Medina

Last updated

Madina

ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة
Al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah
مَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبِي
Madīnat an-Nabī

يَثْرِب
Yathrib
The Radiant City
Inside Masjid.e.Nabavi - panoramio.jpg
HAC 2010 MEDINE MESCIDI NEBEVI - panoramio.jpg
Jannat.ul.Baqi - Madina - panoramio.jpg
Mount Uhud.JPG
Mohamad shrine 9 - panoramio.jpg
Clockwise from top left:
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi interior, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina skyline, Quba Mosque, Mount Uhud
Saudi Arabia relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Madina
Location of Medina
Asia laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Madina
Madina (Asia)
Coordinates: 24°28′N39°36′E / 24.467°N 39.600°E / 24.467; 39.600 Coordinates: 24°28′N39°36′E / 24.467°N 39.600°E / 24.467; 39.600
Country Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Region Al Madinah
Government
   Mayor Khalid Taher
  Regional Governor Faisal bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Area
   City 589 km2 (227 sq mi)
  Urban
293 km2 (113 sq mi)
Elevation
620 m (2,030 ft)
Population
 (2010)
   City 1,183,205
  Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
   Urban
785,204
Time zone UTC+3 (Arabia Standard Time)
Website https://www.saudi.gov.sa
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right. Medina from ISS 2017.jpg
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.

Medina [lower-alpha 1] , also transliterated as Madīnah, is the capital of the Al-Madinah Region in Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ('The Prophet's Mosque'), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Medina is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca.

Capital city Primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Al Madinah Region Region

The Madinah Region is a minṭaqah (region) of Saudi Arabia, located on the country's western side, along the Red Sea coast. It has an area of 151,990 km2 (58,680 sq mi) and a population of 2,132,679 subdivided into seven Muḥafaẓat (Governorates):

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also has one of the world's youngest populations; 50 percent of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.

Contents

Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, and where Muhammad's Ummah (Community), composed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad's original home of Mecca, developed. Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi, [1] Quba Mosque, and Masjid al-Qiblatayn ('The mosque of the two Qiblas'). Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, and are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs. [2] [3]

Ummah is an Arabic word meaning "community". It is distinguished from Shaʻb which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history.

Ansar are the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).

Muhajirun were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as The Hijra. The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar ("helpers").

Etymology

The Arabic word al-Madīnah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة) simply means 'the city'. Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib (pronounced  [ˈjaθrib] ; يَثْرِب). The word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.[Quran   33:13]

Quran The central religious text of Islam

The Quran, also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters, which are subdivided into verses.

The city has also been called Taybah (Good) ( [ˈtˤajba] ; طَيْبَة) and Tabah (Arabic : طَابَة similar in meaning to the former).[ citation needed ] An alternative[ clarification needed ] name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبَوِيَّة) or Madīnat an-Nabī (مَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبِي, "City of the Prophet").

Overview

As of 2010, the city of Medina has a population of 1,183,205. [4] Inhabitants of Yathrib during the era before Muhammad's arrival also included Jewish tribes. Later the city's name was changed to Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu 'l-Munawwarah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, "the lighted city" or "the radiant city"). Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. [5] Muhammad was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house.

Green Dome green-coloured dome built above the tomb of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and early Muslim leaders, Abu Bakr and Umar

The Green Dome is a green-coloured dome built above the tomb of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and early Muslim Caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar. The dome is located in the south-east corner of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina.

Rashidun Caliphate first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad

The Rashidun Caliphate was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE. These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs. This term is not used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate.

Abu Bakr First Muslim Caliph and a companion of Muhammad. Both sides of islam recognize abu Bakr.

Abdallah ibn Abi Quhafah, popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Medina is 210 miles (340 km) north of Mecca and about 120 miles (190 km) from the Red Sea coast. It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; in every direction the view is bounded by hills and mountains.

Red Sea Arm of the Indian Ocean between Arabia and Africa

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley.

Plain Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation

In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, and as plateaus or uplands.

The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12.2 m) high, dating from the 12th century CE, and was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle. Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city, west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations. These suburbs also had walls and gates. Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

The graves of Fatimah (Muhammad's daughter) and Hasan (Muhammad's grandson), across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi' , and Abu Bakr (first caliph and the father of Muhammad's wife, Aisha), and of Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are also here. The mosque dates back to the time of Muhammad, but has been twice reconstructed. [6]

Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered.

