|No. of verses||5|
|No. of words||23|
|No. of letters||96|
Sūrat al-Fīl (Arabic : سورة الفيل, "Chapter of the Elephant") is the 105th chapter (surah) of the Quran. It is a Meccan sura consisting of 5 verses. The surah is written in the interrogative form. Fil means Elephant and this is the Chapter Of The Elephant
Taking its name from the mention of the "Army of the Elephant" in the first verse, this surah alludes to the Abyssinian campaign against Mecca possibly in the year 552 of the Christian era. Abrahah, the Christian viceroy of the Yemen (which at that time was ruled by the Abyssinians), erected a great cathedral at Sana'a, hoping thus to divert the annual Arabian pilgrimage from the Meccan sanctuary, the Kabah, to the new church. When this hope remained unfulfilled, he was determined to destroy the Kabah; and so he set out against Mecca at the head of a large army, which included several war elephants as well, and thus represented something hitherto unknown and utterly astounding to the Arabs: hence the designation of that year, by contemporaries as well as historians of later generations, as "the Year of the Elephant". Abrahah's army was destroyed on its march- by an extremely huge flock of martin swallow birds (ababil) that dropped tiny stones onto them and turned them to ashes. - and Abrahah himself died on his return to Sana.
The Arabs[ who? ] describe the year in which this event took place as the Year of the Elephant, and in the same year, Muhammad was born. The traditionists and historians almost unanimously state that the event of the people of the elephant had occurred in Muharram and Muhammad was born in Rabi' al-awwal. A majority of them states that he took birth 50 days after the event of the elephant.
Surahs in the Qur'an are not arranged in the chronological order of revelation ...". Surat Al-Fil? is a Meccan sura and meccan suras are chronologically earlier suras that were revealed to Muhammad at Mecca before the hijrah to Medina in 622 CE. They are typically shorter, with relatively short ayat , and mostly come near the end of the Qur'an's 114 surahs. Most of the surahs containing muqatta'at are Meccan. Henceforth apart from traditions, this surah qualifies to be Meccan typically. Most of the mufassirun say that this is unanimously a Meccan sura; and if it is studied against its historical background it appears that it must have been sent down in the very earliest stage at Makkah.because order of wahy or chronological order of revelation is not a part of Quran. Muhammad told his followers sahaba the placement in Quranic order of every Wahy revealed along with the original text of Quran. Wm Theodore de Bary, an East Asian studies expert, describes that "The final process of collection and codification of the Quran text was guided by one over-arching principle: God's words must not in any way be distorted or sullied by human intervention. For this reason, no serious attempt, apparently, was made to edit the numerous revelations, organize them into thematic units, or present them in chronological order
The principal subject of the surah is a specific historic event. The year of Muhammad's birth is identified as 'the Year of the Elephant', when Mecca was attacked by Abraha accompanied by an elephant. Quranic exegetes interpreted that God saved the Meccans from this force by sending a swarm of birds that pelted the invaders with clay stones and destroyed them.The army of Abraha destroyed for attacking the Kaabah is a reminder and an example that Allah can save His house (Al-Ka'bah) by destroying an army of 60,000 with elephants, through a flock of birds. The origin of the word sijjīl (i.e. Lava stone from Volcanic eruption) in verse 4 has the etymology proposed as Persian sang and gil ('stone' and 'clay'), or Aramaic sgyl ('smooth altar stone'). In the Quran 'sijjīl' occurs in two other verses: 11:82 and 15:74.
