Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable . (August 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic : أَهْلُ ٱلْبَيْتِ, Persian : اهلِ بیت) is a phrase meaning "People of the House" , "People of the Household" or "Family of the House". Within the Islamic tradition, the term mainly refers to the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and to a lesser extent (according to Muslims), his ancestor Ibrahim (Abraham),
In Shia Islam, the Ahl al-Bayt are central to Islam and interpreters of the Quran and Sunnah. Shias believe they are successors of Muhammad and consist of Muhammad, his daughter Fatimah, his son-in-law Ali, and their children Hasan and Husayn, known collectively as the Ahl al-Kisa ("People of the Cloak"), in addition to the Twelve Imams of Muhammad's grandchildren children.
In Sunni Islam, Muhammad's Ahl al-Bayt refers to Muhammad himself; his wives; his sons Qasim, Abdullah, Ibrahim; his daughters Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali and their two sons, Hasan and Husayn.In the interpretation of certain traditions, the term may also be extended to include the descendants of Muhammad's paternal uncles, Abu Talib and al-'Abbas, or according to Malik ibn Anas and Abu Hanifa, all of the Banu Hashim.
In this topic, the word ahl al-bayt is treated base on the Quranic verse, in line with the commentary.To sum up, the meaning of ahl al-bayt in the Quran follows the accepted usage of the term in pre- and post-Islamic Arab society. It denotes family and blood relations as well as a noble and leading "house" of the tribe.
The term Ahl signifies the members of a household of a man, including his fellow tribesmen, kin, relatives, wife or wives, children and all those who share a family background, religion, housing, city and country with him.Bayt refers to habitation and dwelling, whether tented or built. It can also be roughly translated as "household". The ahl al-bayt of a person refers to his family members and all those who live in his house. Ahl al-Bayt is the polite form of addressing the members and wife of the family.
The Qur'an uses the term Ahl al-Bayt many times as a term of respect for Prophet's family, and to the Prophet Muhammad's blood relations. According to the Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, "The term ahl al-bayt (the people of the house) is used in the Qur'an as a term of respect for wives, referring to Abraham's wife Sarah (Q. Quran 11:73), for example, and to the Prophet Muhammad's wives, who are declared to be purified by divine act: 'God's wish is to remove uncleanness from you' (Q.Quran 33:32–33)."
According to some interpretations, the Qur'an also implicitly refers to Ahl al-Bayt in 42:23, using the term al-qurbā. [ unreliable source? ] [ unreliable source? ]
|Part of a series on|
There has been much debate concerning which people constitute ahl al-bayt. According to the Wahhabi site Islam Question and Answer,
There are several views among the scholars ... concerning the definition of Ahl al-Bayt.
- Some said that the members of the Prophet’s family are his wives, his children, Banu Haashim, Banu al-Muttalib and their freed slaves.
- Some said that his wives were not part of the Ahl al-Bayt.
- Some said that the Ahl al-Bayt are Quraysh;
- some said that the family of Muhammad are the pious among his ummah; and
- some said that they are all of the ummah of Muhammad ...
With regard to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the most correct view is that they are included among the members of the family of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because Allaah says, after commanding the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to observe hijaab (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah wishes only to remove Ar-Rijs (evil deeds and sins) from you, O members of the family (of the Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification” (al-Ahzaab 33:33]
Although there have been many disagreements, there is a consensus amongst Sunni and Shi'a Muslims that the "Ahl al-Kisa" hadith refers specifically to Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Mention of the ahl al-bayt, Muhammad's household, is present in a verse of the Qur'an as follows:
O wives of the Prophet! you are not like any other of the women; If you will be on your guard, then be not soft in (your) speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease yearn; and speak a good word.
And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the ignorance of yore; and keep up prayer, and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.
And keep to mind what is recited in your houses of the communications of Allah and the wisdom; surely Allah is Knower of subtleties, Aware.