Religious significance in Islam

The Green Dome of the Prophet's Mosque The Green Dome, Masjid Nabawi, Madina.jpg
The Green Dome of the Prophet's Mosque

Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina which was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces.

Quba Mosque, the first mosque reportedly built by Muhammad, is now located in the metropolitan area of Medina. It was destroyed by lightning, probably about 850 CE, and the graves were almost forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, which was destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and almost immediately rebuilt. It was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487. [6]

Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque also historically important to Muslims. It is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer (qibla) from Jerusalem to Mecca, according to a hadith. [7]

Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram (area closed to non-Muslims) of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their 'Umrah (second pilgrimage after Hajj). Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad, caliphs and scholars are buried.

Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times as being sacred in the Quran, for example ayah; 9:101, 9:129, 59:9, and ayah 63:7. Medinan suras are typically longer than their Mecca counterparts. There is also a book within the hadith of Bukhari titled 'Virtues of Medina'. [8]

Sahih Bukhari says:

Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people."

History

Pre-7th century

By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century CE: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir. [9] Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the Persian Shah. [10]

Historic Medina lmdyn@ lmnwr@.PNG
Historic Medina

The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen of two new Arab tribes named Banu Aus (or Banu 'Aws) and Banu Khazraj. At first, these tribes were allied with Jewish rulers, but later they revolted and became independent. [11] Toward the end of the 5th century, [12] the Jewish rulers lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that "by calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews", Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj finally gained the upper hand at Medina. [9]

Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the Aus and the Khazraj. [13] However, according to scholar of Islam William Montgomery Watt, the clientship of the Jewish tribes is not borne out by the historical accounts of the period prior to 627, and he maintained that the Jewish populace retained a measure of political independence. [11]

Early Muslim chronicler Ibn Ishaq tells of an ancient conflict between the last Yemenite king of the Himyarite Kingdom [14] and the residents of Yathrib. When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. According to Ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza tribe, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place." The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognised the Ka'bah as a temple built by Abraham and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honour it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." On approaching Yemen, tells ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism. [15]

Eventually the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) to Medina in 622 CE/1 AH, they had been fighting for 120 years and were the sworn enemies of each other. [16] The Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj. [17] They fought a total of four wars. [11]

Their last and bloodiest battle was the Battle of Bu'ath [11] that was fought a few years before the arrival of Muhammad. [9] The outcome of the battle was inconclusive, and the feud continued. Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, one Khazraj chief, had refused to take part in the battle, which earned him a reputation for equity and peacefulness. Until the arrival of Muhammad, he was the most respected inhabitant of Yathrib. To solve the ongoing feud, concerned residents of the city met secretly with Muhammad in Al-Aqaba, a place between Makkah and Mina, inviting him and his small group of believers to come to Yathrib, where Muhammad could serve as disinterested mediator between the factions and his community could practice its faith freely.

Muhammad's arrival

In 622 CE/1 AH, Muhammad and around 70 Meccan Muhajirun believers left Mecca for sanctuary in Yathrib, an event that transformed the religious and political landscape of the city completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two Arab tribes and some local Jews embraced Islam. Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was agreed on as civic leader. The Muslim converts native to Yathrib of whatever background—pagan Arab or Jewish—were called Ansar ("the Patrons" or "the Helpers"), while the Muslims would pay the Zakat tax.

According to Ibn Ishaq, the local pagan Arab tribes, the Muslim Muhajirun from Mecca, the local Muslims ( Ansar ), and the Jewish population of the area signed an agreement, the Constitution of Medina, which committed all parties to mutual co-operation under the leadership of Muhammad. The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by Ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern Western historians, many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of different agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear exactly when they were made. Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess. [18] In Yemenite Jewish sources, another treaty was drafted between Muhammad and his Jewish subjects, known as kitāb ḏimmat al-nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty unto Jews living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath and to grow-out their side-locks, but were required to pay the jizya (poll-tax) annually for their protection by their patrons. [19]

Battle of Badr

Battle positions at Badr Battle of Badr.png
Battle positions at Badr

The Battle of Badr was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraysh in Mecca. In the spring of 624, Muhammad received word from his intelligence sources that a trade caravan, commanded by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Chieftain of the Meccan Quraysh, and guarded by thirty to forty men, was travelling from Syria back to Mecca. Muhammad gathered an army of 313 men, the largest army the Muslims had put in the field yet. However, many early Muslim sources, including the Quran, indicate that no serious fighting was expected, [20] and the future Caliph Uthman ibn Affan stayed behind to care for his sick wife.