There are almost 7 divisions in the entire Qur'an according to Themes.The final of these 7 sections starts from surah Al-Mulk [surah number 67] to surah Al-Nas [surah number 114]. This final part [last 7th of the Quran] focuses on; sources of Reflection, People, their final scenes they will face on Judgment Day and Hellfire and Paradise in general and Admonition to the Quraysh about their fate in the Herein and the Hereafter if they deny Muhammad, specifically. In this Surah, Allah's punishment which was inflicted on the people of the elephant is referred to and described very briefly because it was an event of recent occurrence, and everyone in Makkah and Arabia was fully aware of it. That's why the Arabs believed that the Ka'bah was protected in this invasion, not by any god or goddess, but by Allah Almighty Himself. Then Allah alone was invoked by the Quraysh chiefs for help, and for quite a few years the people of Quraysh, having been impressed by this event, had worshiped none but Allah. Therefore, there was no need to mention the details in Surah Al-Feel, but only a reference to it was enough. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (b. 1951), a well-known Pakistani Muslim theologian, Quran scholar and exegete, and educationist, explains the theme of Surah Al-Fil is to inform the Quraysh that the God – Who routed His enemies in this manner before them – will also not spare them now that they too have shown enmity to Him. They will also be devastated in a similar manner.
The idea of textual relation between the verses of a chapter has been discussed under various titles such as nazm and munasabah in non-English literature and coherence, text relations, intertextuality, and unity in English literature. Hamiduddin Farahi, an Islamic scholar of the Indian subcontinent, is known for his work on the concept of nazm, or coherence, in the Quran. Fakhruddin al-Razi (died 1209 CE), Zarkashi (died 1392) and several other classical as well as contemporary Quranic scholars have contributed to the studies.
In surahs Al-Qaria (No. 101) to Al-Humaza (No. 104), it is pointed to the Quraysh that they have remained so possessed with the love of wealth and children that they have grossly failed to fulfill the rights of Allah as well as their fellow beings. Despite this, they still claim to be the heirs of Abraham and Ishmael and the custodians of the Baytullah (House of God) built by them.
This Surah Al-Fil and the next one Quraysh both form a pair about their subject-matter according to almost all of Quranic Scholars.The first surah in the current pair(105 & 106) warns the Quraysh, about the Incident of the Elephant, to fear God, while the second surah urges them to keep in mind the favors they enjoy, because of the Baytullah and consequently to give up rebelliousness against God and worship Him only. In this particular surah and its dual counterpart, Surah Quraysh which succeeds it, they are cautioned that they have been blessed with peace and sustenance, not because of their efforts or because they were entitled to them, but because of the Prophet Abraham's invocation and the blessings of the House which he built. Therefore, instead of showing vanity, it is their obligation to worship the Lord of this House, who fed them in hunger and secured them against every kind of danger. In this surah 105, the Quraysh are reminded of a significant event of their history: the Almighty had helped them decidedly in combating the forces of Abrahah, who attacked the Baytullah with a sixty thousand strong army to demolish it. It was not easy for the Quraysh to face such a big army in the open, whose vanguard consisted of elephants. They had therefore sought refuge in the nearby mountains and had defended the holy land by hurling stones at the advancing enemy. This defense was indeed very frail and feeble, but the Almighty transformed it into a powerful outburst which destroyed the enemy, and their dead bodies were feasted upon by kites, vultures and crows.
Tafsir is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an. A Quranic tafsir will often explain the content and provide places and times, not contained in Quranic verses, as well as give the different views and opinions of scholars on the verse. The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad.Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an. Ḥadīth (حديث) is literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Muhammad's wife Aishah, the life of Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an. Therefore, a higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the surah from a certain perspective. This surah holds special esteem in hadith, due to historical context which can be observed by the related narratives.
Al-ʻAlaq, is the 96th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an. It is composed of 19 verses (āyāt),
al-Qalam is the sixty-eighth chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 52 verses (āyāt). The Surat describes Allah's justice and the judgment day. Three notable themes of this Surah are response to the opponents objections, warning and admonition to the disbelievers, and exhortation of patience to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Chronologically, this is the first appearance of any of the "disjointed" [i.e., single] letters (muqattaat) which precede a number of the surahs of the Qur'an while in Quranic Order this is the last surah to have the appearance of (muqattaat).
al-Falaq is the 113th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an. It is a brief five verse invocation, asking God (Allah) for protection from the evil of Shaitan. This surah and the 114th surah in the Qur'an, an-Nās, are collectively referred to as al-Mu'awwidhatayn "the Refuges", as both begin with "I seek refuge", an-Nās tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from within, while al-Falaq tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from outside, so reading both of them would protect a person from his own mischief and the mischief of others.