The precise definition of the term in this verse has been subject to varying interpretations. In one tradition, according to which Muhammad's companion Salman al-Farsi is included as a member, it is used to distinguish from the muhajirun (Muslim emigrants from Mecca) and ansar (Medinan converts to Islam). According to Sunni doctrine, the term includes the wives and dependants of Muhammad, as it addresses them in the preceding verse – an interpretation which is attributed to 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas and Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl, both of whom were companions of Muhammad. This is supported[ improper synthesis? ] by various traditions attributed to Muhammad wherein he addresses each of his wives as Ahl al-Bayt. Further members of the household, according to the Sunni perspective, include Ali, Fatimah,Hasan and Husayn, who are mentioned in the tradition of the mantle. Some versions of this tradition recognise Umm Salamah, a wife of Muhammad, as a part of the household. Thus, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam , "the current orthodox view is based on a harmonizing opinion, according to which the term ahl al-bayt includes the ahl al-ʿabāʾ, i.e. the Prophet, ʿAlī, Fāṭima, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥussain, together with the wives of the Prophet." According to Laura Veccia Vaglieri in Encyclopaedia of Islam "there is a story narrated in many traditions according to which Muḥammad sheltered under his cloak, in varying circumstances including the Mubahala, his grandchildren Ḥasan and Hussein, his daughter Fatimah and his son/cousin-in-law Ali; and therefore it is these five who are given the title Ahl al-Kisa or "People of the Mantle". Some have attempted to add Muḥammad's wives to the list; however, the number of the privileged is limited to these five."
Other interpretations include the family of Ali, as well as the families of Muhammad's relatives such as Aqeel, Ja'far, and al-Abbas.Early Islamic jurists Malik ibn Anas and Abū Ḥanīfa included the clan of Banu Hashim within the definition, while al-Shafi'i included the whole of Banu Muttalib.
In Shia thought, the household is limited to Muhammad, Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, Husayn, and their descendants (altogether known as the Ahl al-Kisa); as per their deduction from the tradition of the mantle. They interpret the change in pronoun in the Qur'anic verse as showing that only the aforementioned members constitute Ahl al-Bayt.Madelung writes that "this change of gender has inevitably contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle." Shias view these individuals as infallible and sinless Imams and regard devotion to them as an essential part of the religion.
Shia Muslims also support this claim with a hadith mentioned in the Sunni Ṣaḥīḥ collection. Many Sunni scholars remark that the verse of purification was revealed concerning five people: Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.
'A'isha reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hasan b. 'Ali. He wrapped him under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came 'Ali and he also took him under it and then said: Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household, and purify you (thorough purifying)— Sahih Muslim, The Book Pertaining to the Merits of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah), Chapter 9: The Merits of the Family of the Prophet The last sentence of verse 33:33.
The tradition about this hadith goes from different sources to Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. She narrated that once her father visited her home, he had fever and was not feeling well, he asked for a Yemeni cloak which Fatimah brought to him and folded it around him. Later he was joined in that Yemeni cloak by his grandsons Hasan and Hussein, who were followed by their father Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Finally Fatimah asked the permission to enter that cloak. When all five of them joined together under the cloak, Muhammad narrated the Qur'anic verse 33:33to those under the cloak that all five of them are chosen ones, and he further stated that he wants God to keep all impurities out of reach and away from all of us. Muhammad then prayed to God to declare all five of them as his Ahlul Bayt and keep away the Najasat (impurities). God, at that request immediately sent Gabriel (Jibral) to reveal to Muhammad that all the five under the cloak are dearest and closest to God and they are Taher ("purest of the pure") without any traces of impurities.
The Twelver and Ismaili branches of Shia Islam differ in regards to the line of Imamate. While the Twelver believe in a lineage known as the Twelve Imams, the Ismaili believe that the descendants of Isma'il ibn Jafar, rather than his brother Musa al-Kadhim, were the inheritors of the Imamate instead.
According to Anas ibn Malik, Muhammad, for six months straight used to pass by the door of Fatimah whenever he left for fajr prayers and said, "it is time for salat, of family of the house (Ahel al biat)! 'Surely Allah desires to remove all imperfection from you, of family of the house, and purify you completely.'" From surah Al Ahzab 33, verse 33, Sunan al-Tirmidhi- Vol. 2 sahih 902
Most, but not all Shi'a believe that these A'immah to be the divinely chosen leaders of the Muslim community.This is based on the hadith, "People of the Cloak", where the Prophet referred to only Fatimah, Ali, Hasan, Hussain and Himself (stating that wives were not part of the Ahl al Bayt because they could be divorced and were no longer part of the household when their husband died), a hadith which many Sunni Muslims believe in. Collectively Muhammad, Fatimah and the Twelve Imams are known as The Fourteen Infallibles.