As the caravan approached Medina, Abu Sufyan began hearing from travellers and riders about Muhammad's planned ambush. He sent a messenger named Damdam to Mecca to warn the Quraysh and get reinforcements. Alarmed, the Quraysh assembled an army of 900–1,000 men to rescue the caravan. Many of the Qurayshi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, joined the army. However, some of the army was to later return to Mecca before the battle.

The battle started with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. The Muslims sent out Ali, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida), and Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three mêlée, Hamzah killed his opponent with the very first strike, although Ubaydah was mortally wounded. [21]

Now both armies began firing arrows at each other. Two Muslims and an unknown number of Quraysh were killed. Before the battle started, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraysh with melee weapons when they advanced. [22] Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!" [23] [24] The Muslim army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!" [25] and rushed the Qurayshi lines. The Meccans, although substantially outnumbering the Muslims, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon. [23] The Quran describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to slaughter the Quraysh. [24] [26] Early Muslim sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played in the battle.

Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida) was given the honour of "he who shot the first arrow for Islam" as Abu Sufyan altered course to flee the attack. In retaliation for this attack Abu Sufyan requested an armed force from Mecca. [27]

Throughout the winter and spring of 623 other raiding parties were sent by Muhammad from Medina.

Battle of Uhud

Mount Uhud Mount Uhud.JPG
Mount Uhud

In 625, Abu Sufyan, who paid tax to the Byzantine empire regularly, once again led a Meccan force against Medina. Muhammad marched out to meet the force but before reaching the battle, about one third of the troops under Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew. With a smaller force, the Muslim army had to find a strategy to gain the upper hand. A group of archers were ordered to stay on a hill to keep an eye on the Meccan's cavalry forces and to provide protection at the rear of the Muslim's army. As the battle heated up, the Meccans were forced to somewhat retreat. The battle front was pushed further and further away from the archers, whom, from the start of the battle, had really nothing to do but watch. In their growing impatience to be part of the battle, and seeing that they were somewhat gaining advantage over the Kafirun (Infidels) these archers decided to leave their posts to pursue the retreating Meccans. A small party, however, stayed behind; pleading all along to the rest to not disobey their commanders' orders. But their words were lost among the enthusiastic yodels of their comrades.

However, the Meccans' retreat was actually a manufactured manoeuvre that paid off. The hillside position had been a great advantage to the Muslim forces, and they had to be lured off their posts for the Meccans to turn the table over. Seeing that their strategy had actually worked, the Meccans cavalry forces went around the hill and re-appeared behind the pursuing archers. Thus, ambushed in the plain between the hill and the front line, the archers were systematically slaughtered, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill, shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but to little effect.

However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina and returned to Mecca. The Medinans suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad was injured.[ citation needed ]

Battle of the Trench

In 627, Abu Sufyan once more led Meccan forces against Medina. Because the people of Medina had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench. After a protracted siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again. During the siege, Abu Sufyan had contacted the remaining Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the defenders from behind the lines. It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds. The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Some members of the Banu Aus now interceded on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to the appointment of one of their chiefs, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, as judge. Sa'ad judged by Jewish Law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason (Deutoronomy). [28] This action was conceived of as a defensive measure to ensure that the Muslim community could be confident of its continued survival in Medina. The historian Robert Mantran argues that from this point of view it was successful — from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest. [28]

Capital city of Muhammad and the Rashidun Caliphate

Old depiction of Medina during Ottoman times Madina Munavara.JPG
Old depiction of Medina during Ottoman times

In the ten years following the hijra, Medina formed the base from which Muhammad and the Muslim army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca, entering it without battle in 629 CE/8 AH, all parties acquiescing to his leadership. Afterwards, however, despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca and the ongoing importance of the Meccan Ka'bah for Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj), Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the capital of the early caliphate.

Yathrib was renamed Medina from Madinat al-Nabi ("city of the Prophet" in Arabic) in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and death there. (Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta, which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city. [29] )

Under the first three caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, Medina was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire. During the period of Uthman, the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at his political decisions, attacked Medina in 656 CE/35 AH and murdered him in his own home. Ali, the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina to Kufa in Iraq. After that, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power.

In 1256 CE Medina was threatened by a lava flow from the Harrat Rahat volcanic area. [30] [31]

After the fragmentation of the caliphate, the city became subject to various rulers, including the Mamluks of Cairo in the 13th century and finally, in 1517, the Ottoman Empire. [32]

World War I to Saudi control

In the beginning of the 20th century, during World War I, Medina witnessed one of the longest sieges in history. Medina was a city of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Local rule was in the hands of the Hashemite clan as Sharifs or Emirs of Mecca. Fakhri Pasha was the Ottoman governor of Medina. Ali bin Hussein, the Sharif of Mecca and leader of the Hashemite clan, revolted against the Caliph in Constantinople (Istanbul) and sided with Great Britain. The city of Medina was besieged by the Sharif's forces, and Fakhri Pasha tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina from 1916 till 10 January 1919. He refused to surrender and held on another 72 days after the Armistice of Moudros, until he was arrested by his own men. [33] In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly sent the Sacred Relics of Medina to Istanbul. [34]

As of 1920, the British described Medina as "much more self-supporting than Mecca." [35] After the First World War, the Hashemite Sayyid Hussein bin Ali was proclaimed King of an independent Hejaz. Soon after, in 1924, he was defeated by Ibn Saud, who integrated Medina and the whole of the Hejaz into the modern kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Medina today

Modern city of Medina Modern Medina.JPG
Modern city of Medina

Today, Medina ("Madinah" officially in Saudi documents), in addition to being the second most important Islamic pilgrimage destination after Mecca, is an important regional capital of the western Saudi Arabian province of Al Madinah. Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, Medina is inhabited by an increasing number of Muslim and non-Muslim expatriate workers of other Arab nationalities (Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, etc.), South Asians (Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, etc.) and Filipinos.

Geography

The soil surrounding Madinah consists of mostly basalt, while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era.

Al Madinah Al Munawarah is located at Eastern Part of Al-Hijaz Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on longitude 39º 36' E and latitude 24º 28' N.

Madinah is located in the north-western part of the Kingdom, to the east of the Red Sea, which lies only 250 kilometres (160 miles) away from it. It is surrounded by a number of mountains: Al-Hujaj, or Pilgrims' Mountain to the west, Salaa to the north-west, Al-E'er or Caravan Mountain to the south and Uhad to the north. Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh. For this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region. The city is 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks. Madinah lies at the meeting-point of longitude 39º36' east and latitude 24º28' north. It covers an area of about 50 square kilometres (19 square mile s).

Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is a desert oasis surrounded by mountains and stony areas on all sides. It was mentioned in several references and sources. It was known as Yathrib in Writings of ancient Maeniand, this is obvious evidence that the population structure of this desert oasis is a combination of north Arabs and South Arabs, who settled there and built their civilisation during the thousand years before Christ.

Climate

Medina has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). Summers are extremely hot with daytime temperatures averaging about 43 °C (109 °F) with nights about 29 °C (84 °F). Temperatures above 45 °C (113 °F) are not unusual between June and September. Winters are milder, with temperatures from 12 °C (54 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the day. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.

Climate data for Medina (1985–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
40.0
(104.0)
43.0
(109.4)
46.0
(114.8)
47.0
(116.6)
49.0
(120.2)
48.4
(119.1)
46.4
(115.5)
42.8
(109.0)
36.8
(98.2)
32.2
(90.0)
49.0
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F)24.2
(75.6)
26.6
(79.9)
30.6
(87.1)
34.3
(93.7)
39.6
(103.3)
42.9
(109.2)
42.9
(109.2)
43.5
(110.3)
42.3
(108.1)
36.3
(97.3)
30.6
(87.1)
26.0
(78.8)
35.2
(95.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.9
(75.0)
28.5
(83.3)
33.0
(91.4)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
37.1
(98.8)
35.6
(96.1)
30.4
(86.7)
24.2
(75.6)
19.8
(67.6)
28.6
(83.5)
Average low °C (°F)11.6
(52.9)
13.4
(56.1)
16.8
(62.2)
21.2
(70.2)
25.5
(77.9)
28.4
(83.1)
29.1
(84.4)
29.9
(85.8)
27.9
(82.2)
21.9
(71.4)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
21.5
(70.7)
Record low °C (°F)1.0
(33.8)
3.0
(37.4)
7.0
(44.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.0
(57.2)
21.7
(71.1)
22.0
(71.6)
23.0
(73.4)
18.2
(64.8)
11.6
(52.9)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
1.0
(33.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)6.3
(0.25)
3.1
(0.12)
9.8
(0.39)
9.6
(0.38)
5.1
(0.20)
0.1
(0.00)
1.1
(0.04)
4.0
(0.16)
0.4
(0.02)
2.5
(0.10)
10.4
(0.41)
7.8
(0.31)
60.2
(2.37)
Average rainy days2.61.43.24.12.90.10.41.50.62.03.32.524.6
Average relative humidity (%)38312522171214161419323823
Source: Jeddah Regional Climate Center [36]