Sūrat Quraysh is the 106th chapter of the Qur'an consisting of 4 ayat. The surah was titled after the word "Quraysh" in the first verse.
At-Tawbah, also known as Bara'ah, is the ninth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It contains 129 verses (āyāt) and is one of the last Medinan surah. This Surah is reported to have been revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk in Madinah in the 9th year of the Hijrah. It is the only Surah of the Quran that does not begin with Bismillah. It deals with almost the same topics as those dealt with in Surat al-Anfal. It is the only surah in the Qur'an which does not begin with the usual opening formula, In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate. In contrast to all other surahs, prophet Muhammad, did not order that this formula should be put at the beginning of this surah.
Al-Kahf is the 18th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 110 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation, it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it was revealed in Mecca, instead of Medina.
Ash-Shu‘arā’ is the 26th chapter (sūrah) of the Qurʾan with 227 verses (āyāt). Many of these verses are very short.
Aṣ-Ṣaff is the 61st chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 14 verses (āyāt). This sura is an Al-Musabbihat sura because it begins with the glorification of Allah.
Sūrat al-Munāfiqūn is the 63rd chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 11 verses. Almost all of the chapter is preserved in the Ṣan‘ā’1 lower text.
At-Taḥrīm is the 66th chapter (sura) of the Quran and contains 12 verses (ayah). This is a Surah which deals with questions regarding Muhammad's wives.
Sūrat al-Mulk is the 67th chapter (surah) of the Quran, comprising 30 verses. The surah emphasizes that no individual can impose his will on another; he may only guide and set an example (67:26).
al-Ḥāqqah is the 69th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 52 verses (āyāt). There are several English names under which the surah is known. These include “The Inevitable Hour”, “The Indubitable”, “The Inevitable Truth”, and “The Reality”. These titles are derived from alternate translations of al-Ḥāqqa, the word that appears in the first three ayat of the sura. Though each of these titles may sound very different, each one alludes to the main theme of the sura – the Day of Judgment.
al-Muzzammil is the seventy-third chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an, containing 20 verses (āyāt), which are recognized by Muslims as the word of God (Allah).
Sūrah al-Muṭaffifīn is the eighty-third surah of the Qur'an with 36 ayat.
Sūrat al-Inshiqāq is the eighty-fourth chapter (sura) of the Qur'an with 25 ayat. It mentions details of the Day of Judgment when, according to the chapter, everyone will receive reckoning over their deeds in this world.
Sūrat aṭ-Ṭāriq is the eighty-sixth sura of the Quran with 17 ayat. Muslims believe this chapter was sent to Mohammed when he was in Mecca.
Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah is the 88th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 26 verses (ayat).
Sūrat al-Fajr is the eighty-ninth chapter (sura) of the Quran with 30 verses. The sura describes destruction of disbelieving peoples: the Ancient Egyptians, the people of Iram of the Pillars, and Mada'in Saleh. It condemns those who love wealth and look with disdain upon the poor and orphans. Righteous people are promised Paradise – the final verse says "And enter you My Paradise!". The Surah is so designated after the word wal-fajr with which it opens.
Sūrat ash-Shams is the 91st sura of the Qur'an with 15 ayat. It opens with a series of solemn oaths sworn on various astronomical phenomena, the first of which, "by the sun", gives the sura its name, then on the human soul itself. It then describes the fate of Thamud, a formerly prosperous extinct Arab tribe. The prophet Saleh urged them to worship God alone, and commanded them in God's name to preserve a certain she-camel; they disobeyed and continued to reject his message, and God destroyed them all except those who had followed Salih.
Sūrat al-Māʻūn is the 107th sura of the Qur'an with 7 ayat. Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation, it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina.