pierre returned to France in 1142, Louis refused him permission to enter his Episcopal city, causing Pierre to flee to the court of Theobald II, Count of Champagne. Innocent responded by placing France under an interdict. For two years, the various parties remained at loggerheads while Bernard of Clairvaux attempted to mediate the dispute. With the election of Celestine, both Bernard and Theobald appealed to the pope, while Louis sent ambassadors to have the interdict lifted. Louis agreed to accept Pierre as the legitimate Archbishop of Bourges, and in return, Celestine removed the sentence of interdict.
Louis VII, called the Younger or the Young, was King of the Franks from 1137 to 1180. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI, hence his nickname, and married Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe. The marriage temporarily extended the Capetian lands to the Pyrenees, but was annulled in 1152 after no male heir was produced.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Theobald the Great (1090–1152) was Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV from 1102 and was Count of Champagne and of Brie as Theobald II from 1125.
Celestine died on 8 March 1144in the monastery of Saint Sebastian on the Palatine hill and was buried in the south transept of the Lateran. Celestine's heraldic badge was a lozengy shield of argent and gules.
Celestine II is the first pope listed in the Prophecies of St Malachy.
Pope Anastasius IV, born Corrado Demetri della Suburra, was Pope from 8 July 1153 to his death in 1154. He is the last pope to take the name "Anastasius" upon his election.
Pope Honorius II, born Lamberto Scannabecchi, was Pope from 21 December 1124 to his death in 1130.
Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successor. A majority of cardinals elected Pietro, while a minority elected Papareschi. This led to a major schism in the Roman Catholic Church. Anacletus had the support of most Romans, and the Frangipani family, and forced Innocent to flee to France. North of the Alps, Innocent gained the crucial support of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and Emperor Lothar III, leaving Anacletus with few patrons. Anacletus, with little remaining support, died in the middle of the crisis. In 1139 the second Lateran Council ended the schism, though opinion remained divided.
Boso was an Italian prelate and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic church.
Theodwin was a German cardinal and papal legate of the 12th century.
Jordan was a Carthusian monk, created Cardinal Deacon by Pope Lucius II in December 1144 and then Cardinal Priest of Santa Susanna by Eugene III on 21 December 1145. He is often referred to as a member of the Roman family of the Orsini, but more recent research concludes that he was probably a Frenchman. He served as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church under Eugene III and subscribed the papal bulls between 9 January 1145 and 11 June 1154.
Gregorio (Papareschi?) was an Italian cardinal created by Pope Innocent II ca. 1134/37. He is often referred to as nephew of Innocent II but this relationship is not proven. He subscribed the papal bulls between March 23, 1138 and October 27, 1140 and died probably in 1141.
Pietro (Papareschi?) was an Italian cardinal created by Pope Innocent II on 17 September 1143. He is often referred to as brother of Innocent II and member of the Roman family of Papareschi but this is not attested in the contemporary sources. He signed the papal bulls as Cardinal-Bishop of Albano between 9 December 1143 and 28 April 1145. He participated in the papal elections in September 1143, March 1144 and February 1145. He died after April 1145.
Ubaldo Caccianemici was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius II, his cousin who elevated him in May or June 1144.
Imar, O.S.B. Cluny was a French Benedictine abbot, who served as a bishop and cardinal.
The papal election of 1154 followed the death of Pope Anastasius IV and resulted in the election of Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to become pope.
Guido de Summa was an Italian Cardinal.
Pietro Senex was Cardinal-Bishop of Porto from 1102 until his death.
The papal election of 1153 followed the death of Pope Eugene III and resulted in the election of Pope Anastasius IV.
The papal election of 1143 followed the death of Pope Innocent II and resulted in the election of Pope Celestine II.
The papal election of 1144 followed the death of Pope Celestine II and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius II.
The papal election of 1145 followed the death of Pope Lucius II and resulted in the election of Pope Eugene III, the first pope of the Order of Cistercians.
The papal election of 1181 followed the death of Pope Alexander III and resulted in the election of Pope Lucius III. This was the first papal election celebrated in accordance with the decree Licet de evitanda discordia, promulgated in the Third Lateran Council in 1179, which established that the pope is elected by a majority of two thirds votes.
Pope Lucius II (1144–1145) created eleven cardinals in two consistories.
Pope Celestine II (1143–1144) created nine cardinals in one consistory:
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Celestine (popes) .|
|Catholic Church titles|
| Pope |