Religion

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion adhered by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali) constitute the majority while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila. Outside the city centre (reserved for Muslims only), there are significant numbers of non-Muslim migrant workers and expats.

Masjid Nabawi at sunset Madina Haram at evening.jpg
Masjid Nabawi at sunset

Economy

Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in Iznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted. Louvre - carreaux ottomans 07.jpg
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.

Historically, Medina is known for growing dates. As of 1920, 139 varieties of dates were being grown in the area. [37] Medina also was known for growing many types of vegetables. [38]

The Medina Knowledge Economic City project, a city focused on knowledge-based industries, has been planned and is expected to boost development and increase the number of jobs in Medina. [39]

The city is served by the Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport which opened in 1974. It handles on average 20–25 flights a day, although this number triples during the Hajj season and school holidays. With the increasing number of pilgrim visiting each year, many hotels are being constructed.[ citation needed ]

Education

Universities include:

High schools include

Transport

Air

Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport Terminal Lama Bandar Udara Internasional Pangeran Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Madinah.jpg
Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport

Medina is served by Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz International Airport ( IATA : MED, ICAO : OEMA) located about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) from the city centre. This airport handles mostly domestic destinations and it has limited international services to regional destinations such as Cairo, Bahrain, Istanbul and Kuwait. Medina Airport also handles charter international flights during the Hajj and Umrah seasons.

Rail

A high speed inter-city rail line (Haramain High Speed Rail Project also known as the "Western Railway"), is under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link Medina and Mecca via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah and King Abdulaziz International Airport, along 444 kilometres (276 miles). [40] A three-line metro is also planned. [41] In 2018, the project was launched and started to transport passengers from Makkah to Medinah and the opposite. The railway also passes by Jeddah and King Abdullah Economic City. [42]

Road

Major roads that connect city of Medina to other parts of the country are:

Bus

Medina Bus Transport finds the route to the nearest bus stop and al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Now, Madinah has a new bus service called 'tourist bus' to give a tour of Madinah and its historical places (including "The Prophet's Mosque"). [43]


Tourism

Museums

Destruction of heritage

Al Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina, as shown on a 17th-century ceramic tile. The Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina - Ottoman period.jpg
Al Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina, as shown on a 17th-century ceramic tile.

Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk (idolatry). As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old. [45] Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that in Medina and Mecca over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost. [46] In Medina, examples of historic sites which have been destroyed include the Salman al-Farsi Mosque, the Raj'at ash-Shams Mosque, the Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and the house of Muhammed. [47]

See also

Related Research Articles

Hegira Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina

The Hegira is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622. In June 622, after being warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly left his home in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca, along with his companion Abu Bakr. Yathrib was soon renamed Madīnat an-Nabī, but an-Nabī was soon dropped, so its name is "Medina", meaning "the city".

Battle of the Trench Failed besieging of early Muslims by Arab and Jewish forces in year 627 AD

The Battle of the Trench, also known as Battle of Khandaq and the Battle of the Confederates, was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000.

Military career of Muhammad The wars led by the Prophet Muhammad himself

The military career of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, lasted for the final ten years of his life, from 622 to 632. After he and his small fellowship were pushed out of the holy trading town of Mecca, controlled by the powerful Quraish tribe, he started intercepting Meccan caravans. After his first victory in a pitched battle at Badr in 624, his power grew increasingly and he began to subjugate other tribes through either diplomacy or conquest. In 630 he finally accomplished his long-term goal of conquering Mecca and the Kaaba. By his death in 632, Muhammad had managed to unite most of Arabia, laying the foundation for the subsequent Islamic expansion.

Banu Qurayza One of the Jewish tribes lived in the 7th century in Yathrib, which is currently Medina

The Banu Qurayza were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib, until the 7th century, when their conflict with Muhammad led to their massacre.