In Kitab al-Kafi, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir has narrated that there will be twelve Imams from the family of Muhammad, nine from the family of Husayn ibn Ali, the last being Al-Qa'im, and they will be spoken to by angels.
Muslims accord Muhammad's household a special status and venerate it. – though in some cases interpretations differ, an example being: "Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin". According to classical exegete al-Tabarani (260–360 AH /873–970 CE) the verse most likely refers to Muslim believers related by blood ties. Another interpretation adopted by Shia applies the verse to the ahl al-bayt; while another view interprets the verse as commanding love for relatives in general. The latter view is favored by contemporary academic scholar Madelung.This is derived from verses in the Qur'an and hadith which stipulate love towards Muhammad's relatives
Sharia (Islamic law) prohibits the administration of sadaqah (charity) or zakat (tax) to Muhammad's kin (including the Banu Hashim), as Muhammad forbade this income for himself and his family.The explanation given by jurists is that these alms are considered the defilements of the people, who offer them to purify themselves from sin, hence it would be unbecoming of the kin to handle or use them. Instead, they are accorded part of the spoils of war. Muslims in their daily prayers invoke blessings upon them by saying: "O God, bless Muhammad and his family." In many Muslim communities, high social status is attributed to people claiming to be blood-descendants of Muhammad's household, and are labelled sayyids or sharifs .
Most Sunni Sufi circles ( tariqah ) trace their spiritual chain back to Muhammad through Ali.In Shia thought, Muhammad's household is central to the religion. In one version of Muhammad's farewell sermon, he is represented as saying that God has given believers two safeguards: the Qur'an and his family; in other versions the two safeguards are the Qur'an and his Sunnah (statements and actions of Muhammad). Popular Shia belief ascribes cosmological importance to the family in various texts, wherein it is said that God would not have created Jannah (heaven) and earth, paradise, Adam and Eve, or anything else were it not for them. The majority of Shia regard the heads of the family as divinely chosen Imams who are infallible and sinless.
Ali ibn Abi Talib was a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who ruled as the fourth caliph from 656 to 661, but is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to Muhammad as an Imam by Shia Muslims.
Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, sometimes spelled Hasan or Hassan, was the eldest son of Ali and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, and was the older brother of Husayn. Muslims respect him as a grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Among Shia Muslims, Hasan is revered as the second Imam. Hasan was elected for the caliphate after his father's death, but abdicated after six or seven months to Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty to end the First Fitna. Al-Hasan was known for donating to the poor, his kindness to the poor and bondmen, and for his knowledge, tolerance and bravery. For the rest of his life, Hasan lived in Medina, until he died at the age of 45 and was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi cemetery in Medina. His wife, Ja'da bint al-Ash'at, is commonly accused of having poisoned him.
Companions of the Prophet or aṣ-ṣaḥābah were the disciples and followers of Muhammad who "saw or met the prophet during his lifetime and were physically in his presence". "Al-Ṣaḥābah" is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine صَحَابِيٌّ, feminine صَحَابِيَّةٌ.
Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya, also known as Hind al-Makhzumiyah or Hind bint Suhayl was one of Muhammad's wives. Umm Salama was her kunya meaning, "mother of Salama". Umm Salama was one of the most influential wives of Muhammad, recognized largely for recalling numerous Hadiths, or stories about Muhammad. The Shia belief is that Umm Salama was the second-most important wife of Muhammad after Khadija.
Al-Aḥzāb is the 33rd chapter (sūrah) of the Quran (Q33) with 73 verses (āyāt). The sūrah takes its name from the mention of the parties (al-aḥzāb), or confederates, who fought the Muslims at the Battle of the Trench (5/627), also known as the Battle of the Parties and as the Siege of Madinah.
Fadak was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. Situated approximately 140 km (87 mi) from Medina, Fadak was known for its water wells, dates, and handicrafts. When the Muslims defeated the people of Khaybar at the Battle of Khaybar; the oasis of Fadak was part of the bounty given to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who gifted it to his daughter, Fatimah. Fadak is said to have become the object of dispute by a group of Muslims between Fatimah and the caliph Abu Bakr after Muhammad died.
Alī ibn Abī Tālib was an early Islamic leader. Ali is revered by Sunni Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, and as a foremost religious authority on the Qur'an and Fiqh. Shi'a Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin of Muhammad, and after marriage to Fatimah he also became Muhammad's son-in-law. His descendants through Fatimah are revered today in Shia Islam as Imams, Sharifs or Sayyids.
The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, also known as the Hadith of the two weighty things, refers to a saying (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the hadith of Muhammad, the Qur'an and Ahl al-Bayt had been described as the two weighty things. In the context of this Hadith, Muhammad's family refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib, Fatimah bint Muhammad, and their children and descendants. This hadith is accepted by Shia and Sunni Islam.
Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him, along with his descendants, to be one of the divinely appointed successors of Muhammad who are claimed by the Shia the only legitimate religious and political leaders of the Muslim community. Although Ali was regarded, during the lifetime of Muhammad, as his initial successor, it would be 25 years before he was recognized with the title of Caliph (successor). Like the rest of his household, Shias claim that Ali is infallible and sinless and is one of The Fourteen Infallibles of the household of Muhammed.
According to Islamic sources, The Event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran, in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja, 10 AH, where Muhammad invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences.
The Shia view of the Qur'an differs from the Sunni view, but the majority of both groups believe that the text is identical. While some Shia disputed the canonical validity of the Uthmanic codex, the Shia Imams always rejected the idea of alteration of Qur'an's text. Only seven Shia scholars have believed in omissions in the Uthmanic codex.
Quran 17:26 is the twenty-sixth verse of Al-Isra, the seventeenth chapter of the Quran, which relates to the controversies of the land of Fadak in modern-day Saudi Arabia.
Fatimah bint Muhammad, commonly known as Fāṭimah al-Zahrāʾ, was the youngest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah, according to Sunni Muslims, but according to Shia Muslims, their only child who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household. Her husband was Ali, the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and the first Shia Imam, and her children include Hasan and Husayn, the second and third Imams, respectively. She is respected and venerated by Muslims, as she was the child closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, was the supporter and caretaker of her own husband and children, and was the only child of Muhammad to have male children live beyond childhood, whose descendants are spread throughout the Islamic world and are known as Sayyids.
Ahl al-Kisa', or the People of the Cloak, are the Islamic prophet Muhammad; his daughter Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.
The Verse of Purification is the 33rd verse (Ayah) of Al-Aḥzāb in the Qur'an. The verse has special importance for Shia Muslims due to giving information about Ahl al-Bayt of Muhammad. Shiite reportedly believe it to designate the "People of the House" as being Ismah, infallibility. Within Sunni Islam this viewpoint is seen as either rejected or partially supported such as the case of Sufism. Some verses refer to Muhammad's wives.
In AD 623, the Islamic Nabī Muhammad told Ali that he was ordered by Allâh to give his daughter Fatimah to him in marriage. Muhammad said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me." This family is glorified by Muhammad frequently and he declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt in events such as Mubahala and hadith like the Hadith of the Event of the Cloak. They were also glorified in the Qur'an in several cases such as "the verse of purification".
Shia Islam originated as a response to questions of Islamic religious leadership which became manifest as early as the death of Muhammad in 632 CE. The issues involved not only whom to appoint as the successor to Muhammad, but also what attributes a true successor should have. Sunnis regarded Caliphs as a secular leaders,. To the Shiite, however, the question of succession is a matter of designation of an individual (Ali) through divine command. In the same way, Shias believed that each Imam designated the next Imam by the leave of God. So within Shia Islam it makes no difference to the Imam's position whether he is chosen as a Caliph or not.
The Verse of Mawadda is verse twenty three of surah Ash-Shura that Muhammad's wage of Resalat is introduced to love his near relatives.
The majority of Islamic commentators do not believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib is explicitly mentioned in the Quran. However, many verses of the Quran have been interpreted, by both Shia and Sunni scholars, as referring to Ali.
The term ahl al-bayt (the people of the house) is used in the Qur'an as a term of respect for wives, referring to Abraham's wife Sarah (Q. 11:73), for example, and to the Prophet Muhammad's wives, who are declared to be purified by divine act: "God's wish is to remove uncleanness from you" (Q. 33:32–33).