Abd al-Muttalib grandfather of the prophet Muhammad

Shaybah ibn Hashim, better known as Abd al-Muttalib since he was raised by his uncle Muttalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Al-Abwa Village in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Al-Abwā' is a Hejazi village between Mecca and Medina belonging to the area of Rabigh, on the western coast of Saudi Arabia. Muhammad entered it before the Battle of Badr, in 2 Safar AH.

Battle of Uhud battle

The Battle of Uhud was a battle between the early Muslims and their Qurayshi Meccan enemies in 625 CE in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Banu Nadir were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.

Ka'b ibn Asad was the chief of the Qurayza, a Jewish tribe that lived in Medina until 627. A tribesman, Al-Zabir ibn Bata, claimed that his face "was like a Chinese mirror, in which the girls of the tribe could see themselves", presumably meaning that Kaab had a youthful and innocent appearance.

The Banu Qaynuqa was one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. In 624, the great-grandfather of Banu Qaynuqa tribe is Qaynuqa ibn Amchel ibn Munshi ibn Yohanan ibn Benjamin ibn Saron ibn Naphtali ibn Hayy ibn Moses and they are descendant of Manasseh ibn Joseph ibn Jacob ibn Isaac son of Abraham. They were expelled during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa, after breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina.

Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf was per Islamic texts a Jewish leader in Medina and a poet. He was killed on the order of the Islamic prophet Muhammad after the battle of Badr.

Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad Tribes were at the time of the Prophet Muhammad

There were several Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad.

The Banū Aws or simply Aws was one of the main Arab tribes of Medina. The other was Khazraj, and the two, constituted the Ansar after the Hijra.

The Banu al-Khazraj is one of the tribes of Arabia since Muhammad's era. The Banu al-Khazraj are renowned for their generosity and hospitality.

Muhammad in Medina Wikimedia list article

The Islamic prophet Muhammad came to Medina following the migration of his followers in what is known as the Hijra in 622. He had been invited to Medina by city leaders to adjudicate disputes between clans from which the city suffered. He left Medina to return to and conquer Mecca in December 629.

The Banu Sulaym were an Arab tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz in the pre-Islamic era. They maintained close ties with the Quraysh of Mecca and the inhabitants of Medina, and fought in a number of battles against the Islamic prophet Muhammad before ultimately converting to Islam before his demise in 632. They took part in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, and established themselves in Upper Mesopotamia, whilst part of the tribe remained in the Hejaz. During the early Muslim era, the tribe produced noted generals such as Safwan ibn Mu'attal, Abu'l-A'war and Umayr ibn al-Hubab. Those who remained in Arabia were largely absorbed by the Banu Harb of Yemen beginning in the 9th century, while those in Syria, Mesopotamia were expelled to Upper Egypt by the Fatimid Caliphs in the late 10th century for assisting the Qarmatians. In the mid-11th century, a prolonged famine in Egypt prompted the tribe to migrate westward with the Banu Hilal into Libya. The Sulaym and its sub-tribes established themselves mainly in Cyrenaica,Libya, where until the present day, many of the Arab tribes of that region trace their descent to the Sulaym.

Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (c.591-627) was the chief of the Aws tribe in Medina and one of the prominent companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He died shortly after the Battle of the Trench.

Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams, better known as Abu Sufyan (Arabic: أبو سفيان‎, romanized: Abū Sufyān, was a leader and merchant from the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. In his early career, he often led trade caravans to Syria. He had been among the main leaders of Meccan opposition to Muhammad, the prophet of Islam and member of the Quraysh, commanding the Meccans at the battles of Uhud and the Trench in 625 and 627. However, when Muhammad entered Mecca in 630, Abu Sufyan was among the first to submit and was given a stake in the nascent Muslim state, playing a role at the Battle of Hunayn and the subsequent destruction of the polytheistic sanctuary of al-Lat in Ta'if. After Muhammad's death, he may have been appointed the governor of Najran by Caliph Abu Bakr for an unspecified period. Abu Sufyan later played a supporting role in the Muslim army at the Battle of Yarmouk against the Byzantines in Syria. His sons Yazid and later Mu'awiya were given command roles in that province and the latter went on to establish the Umayyad Caliphate in 661.

The Banu Umayya or Umayyads (الأمويون), were the ruling family of the caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Islamic Spain between 756 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I, won the First Muslim Civil War in 661 and established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus, Syria. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Medina, Saudi Arabia.

References

  1. /məˈdnə/ ; Arabic: ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلْمُنَوَّرَة, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or ٱلْمَدِيْنَة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation:  [almaˈdiːna] ), "the city"
  1. "Masjid Quba' – Hajj". Saudi Arabia: Hajinformation.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  2. Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  3. What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  4. "The population of Medina 2016" (PDF).
  5. However, an article in Aramco World [ dead link ] by John Anthony states: "To the perhaps parochial Muslims of North Africa in fact the sanctity of Kairouan is second only to Mecca among all cities of the world." Saudi Aramco's bimonthly magazine's goal is to broaden knowledge of the cultures, history and geography of the Arab and Muslim worlds and their connections with the West; pages 30–36 of the January/February 1967 print edition The Fourth Holy City
  6. 1 2 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, pp.587, 588
  7. "Place Pilgrims Visit During or After Performing Hajj / Umrah". Dawntravels.com. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
  8. hadith found in 'Virtues of Madinah' of Sahih Bukhari searchtruth.com
  9. 1 2 3 Jewish Encyclopedia Medina
  10. Peters 193
  11. 1 2 3 4 "Al-Medina." Encyclopaedia of Islam
  12. for date see "J. Q. R." vii. 175, note
  13. See e.g., Peters 193; "Qurayza", Encyclopaedia Judaica
  14. Muslim sources usually referred to Himyar kings by the dynastic title of "Tubba'".
  15. Guillaume 7–9, Peters 49–50
  16. Subhani, The Message: The Events of the First Year of Migration Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  17. For alliances, see Guillaume 253
  18. Firestone 118. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters 116; "Muhammad", "Encyclopaedia of Islam"; "Kurayza, Banu", "Encyclopaedia of Islam".
  19. Shelomo Dov Goitein, The Yemenites – History, Communal Organization, Spiritual Life (Selected Studies), editor: Menahem Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 1983, pp. 288–299. ISBN   965-235-011-7
  20. Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287 Archived 21 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  21. Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2659 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2658 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  23. 1 2 Armstrong, p. 176.
  24. 1 2 Lings, p. 148.
  25. "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!"
  26. Quran: Al-i-Imran 3:123–125  (Yusuf Ali). "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude.§ Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?§ "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.§"
  27. The Biography of Mahomet, and Rise of Islam. Chapter Fourth. Extension of Islam and Early Converts, from the assumption by Mahomet of the prophetical office to the date of the first Emigration to Abyssinia by William Muir Archived 7 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  28. 1 2 Robert Mantran, L'expansion musulmane Presses Universitaires de France 1995, p. 86.
  29. "The Jews of Arabia". dangoor.com.
  30. "Harrat Rahat". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution.
  31. Bosworth,C. Edmund: Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 385 – "Half-a-century later, in 654/1256, Medina was threatened by a volcanic eruption. After a series of earthquakes, a stream of lava appeared, but fortunately flowed to the east of the town and then northwards."
  32. Somel, Selcuk Aksin (13 February 2003). "Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire". Scarecrow Press via Google Books.
  33. Peters, Francis (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. PP376-377. Princeton University Press. ISBN   0-691-03267-X
  34. Mohmed Reda Bhacker (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. Routledge Chapman & Hall. P63: Following the plunder of Medina in 1810 'when the Prophet's tomb was opened and its jewels and relics sold and distributed among the Wahhabi soldiery'. P122: the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II was at last moved to act against such outrage.
  35. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 103.
  36. "Climate Data for Saudi Arabia". Jeddah Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  37. Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83.
  38. Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.
  39. Economic cities a rise Archived 24 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  40. "High speed stations for a high speed railway". Railway Gazette International . 23 April 2009.
  41. "Madinah metro design contract". Railway Gazette International . 13 March 2015.
  42. "Saudi Arabia's Haramain High-Speed Railway opens to public". Arab News. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  43. "النقل الترددي في المدينة المنورة – النقل الترددي يقل 300 ألف مصل إلى المسجد النبوي خلال 15 يوما". mss.gov.sa. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  44. "Al Madinah Museum". sauditourism.sa. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  45. Howden, Daniel (6 August 2005). "The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage". The Independent . Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  46. Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises, Center for Islamic Pluralism
  47. History of the Cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi retrieved 17 January 2011

Bibliography